فهرست مطالب

Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences - Volume:4 Issue:1, 2019
  • Volume:4 Issue:1, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/07/21
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Minoo Mohammadi, Maryam Tajabadi, Bahareh Pakpour Page 1
    Background

    Probiotics are living microorganisms that have beneficial effects on the microbial balance of the host intestine (human and animal). Studies demonstrated that intestinal microbiota maybe affect the hormones of brain and nervous through the vagus nerve. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of Lactobacillus Pediococcus acidilactici, indigenous probiotics of Iran isolated from traditional dairy products, on passive avoidance learning of male Wistar rats.

    Material and Methods

    In this research, 80 male Wistar rats weighing from 80 to 100 grams were used. For induction of amnesia, morphine was used as an intraperitoneal injection. Afterward, the mice were with 0.1 ml of milk alone or containing 109 CFU/ml of. Pediococcus acidilactici for 8 months. In this study, a non-active avoidance learning behavioral test was used to test long-term memory in Wistar rats.

    Results

    Results displayed that in the control group, morphine (1 mg/rat) significantly decreased learning. In the groups receiving probiotic and probiotic extract plus morphine, there was a significant difference in learning circumstances with the control group.

    Conclusions

    The results of this study depict the beneficial effect of Pediococcus acidilactici, a native Iranian probiotic isolated from dairy products, in the learning quality of non-active conditional avoidance in rats induced by morphine. This indicates the effect of oral probiotics on improving memory and learning.

    Keywords: Amnesia, Probiotic, Morphine, Lactobacillus Pediococcus acidilactici, Wistar rats
  • Hadis MusaviMojdeh Mahdiannasser, Amir Shamshirian, Soheil Azizi* Page 2
    Background

    Type 2 diabetes includes a series of disorders characterized by hyperglycemia, which are followed by dysfunction in insulin secretion. In the clinical laboratory, A1C test defines blood glucose levels over a three-month period. The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation between HbA1c and hyperlipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Materials and Methods

    An cross-sectional study was performed on 209 diabetic patients men (n=109) and women (n=100) with a mean age of 57.1 ± 11.1 years. Diagnosis of diabetes was performed according to the WHO criteria. In this study, venous blood (5 ml) was collected from participants after overnight fasting, and HbA1C levels and lipid profiles were determined using enzymatic methods and auto-analyzer device. Risk factor values (TCH/HDL-C) and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) (logTG/HDL-c), as well as LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, were calculated.

    Results

    HDL-C and TCH / HDL-C were significantly increased in women. On the other hand, LDL-C/HDL-C and HbA1c levels were significantly higher in men. There was no significant difference in the levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, fast blood sugar (FBS), LDL-C, and AIP between women and men. Cholesterol, FBS, LDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C also showed a significant direct correlation with HbA1c, but no significant correlation was observed between triglyceride, HDL, AIP, and risk ratio with HbA1c.

    Conclusion

    HbA1c may be considered as a biomarker for dyslipidemia screening in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Keywords: Diabetes, lipid profile, Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), Atherogenic index
  • Marjan Khosravani, Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal ∗, Mehdi Norouzi Page 3
    Background

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis is a food-borne pathogenic bacterium that has recently become resistant to most quinolone antibiotics. The MarA efflux pump plays a significant role in the development of ciprofloxacin resistance in S. Enteritidis strains. The aim of this study was comparative evaluation of anti-efflux activity of Artemisia tournefortiana extract and commercial efflux inhibitor, carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) on marA efflux pump gene expression in S. Enteritidis clinical strains.  

    Materials and Methods

    In this experimental study, Artemisia tournefortiana extract was prepared using maceration method. Subsequently, MarA efflux pump was detected in 20 clinical strains of S. Enteritidis via cartwheel and PCR methods. Finally, after treatment of strains with subMIC concentration of extract and 20 µg/L and CCCP, their anti-efflux activity against MarA efflux pump was studied using Real Time PCR. 

    Results

    The results of cartwheel and PCR methods indicated that all of ciprofloxacin resistant strains had MarA efflux pump. Subsequently, after treatment of strains with subMIC concentration of extract and CCCP, results show that both component have the ability to inhibit the MarA efflux pump, significantly. 

    Conclusion

    Considering the results of MarA efflux inhibition by A. tournefortiana and CCCP, it seems that this plant can be used as a potential source of drug use as a suppository pump inhibitor instead of CCCP.

    Keywords: Salmonella Enteritidis, efflux pump, MarA, Artemisia tournefortiana, gene expression
  • Reyhane Ebrahimi*, Hossein Poustchi, Shahabedin Zand, Mehrnoosh Shanaki Page 4
    Background

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) is one of the main chronic liver diseases and raises the risk of morbidity and mortality due to its inevitable outcomes. Understanding the clinical manifestations of the liver is critical to identify NAFLD patients with the greatest risk of developing nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. In the liver, C1q/TNF-related protein 1 (CTRP1) modulates both glucose and lipid metabolism and improves insulin sensitivity which may affect the pathologies of the liver. 

    Materials and Methods

    This study was conducted on 22 patients with NAFLD confirmed by ultrasonography and 21 healthy subjects. Clinical and histological variables were analyzed. The ultrasonography procedure was used to quantity Common bile duct (CBD). Liver stiffness (LS) was measured by transient elastography.

    Results

    There was a significant difference in CTRP1 levels between NAFLD patients and controls (p=0.032). Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between CTRP1 level and liver enzymes including AST (r=0.667; p=0.001), ALT (r=0.433; p=0.044), and γ-GT (r=0.428; p=0.047) in NAFLD patients. There was also a significant positive correlation between CTRP1 level and CBD (r= 0.469; p=0.028) in NAFLD patients. Moreover, the largest CBD was measured as 5.99 mm.

    Conclusion

    It seems that CTRP1 is a novel adipokine related to the pathogenesis of NAFLD and is associated with the clinical manifestations of the liver such as liver enzymes, and CBD.

    Keywords: : Nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD), C1q, TNF-related protein 1 (CTRP1), Common bile duct (CBD), Liver stiffness (LS)
  • To Reduce the Effects of Experimental Aflatoxicosis in Broiler Chicks Using Specific Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin (IgY)
    Ali Nakhaei, Nazar Afzali*, Seyyed Javad Hosseini Vashan, Mohammad Amir Karimi Torshizi Page 5
    Background

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of the specific egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) on reducing the defects of experimental aflatoxicosis in broilers.

    Materials and Methods

    In a completely randomized design, a total of 128 Ross 308 broiler chicks were used in 4 treatments, 4 replicates and 8 observations (chicks) for 42 days.  Treatments were: 1) control; 2) diet containing 1 ppm aflatoxin B1; 3) diet contaminated with 1 ppm aflatoxin B1 + 0.75 % of egg yolk containing IgY; 4) diet contaminated with 1 ppm aflatoxin B1 + 1.5 % of egg yolk containing IgY.

    Results

    The results showed that the use of aflatoxin containing diet significantly increased the feed conversion ratio, serum cholesterol concentration, serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Also, experimental aflatoxicosis resulted in reduced feed intake, weight gain, serum total protein and albumin concentrations (p<0.05); as well as the liver histopathologic lesions. IgY containing egg yolk (0.75% and 1.5%) added to the contaminated ration improved feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio compared to treatment 2 (p<0.05). Compared to treatment 2, serum cholesterol concentration decreased while total protein concentration increased in treatments 3 and 4 (p<0.05). Liver tissue was approximately normal with mild effects on hepatocytes and mild cytoplasmic changes in chicks receiving treatments 3 and 4. 

    Conclusion

    It can be concluded that specific IgY is effective in reducing the defects of experimental aflatoxicosis as well as improving performance in broilers.

    Keywords: Aflatoxin B1, specific immunoglobulin, weight gain, feed conversion ratio
  • Fatemeh Piri, Maryam Tajabadi *, Kumarss Amini Page 6
    Background

     Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is one of the most important causes of infection in burns and intensive care units. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) production in P. aeruginosa is a major factor in the antibiotic resistance and is thought of as a serious threat to the currently available antibiotic armory. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of CTX-M gene in ESBL-producing P. aeruginosa isolates in burn wound samples.

    Materials and methods

    In this cross-sectional survey, a total of 60 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were obtained from patients suffering from burn wound infection referred to major hospitals of Tehran, Iran. After verification by biochemical tests and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, CTX-M gene was identified using PCR method.

    Results

    The results of the molecular analysis of CTX-M gene showed that the prevalence of isolates of P. aeruginosa harboring CTX-M gene was 20% (12/60).

    Conclusion

    The results from this study showed high levels of antibiotic resistance and CTX-M gene among P. aeruginosa isolated samples of burn-wound infections which condition may result in the increased the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains and the failure of therapy This study suggests that detailed data on the CTX-M gene frequency can be useful to achieve the best therapy for infections caused by ESBLs producing P. aeruginosa.

    Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, CTX-M, polymerase chain reaction, antibiotic resistance, ESBL
  • Pathogenesis of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
    Farhad Hajializadeh, Ali namjpour, Shahin Aghamiri, Shiva Bayat, Soodeh Namjoo*, Farhad Zaker Page 7

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a hematological malignant disease characterized by an enhanced self-renewal ability of precursor lymphoid cells whose cell division takes more time than their normal counterparts. ALL occurs most between 2 to 5 years of age and during the sixth decade of life. There is a strong relationship between the time ALL occurs in children and the genetic abnormalities which are identified by the rate of leukemic concordance between identical twins.About 90% of ALL cases do not have a clear etiological mechanism. Genetic syndromes, polymorphic variants genes, germline mutations, and some environmental factors are responsible for less than 10% of ALL predisposition but the pathogenesis mechanism of ALL is not identified precisely.Here we review the recent findings and earlier studies about the pathogenesis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and its incidence. This article also summarizes the identification of predictive factors for ALL and options available to predict disease recurrence.

    Keywords: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Genetic abnormalities, Incidence, Pathogenesis