فهرست مطالب

Behavioral Sciences - Volume:13 Issue:1, 2019
  • Volume:13 Issue:1, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/01/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
|
  • Neda Shahvaroughi, Farahani, Hossein Eskandari, Maral Hasan, Larijani *, Ahmad Borjali, Mohaddeseh Rajabi, Vahid Kaveh Pages 1-7
    Introduction
    The primary purpose of “palliative care” is to ensure the highest quality of life in terminally ill patients. Regarding this issue, paying attention to and being aware of the patient's attachment style may contribute to a proper understanding of their needs as well as challenges, and can be seen as a critical factor in overcoming high-stress conditions. Thus, the aim of the present study is a qualitative examination of the role of attachment styles in women with advanced cancer receiving palliative care.
    Method
    In the present qualitative study, nine women suffering from advanced cancer who had been referred to palliative care in Firoozgar Hospital in Tehran, from January to March 2018, were selected through purposive sampling. To gather the data, the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) was employed, and the data was analyzed through content analysis method.
    Results
     According to the results, the attachment of most participants was insecure (33% dismissive insecure attachment and 55% preoccupied insecure attachment).
    Conclusion
    Due to the stressful nature of the final stages of life in the palliative care context, paying attention to an individual’s attachment style by caregivers and health care team may be crucial.
    Keywords: Attachment, advanced cancer, palliative care, qualitative
  • Alaleh Vaziri, Maryam Esmaeilinasab *, Mostafa Hamdieh, Hojjatollah Farahani Pages 8-13
    Introduction
    Numerous studies have indicated the role of unexpressed emotions in Somatic Symptoms Disorder (SSD). There are also many studies demonstrating a high prevalence rate of SSD in Iran. Literature suggests that due to cultural issues in Iran, it is difficult directly expressing emotions. Therefore, the issue of emotion expression contributes to a high prevalence of SSD in Iran. To address this issue, the aim of this study was to discover cultural obstacles in emotional expression among patients with SSD in an Iranian sample.
    Method
      A qualitative conventional content analysis was conducted on the data collected from 17 individual in depth interviews with SSD patients, and mental health professionals who were recruited throughout a purposive and theoretical sampling. The sample was derived from the statistical population of SSD patients who were referred to mental health professionals at therapeutic centers in Tehran, Iran.
    Results
    Three themes were emerged as the obstacles of emotion expression in SSD patients in the context of the Iranian culture: 1) Overgenderizing emotions 2) Internalized ban of expressing emotions towards parents and other authorities 3) Difficulties with expressing positive emotions.
    Conclusion
    It seems that SSD patients in Iran have difficulties directly expressing their emotions, regarding the four aforementioned cultural barriers identified in this study.
    Keywords: Somatic Symptom Disorder, emotion, Iranian Culture
  • Maryam Bordbar * Pages 14-19
    Introduction
    The aim of this study was to investigate the mediating role of students' activating positive achievement emotions, in the relationship between faculty's support of autonomy and students' agentic engagement.
    Method
    This research was a correlational study, in which a structural equation modeling was been used to analyze a conceptual model. The sample included 389 undergraduate students of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, who were selected by randomized multistage cluster sampling method. Data was collected through the Autonomy-Supportive Environment Questionnaire, the Agentic Engagement Scale and the three subscales of Achievement Emotions Questionnaire.
    Results
    The results showed that supporting autonomy has a significant direct effect on activating positive achievement emotions and it affects agentic engagement indirectly, via achievement emotions.
    Conclusion
    Accordingly, students' activating positive achievement emotions play a mediating role between autonomy-supportive faculty and their agentic engagement.
    Keywords: Agentic Engagement, Autonomy-Supportive Faculty, Achievement emotions
  • Hajar Asadpour, Masoud Mohammadi * Pages 20-25
    Introduction
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prediction of critical thinking based on cognitive processes and moral justice in the students of universities.
    Method
    This descriptive-correlational study was performed on all the students in Shiraz who were selected using random multi-stage cluster sampling method in the academic year of 2018-2019. For collecting data, Rickets' critical thinking scale, Nejati's cognitive abilities, and Burger's moral justice were used. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 23 by using simple correlation coefficients and multiple regressions. 
    Results
    Findings showed that moral justice has a positive and significant effect on critical thinking, but cognitive abilities do not have the potential to influence critical thinking. It should be noted that the level of significance in this study was set at 0.05(α = 0.05).
    Conclusion
    Generally, based on the results of this study, one can conclude that morality is one of the main factors of critical thinking, but cognitive abilities have no role in the tendency of individuals to think critically.
    Keywords: Critical Thinking, Cognitive abilities, Moral Justice
  • Somaye Kazemian, Narges Zarei *, Masoume Esmaeeli Pages 26-32
    Introduction
    Due to the importance of family caregivers in the home caring of patients with schizophrenia and the imposition of their care responsibility, it seems that in order to strengthen their mental health and improve taking care of patients with schizophrenia, measures should be taken to improve the resilience of family caregivers. The aim of the present research was to determine the effects of interventions based on the strengthening family coping resources approach on the resilience of family caregivers of patients with schizophrenia.
    Method
    This experimental study was carried out on 60 family caregivers of patients with schizophrenia admitted to Ibn-e-Sina Psychiatric Hospital of Mashhad, Iran in 2018 - 2019.  They were randomly divided into two groups of intervention (n=29) and control group (n=31). In the intervention group, according to the guideline of the strengthening family coping resources developed by Kaiser et al., interventions based on this approach were implemented during 15 sessions of 120-150 minutes twice a week, and the control group received routine care. Data were collected by the Connor and Davidson Resilience Scale (2003) in two stages before and after intervention. Data were analyzed by SPSS-22 software, independent t-test and paired t-test.
    Results
    Among the participants, 40 were female (66.3%) and 20 (33.3%) number of the patients were mothers. In the pre-intervention stage, there was no significant difference between the mean of total resiliency score in both intervention and control groups (p = 0.45). This is while there was a significant difference between the mean changes in the total resiliency score in the intervention and control groups (p<0.001).
    Conclusion
    Interventions based on the strengthening family coping resources approach can be effective in enhancing resilience in family caregivers of patients with schizophrenia.
    Keywords: Resilience, Strengthening Family Coping Resources, caregiver, Schizophrenia
  • Behnaz Ertezaee *, Karim Asghari, Hamidreza Oreizi, Nezamaddin Ghasemi Pages 33-39
    Introduction
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy in the depression of adolescents by an increase in pleasurable activities as a mediation.
    Method
    The statistical population included all adolescent girls (ages14to17) in Isfahan. In the form of an empirical study with a control and an experimental group and by evaluation of pre-test and post-test, 60girls which had been diagnosed with depression were selected and randomly assigned into two groups. Subjects, using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Pleasant Events Schedule (PES).Data were analyzed for mediation analysis by R software and ANCOVA by SPSS-24.
    Results
    Findings show that cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective in increasing pleasurable activities (path coefficient: 0.19). The increase of pleasurable activities is effective in reducing depression (path coefficient: 0.35) and the cognitive-behavioral therapy by the mediation of pleasurable activities (path coefficient: 0.28) is effective. The entire effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy was on depression (β=0.28). Actually, 22%direct and 0.06%indirect effects was applied through the effect of pleasurable activities on depression.
    Conclusion
    Mediation analysis showed that pleasant events can play a mediating role in the relationship between depression and cognitive-behavioral therapy and can be used in short-term treatments.
    Keywords: Adolescence, cognitive-behavioral therapy, depression, Pleasurable Activities
  • Zahra Rafiee *, Jahangir Karami, Mansour Rezaei Pages 40-45
    Introduction
    Type 2 diabetes is a common chronic disease that can have irreparable complications for patients if not controlled. The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of self-compassion group training on the hope of patients with type 2 diabetes referred to Taleghani Diabetes Clinic of Kermanshah.
    Method
    The present experimental study had a pre-test post-test design with a control group. The statistical population included patients with type 2 diabetes who had referred to the Diabetes Clinic of Kermanshah in 2017.Among them, 32 were selected by convenience sampling method and were determined according to the inclusion criteria; and 20 patients were randomly assigned to two experimental and control groups (each group with 10 samples). The self-compassion training was provided for the experimental group during 8 sessions (90 minutes per session), but the control group did not receive any training. Data was collected by Miller Hope Scale (MHS); and the univariate analysis of covariance with SPSS 21were utilized for data analysis.
    Results
    The mean values ​​of pre-test of hope variable were statistically equal in both groups; and equal to 199.60 and 197.30 in post-test and follow-up periods respectively for the experimental group. They were significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05).
    Conclusion
    Self-compassion group training is a determinant of hope in diabetics. Therefore, therapists and psychologists are suggested to use this method to increase hope in diabetics.
    Keywords: Self-compassion Training, hope, Type 2 diabetes