فهرست مطالب

هنرهای نمایشی و موسیقی - پیاپی 62 (تابستان 1398)
  • پیاپی 62 (تابستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/05/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • نرگس ذاکر جعفری* صفحات 5-16
    هدف از تحقیق حاضر، مطالعه ی چگونگی همنوازی در تاریخ موسیقی ایران دوره ی اسلامی است که تعداد و همچنین چگونگی همنشینی سازها را مورد بررسی قرار می دهد. فقدان مبحث همنوازی در رسالات موسیقی، در میان مباحث متنوع نظریه پردازان قدیم نکته ای قابل تامل است که می توان به کم اهمیت بودن مقوله ی همنوازی و برتری تکنوازی در تاریخ موسیقی ایران پی برد. از معدود مواردی که به همنوازی پرداخته شده، کتاب موسیقی کبیر فارابی است که در آن صرفا مبحث دونوازی بررسی شده و تمرکز اصلی فارابی از تشریح دونوازی ها، تبیین ساختار نغمگی سازها بوده است. با بررسی نگاره ها نیز، به اهمیت تکنوازی در تاریخ موسیقی ایران پی می بریم. در میان تصاویر، بیشترین فراوانی پس از تکنوازی، مربوط به دونوازی است. در دونوازی ها، همنشینی دو نوع ساز زخمه ای و کششی، فراوان ترین ترکیب را تشکیل می دهد و کمترین فراوانی مربوط به ترکیب دو ساز کششی است. در سه نوازی ها، همنشینی دو ساز زخمه ای و یک ساز کششی فراوان ترین ترکیب هستند. تعداد سازهای ملودیک در تصاویر همنوازی ها از پنج ساز فراتر نمی رود. از یافته های تحقیق حاضر می توان دریافت قدما علاوه بر ساختار نغمگی، به تعادل سازهای زخمه ای و کششی در همنوازی ها نیز می اندیشیدند. روش تحقیق در مقاله ی حاضر، تحلیلی توصیفی و گردآوری اطلاعات، با استفاده از اسناد و منابع کتابخانه ای است.
    کلیدواژگان: همنوازی، گروه نوازی، همنشینی سازها، تکنوازی، تاریخ موسیقی ایران
  • مهشید مشهدی فراهانی* صفحات 17-24
    بررسی لوت های تصویر شده در دست پیکرک های ایلامی هزاره دوم پ.م، موضوع نوشتار حاضر است. مطالعه بر روی بیش از 50 مورد از این پیکرک ها، منجر به تفکیک لوت ها به دو گروه لوت های دسته بلند و لوت های دسته کوتاه شد که این دسته بندی، برای نخستین بار در این مقاله صورت گرفته است. انواع لوت های نقش شده در دست نوازندگان از نظر ساختمان ساز، تعداد وترها، علائم موجود بر روی ساز در جهت تشخیص امکان وجود سیم گیر، دستان بندی و خرک بررسی شده است. همچنین ارتباط نوع ساز با پوشیده و برهنه بودن پیکرک ها، ارتباط آنها با خدایان و باورهای مردمان ایلامی و نیز امکان وجود تفکر جنسیت گرایانه در نواختن سازهای خاص در فرهنگ ایلامی، در این مقاله مورد توجه بوده است. از نتایج به دست آمده در این پژوهش، احتمال وجود یک وتر و نقش همراهی کننده آواز برای لوت های دسته کوتاه است. همچنین تقسیم لوت های دسته بلند به دو گروه بر اساس شکل و اندازه کاسه آنها و نیز امکان وجود دستان بندی و انگشت گذاری بر روی این ساز با توجه به شیوه نمایش دست چپ نوازندگان و وجود نشانه هایی مبتنی بر وجود دو وتر، از دیگر نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش است. روش پژوهش توصیفی- تحلیلی بوده و گردآوری اطلاعات به روش میدانی و با استفاده از اسناد و منابع کتابخانه ای انجام شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: لوت، پیکرک های ایلامی، موسیقی ایلامی، نوازندگان ایلامی، موسیقی مذهبی، موسیقی آئینی
  • ایمان فخر* صفحات 25-32
    اختصاص زمان لازم برای تمرین، عاملی اساسی در رشد مهارت های اجرایی، کاهش اضطراب مخرب هنگام اجرا و بهبود عملکرد تحصیلی است. هدف از این پژوهش، یافتن روابطی معنی دار بین ساعات تمرین و اضطراب اجرایی و عملکرد تحصیلی دانشجویان رشته نوازندگی موسیقی جهانی دانشگاه هنر است. این مطالعه ی همبستگی-پیمایشی، به صورت مقطعی در دی ماه سال 1395 روی 102 نفر از دانشجویان کارشناسی نوازندگی موسیقی جهانی انجام شد. اطلاعات مربوط به ساعات تمرین هفتگی، روزانه و اطلاعات دموگرافیک، با تکمیل پرسش نامه ای به صورت خود-گزارش دهی جمع آوری شد. میزان اضطراب با پرسش نامه های اضطراب صفت-حالت اسپیلبرگر و اضطراب اجرایی آزبرن-کنی ارزیابی و عملکرد تحصیلی بر اساس معدل کل دروس عملی به دست آمد. تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها با استفاده از ضریب همبستگی پیرسون، آزمون t-مستقل و تحلیل رگرسیون چندگانه، توسط نرم افزار SPSS نسخه 22 در سطح معنی داری 05/0 انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد، بین ساعات تمرین و اضطراب و عملکرد تحصیلی دانشجویان، ارتباط معنی داری وجود ندارد. همچنین از بین متغیرهای دموگرافیک، سال های نوازندگی به عنوان متغیر پیش بین عملکرد تحصیلی در حاشیه معنی داری بود. با توجه به نتایج، به نظر می آید ساعات تمرین دانشجویان اثربخشی لازم را در بهبود عملکرد تحصیلی و کاهش اضطراب ندارد. لذا در نظر گرفتن برنامه ای آموزشی جهت آشنایی دانشجویان با روش های صحیح تمرین مفید به نظر می رسد.
    کلیدواژگان: ساعات تمرین، نوازندگی، اضطراب اجرایی، عملکرد تحصیلی
  • پویا رئیسی، مسعود نقاش زاده*، صدیق رئیسی صفحات 33-42
    فرآیند تولید فیلم های سینمایی و سریال های تلویزیونی، بعضا آنچنان که مدیران تولید پیش بینی و یا برنامه ریزی کرده اند، پیش نمی رود. زیرا مخاطرات زیادی با منشاء عوامل درونی و بیرونی هستند که می توانند علی رغم پیش بینی ها و برنامه ریزی ها، موجب بروز اشکالات جزیی یا اساسی در روند تولید فیلم شوند. امروزه می توان برای کاهش احتمال وقوع مخاطرات، کاهش تاثیر مخاطرات در روند تولید و کاهش خسارات ناشی از وقوع آنها، از دانش مدیریت مخاطرات بهره گرفت و با کسب آمادگی لازم برای تشخیص و کنترل سریع مخاطرات اقدام کرد. مقاله حاضر، به لحاظ هدف، نتیجه یک تحقیق کاربردی است که مبتنی بر استفاده از تحقیقات پیشین و آرای کارشناسان صنعت سینما در ایران است. در این جستار سعی شده، متناسب با شرایط بومی تولید پروژه های سینمایی، روشی سیستماتیک برای شناسایی، تحلیل، اولویت بندی و راهکارهای کنترل و مقابله با مخاطرات تولید ارائه شود. در این تحقیق، مخاطرات تولید در دو گروه مرتبط با مکان فیلمبرداری، عوامل انسانی و تجهیزات مورد توجه قرار گرفته اند. سپس از روش تحلیل حالات شکست و آثار آن در اولویت بندی مخاطرات و روش تصمیم گیری چند معیاره، برای معرفی گزینه های مناسب محدودکننده مخاطرات استفاده شده است. نتایج 9 مخاطره بحرانی و 6 راهکار مقابله با آنها را به ترتیب اولویت معرفی کرده است.
    کلیدواژگان: تولید فیلم، مدیر تولید، مدیریت مخاطرات، ارزیابی مخاطرات، مقابله با مخاطرات
  • زهرا آخوندی، رضا افهمی*، اصغر فهیمی فر صفحات 43-56
    جان کیج با گریز از سنت های موسیقی گذشته و فراروی از مرزهای متعارف آن، بر فکر و عمل موسیقایی نیمه دوم قرن بیستم تاثیر عمیقی داشت. این تاثیرگذاری، به واسطه همکاری وی با جنبش های نوظهور آوانگارد معاصرش و تاثیرپذیری از آنها و همچنین نوآوری ها و ابتکارات متعددی بود که منجر به شکل گیری گستره وسیعی از آثار بسیار متنوع و خلاقانه در طول دوران حرفه ای او شد. اما پژوهش های اندکی، روند تاریخی و عوامل موثر بر تحولات ساختاری آثار موسیقایی وی را به منظور تبیین سیر و چگونگی این تحولات ساختارشکنانه، مورد توجه قرار داده اند. ازاین رو، پژوهش حاضر با رویکرد تاریخی-تحلیلی و بهره گیری از منابع کتابخانه ای، سعی در بررسی سیر تحول ساختار موسیقی کیج در سه سطح آهنگ سازی، نت نویسی و جایگاه مخاطب، در طول دوران حرفه ای وی، نموده است. پژوهش حاضر در سیر تاریخی، طبقه بندی شده در سه نقطه عطف، نشانگر گذار به تجارب و ساختاری نامتعین، باز و نامحدود در موسیقی است. در بعد تحلیلی نیز، کیج، با کاربست اصوات و ابزار روزمره، نویز و سکوت به عنوان مواد موسیقایی، طرح مقولات هم زمانی و مکان در موسیقی، دوری جستن از تخصص گرایی در آهنگ سازی، نت نویسی گرافیکی و نامتعین و دخیل نمودن اجراگر و مخاطب در شکل گیری اثر، به ساختارشکنی و بازتعریف مجدد معنای موسیقی دست می زند.
    کلیدواژگان: جان کیج، موسیقی قرن بیستم، آهنگ سازی، نت نویسی، جایگاه مخاطب
  • سیده زهرا کشفی*، شیوا مسعودی، صادق رشیدی صفحات 57-66
    هر مکان دارای بار معنایی مختص به خود است. در اجراهای تئاتر، انتخاب مکان و شناخت روابط میان عوامل اجرایی در مکان اجرا، می تواند به انتقال معنای موجود در ذهن کارگردان کمک کند. کارگردانان معاصر دست به تقسیم بندی جدید فضا در اجراهایشان زده اند و فضا را به شکل های متفاوتی به کار گرفته اند و رابطه ی میان بازیگران و تماشاگران را تغییر داده و گونه های جدیدی را به تئاتر معرفی کرده اند. از میان آنها می توان به ریچارد شکنر اشاره کرد. توجه او به مشارکت تماشاگر و تاثیر آن بر اجرا، سبب شده است که گونه ی جدیدی را با عنوان تئاتر محیطی معرفی کند. در تئاتر محیطی، مرز تفکیک کننده ی جایگاه تماشاگر و بازیگر حذف می شود و فعالیت تماشاگران بر اجرا تاثیر می گذارد و روابط جدیدی بین تماشاگر و بازیگر شکل می گیرد. حال با توجه به این که در تئاتر عروسکی به واسطه ی حضور عروسک با روابط بیشتری میان عروسک و عروسک گردان و تماشاگران روبرو هستیم، هدف از این پژوهش این است که، با توجه به ساختار اجراهای شکنر بتوان با روش تحلیلی- تطبیقی، مکان را در تئاتر عروسکی بررسی کرد. نتایج نشان می دهد که حذف مرزهای مکانی در تئاتر عروسکی، می تواند روابط جدیدی را میان عوامل اجرایی در تئاتر عروسکی سبب شود.
    کلیدواژگان: شکنر، محیطی، عروسک، مرزیندی
  • مریم قره سو* صفحات 67-76
    آیین زار یک آیین موسیقایی است و معتقدان به آن باور دارند که با شرکت کردن و قرار گرفتن در گفتمانی دوسویه میان باورهای برآمده از کهن الگوهای باستانی و فرهنگ اعتقادی خود، دردها و بیماری هایشان درمان خواهد شد. از منظر درون فرهنگی یکی از مهم ترین عناصر تاثیرگذار در روند درمان، موسیقی ویژه ی مراسم زار است، در حالی که پژوهشگران تاثیر کلی مراسم را، نتیجه ی باورها و نوعی رفتار فرهنگی می دانند. در این پژوهش، با بازخوانی اجرای مراسم با تمرکز بر عملکردهای موسیقی و واکنش افراد و حاضرین به این موسیقی، تلاش می شود تا دلیل وجود این دیدگاه از منظر تاثیرگذاری خود موسیقی درک شود. در اینجا بر اساس شواهد مکتوب و نقش موسیقی در مراحل مختلف، به نتیجه ی متفاوتی از تاثیر موسیقی دست پیدا خواهیم کرد. پس از معرفی پیشینه ی پژوهش های انجام شده درباره ی زار در ایران و دیگر اقلیم های فرهنگی، به بررسی اتنوگرافیک مراسم با رویکرد عملکردگرایانه به موسیقی و واکنش های مخاطبین به موسیقی پرداخته خواهد شد. در بخش نهایی مولفه های موسیقایی آوازهای زار و اهمیت نقش و تاثیر «شنیدن» در روند تجربه ی وجد و درمان بررسی می شود. اهمیت این رویکرد، نگاه نویی است که به حضور موسیقی در آیین های درمانی به عنوان یک مدخل فرهنگی برای درک بهتر نقش موسیقی در میان اقوام دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: زار، موسیقی درمانی، هرمزگان، ریتم
  • شهین حقیقی* صفحات 77-86

    بررسی متون ادبی از چشم انداز نظریات کارل گوستاویونگ، از جمله رویکردهای نقد روان شناسی است. یونگ شخصیت را یک واحد می داند که از سیستم های مختلف روانی فراهم آمده است. این سیستم های به ظاهر جدا، در اصل به هم وابسته اند و بر هم تاثیر متقابل دارند. تجلیات ناخودآگاه، کهن الگو نامیده می شود؛ تصاویری جهان شمول، با ریشه های عمیق تاریخی که به حوزه ی ناخودآگاه جمعی تعلق دارند و مظاهر آنها به صورت های گوناگون، در رویا انعکاس می یابد. براساس این رویکرد، توجه به اسطوره ها و نمادهای موجود در متن، از جمله ابزارهای شناخت دنیای متن و نشان دهنده ی پیوند میان ادبیات و روان کاوی است که چشم اندازی درخشان در برابر تحقیقات و پژوهش های میان رشته ای گشوده است. اسماعیل خلج، از دید کمیت و کیفیت آثار، نمایش نامه نویس نامدار ایران در حوزه ی «درام قهوه خانه ای» است. «نمایش نامه شماره6» از هفت نمایش کوتاه او، از جمله آثار مستعد خوانش با رویکرد نقد کهن الگویی است. پژوهش از نوع تحلیل محتواست که با بهره گیری از اسناد و منابع کتابخانه ای از طریق گردآوری منابع و یادداشت برداری، انجام شده است. هدف پژوهش، بررسی متن یادشده از دید کهن الگوهایی است که در سیر روایت، به کارگرفته شده است. نتیجه ی پژوهش، نشانگر حضور اغلب کهن الگوها در نمایشنامه است. این کهن الگوها بسیار محکم و نظام مند به کارگرفته شده اند؛ به گونه ای که می توان گفت دانش نویسنده از دیدگاه های یونگ، در پیش فرض هایی که روایت بر اساس آن پدید آمده، تاثیرگذار بوده است.

    کلیدواژگان: نقد کهن الگویی، یونگ، اسماعیل خلج، هفت نمایش کوتاه
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  • Narges Zaker Jafari * Pages 5-16
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the trend of developments in music ensemble during the history of Persian music, from the Islamic era up to the Qajar Era. This research is divided into two sections based on the number of instruments in a music ensemble and the accompaniment of the instruments. Music ensembles in Persian history may be traced in both written and pictorial resources. The notable point is the lack of discussion about this genre in Persian music treatises. One reason for this absence of information is due to the significance of the lead singer and solo performances thus overshadowing the music ensemble throughout history. On the other hand, the absence may reflect the importance of theoretical discussions in this treatise where practical aspects of music have been addressed less frequently and have always been under the influence of an almost unique pattern of theory. In this passage, from the book of Farabi, Ketab al-Musiqa al-Kabir, there is one significant reference to a duet performance. We find that regardless of the fact that more than two instruments are present in many performance situations, Farabi has solely focused on a duet performance. As well, his main objective to describe duet performances is to explicate the tonal system in the instruments, because his main attention was to delineate different instruments tones with lute tones. Farabi has been inattentive to other topics influencing music ensemble, as he has only discussed the tones system of the instruments. Other available resources shedding light on music ensemble in history of Iran are iconographic resources. Upon examination of different references, it comes to our attention the significance of solo performances, followed by the presence of a small number of instruments in the background of the images depicting the music ensembles. Accordingly, duet performances are the most frequently depicted and music ensembles with more than five instruments are rarely observed. Solo performance images constitute about 70 percent of all illustrations. Another issue is about the accompaniment role of certain instruments. According to the statistics extracted from analysis of Persian miniatures, a combination of two types of plucked and wind instruments constitute the most frequent images of accompanimental instrumentation. Accompaniment of two identical instruments is rarely observed. In trio performances, a combination of two plucked instruments and a wind or a bowed instrument comprises the most frequent arrangement. Music ensembles with the highest frequencies are those in which there is a balance between plucked and bowed or wind instruments. Analysis of the above results reveals that earlier generations steadily examined the finest balance of sound between plucked, bowed or wind instruments in music ensembles, and were sensitive to which instruments are best complementing each other. Even in a closer analysis of the miniatures, one can realize the importance of music ensembles with certain favored instruments. For instance, the accompaniment of harp and flute followed by harp and lute are the most frequently depicted combinations in duet performances, and the most popular combination in trio performances constitute the arrangement of harp, lute and flute.
    Keywords: Music ensemble, Music accompaniment, Solo performance, History of Persian music, Persian instrumentation
  • Mahshid Mash, Hadi Farahani * Pages 17-24
    The history of the sculpting and use of the figurines goes back to the prehistoric time of the Elam era. Sculpting has evolved during various prehistoric and historical time periods in Iran. The process of making figurines can be placed in two groups according to the materials they are made of; those made from precious stones and metals, and possibly made for nobles and courtiers and those made of clay which were manufactured through molding in large numbers and were used by the public. Such figurines were probably used through the molding technique due to considerations such as ease of access, speed of production, and the possibility of mass production. These figurines were probably made in general form for ease of access, speed, and possibility of mass production. In the second millennium BC, a significant number of the figurines were made in the form of musicians. These musicians are divided into two groups of either human or animal figurines. Animal figurines are predominantly monkey musicians playing percussion instruments. In terms of gender, human figurines include male and female musicians. Women are mostly depicted with percussions and men with chordophones and aerophones. The musicians holding chordophones demonstrate two main musical instruments: harp and lute. It seems that clay figurines had virtual function (totem) and had straight relation with Elamite people’s religious belief as some of these figurines were found in graves. These figurines have a long history in the Elamite culture. Figurines holding lutes had remarkable presence in two periods during the Elamite culture. Dressed figurines carrying short-neck lutes with an oval bowl first appeared during the Sukkalmahs Period and then, in the mid-Elamite period naked figurines carrying long – neck lutes appeared in the Elamite culture. The study of lutes carried by the Elamite figurines is the subject of this article. A study of more than 50 of these figurines led to the classification of lutes into two groups of long- neck and short- neck ones, which were categorized for the first time in this article. Different types of lutes in the hands of Elamite figurines, in terms of construction, the number of strings, signs on the instrument to detect the possibility of a string holder are examined. In addition, the relevance of lute type with dressed or nakedness of figurines, their connection with goddess and Elamite people’s beliefs and the possibility of sexuality in playing special musical instruments in Elamite culture have  been taken intoto consideration in this article. Possibility of the presence of a string on the short-neck lutes is one of the achievements of this research. Moreover, theory of accompaniment role of short-neck lutes with religious songs was strengthened in special religious ceremonies. Besides, dividing long-neck lutes into two groups based on their bowl shape and size and also possibility of presence of frets and fingering on this lutes according to the way of showing the left hand of the musicians and the signs showing presence of two strings is another result of this research. In this paper categorization of musical instruments follows the Sachs–Hornbostel’s system of musical instrument classification.
    Keywords: Lut, Elamite figurine, Elamite music, Elamite musicians, religious music, ritual music
  • Iman Fakhr * Pages 25-32
    Musicians practice to gain technical proficiency, learn new repertoire, develop musical interpretation, memorize music, and prepare for performances. Achieving high levels of musical expertise requires considerable practice; attainment simply increases with practice and, consequently, the accumulated practice time can directly predict achievement, increase the chance of success and reduce performance anxiety. The amount of practice is important for increasing the academic performance of students in performance program but, the efficiency of practice is vital in this process. Unfortunately, performance students usually don’t receive specific education for increasing practice efficiency and choosing appropriate strategies of practice. This study investigates the correlation between hours of practice and performance anxiety, and academic achievement among Western classical music performance students of University of Art. In this correlational-descriptive study, 102 performance students enrolled in second to eighth semesters were selected in December 2016. The sample includes 46 female and 56 male (mean age = 21.6 years, SD=4) students. They had musical instruction for mean (SD) time of 9.29 (3.9) years. Demographic data were collected via self-reported component questionnaires. Furthermore, validated Osborne-Kenny music performance anxiety inventory questionnaires (15 questions) were used in order to assess the quantity of student’s performance anxiety. Then, the data were supported by validated Spielberg state-trait anxiety inventory (40 questions). Calculated Cronbach’s alpha showed high internal consistency reliability of both inventories (α= 0.9). Finally, academic achievement calculated by overall means of the performance scores in ensemble, instrumental lesson, orchestra and principles of performance in the past semesters. The data were analyzed by SPSS-22 software, using Pearson correlation coefficient, independent t- test and multiple linear regression with significance level 0.05.  The results showed, the mean (SD) of student’s performance anxiety scores were assessed 47.8 (15.09) and state and trait anxiety scores were calculated in order 44.07 (14.4) and 43.2 (11.8). The mean (SD) of academic achievement scores was 15.7 (1.9), and students had 20.6 (8.6) hours of practice per week. Among students, 66 persons had daily practice and 36 students did not practice every day. There was no statically significant relationship between amount of practice time and performance anxiety. In addition, the statically significant relationship between weekly hours of practice and state-trait anxiety was not found. Furthermore, statically significant relationship was not found between weekly hours of practice and academic performance. The independent t-test revealed that there were no significant differences between students who have daily practice and other students in academic performance, performance anxiety and state-trait anxiety scores. Multiple linear regression showed the demographic characteristics such as age, gender, years of musical instruction, and hours of practice were not statically significant variables for predicting academic achievement. However, among these variables, years of musical instruction was marginally significant (P=0.06). With a deductive overview, results showed students’ hours of practice were not considerably effective on increasing academic achievement and decreasing performance anxiety. According to the above mentioned, learning strategies for deliberate practice may be beneficial. Hence, adding a course with the purpose of instructing deliberate practice and learning true practice strategies in the curriculum of Western classical music performance was recommended.
    Keywords: practice time, Performance, Anxiety, academic achievement
  • Poya Raissi, Masoud Naghashzadeh *, Sadigh Raissi Pages 33-42
    Risk management is basically an action plan for all projects that can minimize the effects of undesired events as you cannot fully get rid of such risks. All scheduled plans face the risk of unexpected trials, which embeds undesirable consequences. Film and TV productions usually are not executed as production managers, producers or movie planners expect. Many risk-based internal and external factors have the ability to cause minor or major deficiencies in the process of film and TV production both on the target time and their relevant cost. They may extend the runtime of the project or increase the cost of implementing them. Nowadays using empirical science, it is possible to anticipate risks and mitigate them. Risk management involves understanding, analyzing and addressing risks to make sure all activities achieve their objectives. The goal of risk management in a film or TV production project is to follow up on a risky project successfully with a minimum amount of adverse event occurrence before it happens. Regrettably, an investigation has shown that this method is still not considered by local film producers. This article tries to deal with a systematic approach in risk identification, analysis, prioritizing, control and treatment on film production projects. This approach also has the capability to provide mitigation strategies based on practical viewpoints of experts. The current study tends to present a sample risk management pattern just based on the “location” and “crew & equipment” categories. The approach has the capability of extending in other categories such as pre-production, production and post-production phases. The method provides the relevant critical risk factors using the “failure mode and effect analysis; FMEA”. In this context, the risk priority number (RPN) is calculated based on three different aspects. They are probability in occurrence (O) of risk, severity or impact (S) and the capability to detect their occurrence (D). The RPN can then be calculated by multiplication of O, S, and D, each of which is a positive value smaller than 10. Hence, higher RPN refers to the more critical risk and logically should be mitigated to prevent damage initiated by it. Owing to the fact that risk is inherent in everything we do, the type of roles undertaken by its professionals are incredibly diverse. Through a case study, thirty risk factors in the “location” and “crew & equipment” in the shooting-production phase have been identified. The most important are: uncertainty in weather forecasting, equipment failures, crew or actors’ absences, loss of natural light, inability to control the vehicle and blocking the streets. Subsequently, the FMEA is applied to rank them and a multiple criteria decision-making technique based on a simple weighted average method was realized to appraise the appropriate mitigation strategies. Results presented nine critical risk factors such as six ranked mitigation strategies. The most prominent treatment strategies are “considering an alternative shooting program”, “applying check sheets” and “monitoring and controlling day-to-day shooting activities”. It should be noted that results in other projects may vary, due to different film project structure and script requirements.
    Keywords: Film Production, Production Manager, Risk Management, Risk Assessment, Mitigation Strategy
  • Zahra Akhoundi, Reza Afhami *, Asghar Fahmifar Pages 43-56
    John Cage, the leading post-war and one of the most influential musicians of the second half of the 20th century, for several decades was in the center of the avant-garde movement in America. By separating from the musical traditions of the past and utilizing a wide range of initiatives and innovations, he influenced a larger discussion on the role of music and work of a musician. There are two fundamental factors in many of Cage’s works; first, his ever-searching mind that severely responds to the changes of his surroundings and has had many innovations under the influence of them. Second, his concentration on a series of nonstop attempts to criticize Western art and music, this one is considered as the central point of his professional career. Cage's lack of interest in harmony and counterpoint redirected him to choose a path which was different from Schoenberg and his predecessors and while other musicians believed that harmonic structure pays attention to the musical sounds, he not only recognized structure as time divisions, but appointed everyday noise and silence as equivocal important factors as tonal sounds. Although there have been many biographies and researches on Cage, few studies have investigated the subject of this paper which explores the historical process of his music at the three levels of composition, notation, and audience to explain the course of these changes and their influence on the alternation of the dominant concepts of Western music in each phase. Therefore, the present study from a historical perspective tries to clarify the structural changes of Cage’s musical works to understand his view toward the mentioned transformations. In other words, the paper has raised this question that along with different ideas of Cage, how has the musical structure of his works changed? For this purpose, in the current research, two methods, historical and descriptive-analytical, have been used; the historical trend tries to explore the process and the way that ideas have been applied and depicts the milestones of his musical practice. The descriptive-analytical method aims at surveying structural changes of Cage’s musical works during the most important periods of his work. From a structural perspective and in a historical course, this research shows three milestones in applying Cage’s innovative ideas; the first one (late 1930s to late 1940s): Percussion and Prepared Piano; the second milestone (1950s): chance operation and graphic notation; the third milestone (late 1960s): elements of acting and theatrical performance. These three turning points in a historical course reveal a gradual and hierarchal change of a structure with a closed and solid space to a structure with an open and flexible space. In addition, in the analytical aspect, applying daily sounds and tools as the musical materials, putting aside the professional skills in producing and performing pieces, removing notation and score, replacing the oral presentation of musical ideas and generating audience are examined and justified as the central thesis of this research. By deconstruction of the generality of composition structures, notation, and audience status, Cage found a unique and personal structure that besides changing the dominant concepts in the Western music, presents a new definition for their meaning.
    Keywords: John Cage, 20th-century Music, Composition, Notation, Audience
  • Seyedeh Zahra Kashfi *, Shiva Massoudi, Sadeq Rashidi Pages 57-66
    While every artwork needs a space for being displayed, that space perforce entails a boundary between the artwork and the audience. This boundary puts the audience in the position of the distanced viewer. And if the audience trespasses this boundary, the meaning of the artwork will definitely change. Every period in the history of theater has witnessed a different usage of space, either conventional or unconventional, for the organization of performances. In theater studies, it's important for the performance researcher to pay attention to the space of performance and the relations developed amongst performative elements, as every sort of interaction with space can transfer a different meaning. Diverse divisions of space in performance would increase performative types and hence develop new relationships, which can help to better convey the meaning intended by the director. Accordingly, contemporary directors have paid more attention to the division of space in their performances, have used space in different ways, and therefore altered the type of relationship between actors and audiences, while introducing performative types based on new forms and contents.  Schechner is one of these directors as well as one of the most important performance theorists. Considering rituals and social activities, he attempts to approach theater in its primal form, which is the ritual. Meanwhile, his concern with the spectator’s participation or active presence has led to the formation of a new theatrical type which he calls the “Environmental Theater” encompassing six distinct axioms. In the environmental theater, we encounter a new division of space, which removes any dissociative boundaries between the actor and the spectator’s positions.  The removal of boundaries enables the spectator to take part in the performance and affect the performative process with his activities as a progressive element in space. The avoidance of classical space divisions in performance would generate new relationships between the actor and the audience, which not only alters the form of performance, but also causes semantic extension. Contemporary theories of performance, especially that of Schechner proves to be beneficial in the study of Puppet Theater as well. The main objective of the present research is to incorporate Schechner’s theories of form, his usage of space and elimination of positional boundaries into a comparative-analytical reading methodology in order to respond to the basic question of how the removal of spatial boundaries and spatial division in Puppet Theater could create new relationships between the main theatrical elements – that is, between actor and actor; actor and audience. In Puppet Theater, these relations could be traced between the puppet, the puppeteer and the spectators, making the question of spatial elimination and the resultant relations between the puppet, the puppeteer and the audience even more critical. The study reveals that apparently the development of new relationships between performative elements in Puppet Theater is directly affected by an increase in the number of its performative forms. Therefore, a better recognition of new relationships in Puppet Theater can be an influential factor in the creation of more diverse and innovative works while involving a new way of audience interaction and situation.
    Keywords: Richard Schechner, Environmental Theatre, Puppet Theater
  • Maryam Gharasou * Pages 67-76
    The Zar ritual (ceremony) is a musical ritual known and performed in a vast area of ​​the world ranging from the northern and southern borders of the Persian Gulf to East and North Africa, spanning from Iran, Iraq, Dubai, Oman, Zanzibar (Ethiopia – east Africa), Egypt, Sudan and other countries within this vicinity. The performers of this ritual believe that their participation is an interaction between the beliefs derived from the ancient archetypes and the current beliefs about this ritual. On the one hand, this combines their current beliefs with their religious culture and on the other hand, they believe it will alleviate their pains and treat their illnesses. In this ideology, the illnesses can be of all sorts of ailments such as physical handicap like body paralysis, any sort of chronic pains in different parts of the body like the head, eye, stomach, or mental diseases like amnesia or depression. Social unluckiness in certain cultures isis also considered as a sort of illness. The patient is exposed to direct music for three to five consecutive days following the preliminary rituals. He/she assigns his/her mind and body to the world of winds (invisible supernatural forces), listens to music and rejoices in its rhythm. The Zar can be Muslim, atheist, African, Arab, Indian or Anglaise. Each Zar has its special character and needs to hear his special music since all ordered accessories are provided. From the intercultural perspective, this music is one of the most important elements in the treatment process. While researchers attribute the overall impact of the ritual to the beliefs and cultural behaviors, the performers of this ritual believe that music plays the key role in this ceremony. They believe that the Zar music is so influential that it should not be performed outside the ritual context, because the absence of factors such as a program director may distress the patient. These people believe that performing the music of the ritual in another situation will disturb and infuriate the supernatural forces and Zar winds. This shows the importance of listening to the Zar music in this ritual. This research tries to investigate this view from the perspective of the music impact by reviewing the ritual and concentrating on the functions of this music and the reactions of individuals and visitors to this music. We will achieve a different result about the impact of music based on written evidence and the role of music in the different stages of the ritual and healing ceremony. After a literature review of the Zar ritual in Iran and other cultural regions, we will provide an ethnographic study of this ritual with a functional approach to the music and the audience’s reactions to the performances. In the final section, we will examine the musical components of Zar songs and the importance and impact of "hearing" in the process of experiencing the emotional range and treatment progression. The importance of this approach is that it gives a new insight into the presence of music in the therapeutic rituals as a cultural input to better understanding the role of music among different cultures who practice this ceremony.
    Keywords: Zar Ritual, Music Therapy, Hormozgan, Rhythm
  • Shahin Haghighi * Pages 77-86

    Karl Jung’s analytic psychology has often been used to study literary texts. Jung views personality as a system comprising of such subsystems as self (consciousness), individual unconscious, collective unconscious, anima, animus and shadow, which interact with one another though apparently they are autonomous. Jung’s innovation in psychology is to suggest that the unconscious is not solely individual. Rather, it has a collective element as well. The collective unconscious is shared by all humans irrespective of time, race, culture, etc. It consists of archetypes i.e., universal primordial images that are manifested in dreams, myths, rites, etc. Though archetypes remain dormant in the depths of the unconscious, they surface once they are triggered by internal or external causes as known symbols.  Archetypes are manifested via a variety of images including mother, child, old wise man, and hero. In Jung’s view, all elemental aspects of man’s life such as birth, growth, family, and such matters as rivalry among brothers are all archetypal in nature. Analytic psychology holds that artistic creativity is either a result of pure innovation or inspired by the unconscious. Originality in artistic creativity, however, is associated with the latter where symbolic and allegorical artistic works inspired by universal primordial images can be created. Thus, self-expression aptitude through primordial images makes it possible for the artist to transfer the experiences of the world within the mind to the real world through artistic genres. As such, the characters and symbols in the text provide the analyst with necessary tools for textual analysis. Furthermore, since myths and archetypes are studied in both analytic psychology and literary analysis, a link could be established between the two, which opens a new and promising field of interdisciplinary studies. Drama as a literary genre yields itself well to such interdisciplinary analyses within the framework of analytic psychology. Esmail Khalaj is a well-known and prominent Iranian dramatist, film and theater actor. His many dramas center on the lives of ordinary people, providing profound insights into the societal and cultural aspects of their lives. Thus, he is considered to be a dramatist with a distinct style in genre of the so called coffee house drama. He is also familiar with playwriting techniques and well aware of the pain of society, especially the poor and harmed social class. Khalaj has psychological understanding of situations and characters with mental and behavioral disorders. This attitude is also clearly seen in his works. Written in 1981, one of the dramas in Khalaj’s book titled Seven Short Plays i.e., the sixth drama yields itself well to archetypal criticism. The present research employs content analysis. It is benefited from library sources through notetaking and other data collection techniques. The aim of the study is to identify archetypes in the narrative in question. The results reveal strong and systematic presence of a number of archetypes in the drama. It is concluded that archetypes identified by Jung has affected the dramatist so profoundly that he has used them as the fundamental elements of the drama in question.

    Keywords: Archetypical Criticism, Jung, Esmail Khalaj, Seven Short Plays