فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:5 Issue:1, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/03/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Mustafa Solgimoghaddam, Younes Khosravi*, Hossein Asakereh, Mehdi Doostkamian Pages 1-8
    Background
    The present study aimed to validate the thermal regions in Iran with an emphasis on the identification of the climatic cycles during the recent half-century.
    Methods
    Data on daily temperature were extracted for 383 synoptic stations of Iran Meteorological Organization. For the zoning of the temperatures of Iran, multivariate statistical techniques (cluster analysis and discriminant analysis) were applied. In addition, the verification of the areas that were identified by cluster analysis and discriminant analysis was performed using the silhouette analysis.
    Results
    Discriminant analysis and silhouette analysis could properly identify the thermal regions in Iran, and this claim was confirmed with 2% error. Moreover, the spectral analysis of the thermal regions indicated that the temperature of Iran in the first and second regions had a medium-term cycle or an occasional short-term cycle, while fluctuations were observed in the third and fourth regions, as well as 2-5-year short-term cycles.
    Conclusion
    According to the results, the temperature of Iran was affected by several factors in some regions with variable patterns, so that diverse short-term, long-term, and medium-term cycles were dominant in the thermal regions in Iran.
    Keywords: Cluster analysis, Discriminant analysis, Silhouette index (SI), Principal components analysis, Spectral analysis
  • Amir Hossein Baghaie*, Amir Daliri Pages 9-14
    Background
    This research was investigated to evaluate effect of applying sunflower residues as a green manure on increasing zinc (Zn) concentration of two Iranian wheat cultivars in a Pb and cadmium (Cd) polluted soil.
    Methods
    Treatments included the application of sunflower residuals grown in a Zn-polluted soil  at two levels of 0 and 8 t/ha, two wheat cultivars  in a soil contaminated with Pb (0, 400 and 800 mg Pb/kg soil) and Cd (0, 5 and 10 mg Cd/kg soil). After 7 months of the experiment. Plant Pb, Zn and Cd concentrations were measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy. 
    Results
    The highest root and shoot Zn concentration of wheat plant was belonged to the      Back cross cultivar. Addition of 8 t/ha sunflower residues in soil without Pb and Cd pollution increased the root Zn concentration of Back Cross and Kavir  cultivars by 12 and 16%, respectively. The highest and lowest Zn translocation factor of wheat plants was belonged to Back Cross and Kavir cultivars, respectively.
    Conclusion
    Applying sunflower residues has a significant effect on increasing plant Zn concentration and can be useful as a suitable way to increase Zn concentration of wheat grown in Zn deficient and heavy metal polluted soils.
    Keywords: Zinc, Cadmium, Environmental pollution, Wheat, Sunflower
  • Mahnoosh Parsaeimehr*, Maryam Khazaei, Ashkan Jebellijavan, Hamid Staji Pages 15-20
    Background
    Identification of the dominant lactic acid bacteria involved in the production of traditional cheese in Semnan could be the initiative to protect national genetic resources and produce industrial cheese with desirable texture and organoleptic characteristics similar to traditional cheeses. The present study aimed to determine the biochemical, physiological, and phenotypic properties of the dominant strains of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from the traditional cheese in Semnan, Iran using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis.
    Methods
    In total, 14 cheese samples were randomly collected from the northern countryside of Semnan, Iran. The isolated gram-positive and catalase-negative colonies were analyzed in terms of morphology, culture, physiology, biochemical properties, and carbohydrate fermentation pattern. Following that, the LAB isolates were identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and a phylogenetic tree was drawn for the bacterial strains.
    Results
    In this study, 105 isolates were determined, 58 of which (55.24%) belonged to the genus Lactobacilli, and 47 isolates (44.76%) belonged to the genus Enterococci. According to the biochemical tests and 16S rDNA sequencing, the identified dominant Lactobacillus species included L. plantarum (53.6%), L. paracasei (32.7%), and L. casei (13.7%). In addition, most of the Enterococcus species were E. faecium (74.47%) and E. durans (25.53%).
    Conclusion
    According to the results, exploring the microbiological diversity of traditional cheese could contribute to the selection of proper bacterial strains for the manufacturing of products with consistent quality and original taste on an industrial scale.
    Keywords: Traditional cheese, Lactic acid bacteria, 16s rDNA Sequencing
  • Fatemeh Raji, Saeid Khanzadi*, Mohammad Hashemi, Mohammad Azizzadeh Pages 21-25
    Background
    Active antimicrobial packaging is a novel method for increasing the safety and shelf life of food products. The present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of chitosan coating nano-emulsion incorporated with Zataria multiflora and Bunium persicum essential oils at the concentrations of 0.5% and 1%, respectively on E. coli O157:H7 in vacuum-packed fish samples during 12 days of refrigeration.
    Methods
    The samples were divided into various groups, including control (no coating), 2% chitosan, 2% chitosan nano-emulsion, and chitosan coating nano-emulsion containing Zataria multiflora and Bunium persicum essential oils at the concentrations of 0.5% and 1%, respectively. The samples were vacuum-packed and stored at refrigeration temperature, and bacterial counting was performed on days zero, one, two, four, six, eight, and 12.
    Results
    The mean bacterial count had a significant difference between the study groups during 12 days of storage (P < 0.001). The most significant inhibitory effect on the growth of E. coli O157:H7 was observed with nano-emulsion of chitosan containing 1% of Bunium persicum.
    Conclusion
    According to the results, using the nano-emulsion of chitosan coating with essential oils could effectively decrease the growth of E. coli O157:H7 in food products, especially fish.in food especially fish.
    Keywords: Chitosan, Nano-emulsion, Zataria Muitiflora, Bunium persicum, E.coli O157:H7
  • Ali Ahmadi*, Fatemeh Salehi Pages 26-31
    Background
    Health literacy promotion is considered to be an important goal in the healthcare strategic planning of every country. The present study aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of the health literacy questionnaire (HLQ) in the participants of Shahrekord cohort study, Iran. 
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 respondents who were selected via systematic, random sampling from the participants of Shahrekord cohort study. The content and construct validity of HLQ were determined, and the internal consistency of the questionnaire was evaluated using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 21. 
    Results
    The internal consistency and test-retest reliability (ICC) of the factors were higher than 0.7. The construct validity of HLQ was investigated using exploratory factor analysis, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test (0.89), and Bartlett’s test (6908.425) (P ≤ 0.001) with VARIMAX rotation.
    Conclusion
    According to the results, HLQ is a reliable and valid scale for the investigation of health literacy in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, Iran. Since health literacy instruments should be revised regularly, further studies are recommended in order to evaluate health literacy using the HLQ to identify its possible deficiencies.
    Keywords: Health literacy, Questionnaire, Factor analysis, Iran
  • Fakhri Haghi, Shahrzad Daneshamooz, Angineh Parsadanians, Habib Zeighami* Pages 32-35
    Background
    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major causes of food poisoning. Since milk is a nutritious source of proteins and vitamins, it could provide the optimal conditions for the growth of several bacterial pathogens, such as S. aureus. The present study aimed to assess the frequency of Staphylococcus aureus classical enterotoxin genes in raw milk samples in Zanjan, Iran.
    Methods
    In total, 82 bovine, unpasteurized milk samples were collected from the dairy farms in various rural areas in Zanjan, Iran. The isolation and identification of S. aureus were performed using the Baird-Parker agar, routine biochemical tests, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the S. aureus-specific femA gene. In addition, staphylococcal enterotoxin genes (e.g., sea, seb, sec, sed, and see) were assessed using PCR.
    Results
    Following the appearance of yellow colonies with yellow zones on Mannitol salt agar, 21 S. aureus isolates (25.6%) were detected. In total, 80.9% of the isolates were positive for the presence of SE genes, and the most frequent SE gene was sea (88.2%), followed by see (58.8%), and seb (52.9%). Furthermore, 76.5% of the isolates had two or more SE genes simultaneously.
    Conclusion
    According to the results, the presence of enterotoxigenic S. aureus in the studied raw milk samples confirmed the possible risk posed on the public health. Therefore, it is recommended that the quality of dairy product quality programs be optimized in order to intensify the sanitary inspection of these products.
    Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, Enterotoxin, Raw milk, PCR
  • Maryam Mazaheri, Nastaran Keshavarz Mohammadi*, Hamid Soori, Ali Ramezankhani, Toraj Kordealivand Pages 36-43
    Background
    Road traffic accidents are considered to be a leading cause of injuries across the world. Human factors have been reported to play a key role in road traffic accidents. The present study aimed to explore the approaches to the reduction of human errors and motorcycle accidents.
    Methods
    A participatory multistage intervention was designed and implemented through team participation. In addition, campaign interventions were implemented on the urban and high school levels on 148 students who owned motorcycles. The campaign encompassed seven strategies on the urban level and eight strategies on the school level in 2015.
    Results
    Compared to the same period in the past year, the rate of motorcycle accidents reduced from 56.91 to 47.32 (9.59%) and 65.34 to 51.77 (13.57%) in the one-month and three-month interventions, respectively. In addition, the human factors involved in motorcycle accidents (e.g., knowledge of students) improved significantly, while no significant differences were observed in the factors of attitude and behavior.
    Conclusion
    According to the results, the cooperation of all the stakeholders of motorcycles accidents in the design and implementation of evidence-based interventions could significantly reduce the rate of motorcycles accidents on an urban level.
    Keywords: Road traffic accident, Motorcycle accidents, Public participation, Transportation, Iran
  • Hossein Chehre, Hamed Rezaeejam*, Zhaleh Karimi Moghaddam, Koorosh Kamali, Faranak Saghatchi Pages 44-49
    Background
    Cancer is defined as the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells and the second most common cause of death across the world. More than half of new cancer cases are reported in developing countries, the prevalence of cancer is on the rise in these countries due to the lifestyle risk factors associated with cancer. It is predicted that cancer will become the main cause of death worldwide. The present study aimed to attain the epidemiologic data of cancer patients in Zanjan province, Iran.
    Methods
    The data required for this descriptive study were obtained by reviewing the medical records of the patients during 2016-2018. Data analysis was performed by IBM SPSS version 25.
    Results
    In total, 518 cancer cases were studied, (male-to-female ratio: 1.15). The mean age of the male patients was more than the females. The most common cancers were reported to be breast and brain cancer. The prevalence of cancer was higher in the residents of urban areas.
    Conclusion
    Unlike the most of findings in this study, some of them were not in line with the studies conducted in the other provinces in Iran. Therefore, it is recommended that further investigations be conducted in this regard.
    Keywords: Radiotherapy, Cancer, Zanjan, Epidemiological Survey