فهرست مطالب

تاریخ اندیش - پیاپی 4 (بهار 1398)
  • پیاپی 4 (بهار 1398)
  • بهای روی جلد: 250,000ريال
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/06/05
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • Dr. Jahandoost Sabzalipour Page 11
    Caspian Sea or sea located in northern Iran, is famous in various fields: history, Geography, Politics, Economics, Tourism and etc. One of the areas where the name of the Caspian Sea is to be found is linguistics. In linguistics, the term Caspian languages is used to refer to a number of languages. This sea Which is part of the northern part of Iran, Has led linguists to always use the name of this sea to refer to languages that have somehow spread on the shores of this sea. Mazandarani, Guilaki, Taleshi, Tati and Semnani are the languages most often spoken in the Caspian languages. In some cases, there is a difference between linguists about how these languages are Classificated. This article, is concentrated on the role of the Caspian Sea in naming one of the branches of Iranian languages. In another section of this article, a number of words with the Caspian will be referenced in the Guilaki language. These words deriving from the Guilaki dictionaries indicate that the Kas people lived in this area or have long been in connected whit inhabitants of these regions.
    Keywords: Caspian Sea, Iranian languages, Mazandarani, Gulaki, Taleshi, Tati
  • Hossein Keshavarz Afshar, Ismail Sepahvad, MohammadAliNemati Page 25
    Caspian Sea has been and has been a prominent position ever since Among these resources, the world is the letter and geography of Hafez Ebro, both of which are written in Persian, the first in the late sixth and early seventeenth. centuries, and the latter in the late eighth and early nineteenth centuries In general, it can be said that these two works cover the geography of Iran from the fifth to the eighth centuries of the AH. In these works, the authors describe the position of rivers and mountains around the sea in the description of the Caspian Sea. This article is also an analytical-descriptive method, which seeks to clarify the references and descriptions of the writers of the writer of these two works . The achievement of this article can be a source of interest for interested people to use such studies to take advantage of the natural geography of the Caspian Sea for various affairs in the country.
    Keywords: Caspian Sea, Ibn Bakran, Hafez Ebro
  • Dr.Zamane Hasannejad Page 39
    always. a reflection of the complexities of the local economy and its link with political developments. It is possible to mention the local markets as a subculture in the urban structure of different parts of Iran. Mazandaran, as a model of an unbalanced local market, has been heavily influenced by current political and economic events at the national and international levels. The political, social, and economic developments of the Qajar era, especially the emergence of the Russian Empire in the neighborhood of the state and the emergence of the Russians as a colonial state, strongly influenced the markets of Mazandaran and northern Iran. This paper seeks to investigate the impact of the local markets Mazandaran on the colonial presence of Russians in the area based on resources.
    Keywords: economy, market, Russia, Mazandaran
  • Dr Ghorbanali Kenarroudi Page 53
    The Caspian Sea has always been a concern of the government and the people of Iran and the local governments of the northern regions of Iran and the Russian groups and government. The effective presence of the Russian political activists since the Qajar period in the region has shown their interest and influence for the benefits of the Caspian Sea. From that time, Iran and Russia have always sought to establish a legal status for the Caspian Sea under various contracts and treaties. The purpose of this research is to analyze how the legal status of shipping in the Caspian Sea is formed from the beginning of Qajar to the end of the first Pahlavi. In this research, due to the historical nature of the subject, based on archival documents, newspapers and historical sources, the descriptive and analytical method have been used to ask this question: «How the legal status of shipping in the Caspian Sea from the beginning of Qajar to the end of Pahlavi first was shaped and explained? Findings and results of this research indicate that the legal status of shipping in the Caspian Sea had formed based on the importance of this sea for residents of the southern regions as well as the Russian people in the wider political and economic dimensions of the Golestan contract in 1228/1813 until the seafarership contracts of treaties of 1336/1940. With the political influence of Russia on the northern waters of Iran, by 1921, Iran only had commercial shipping in the Caspian Sea and did not have the right to use the warship, but from this date the right to maintain and establish a navy in the Caspian Sea was recognized by the State of the Soviet Socialist Republic. Among the provisions of the treaties and privileges of trade and commerce, as well as the seafarership between the two countries, some legal laws related to shipping in the Caspian Sea were taken into consideration by the statesmen and companies affiliated with each other and led to the formation and explanation of a shipping legal status in the Caspian Sea.a.
    Keywords: Legal status, Shipping, Iran, Russia, Privileges, treaties
  • Dr. Maryam Dara Page 71
    Urartains ruled in the regions in shores of Lakes Sevan, Van and Urmia from about 9th to 6th centuries B.C.E. A bronze bracelet with an Urartian inscription from Tul-e Talesh has been studied by some scholars. Some suggested it could be the proof of development of Urartuian borders to Tul-e Talesh and some belive it is just a gift or offering to be brought to the region from an Urartian site. The author suggested the bracelet could have been brought as an ancient tradition from one place to other and may have been taken from two parts of a bigger inscription and made and decorated as a bracelet.
    Keywords: Urartu, The bronze bracelet, Tul-e Talesh, Urartian borders
  • Rasoul Saeedizadeh Page 81
    Some shrines are very important in Guilan province. The most important ones based on statistical frequency are: Imam zadeh Sayyed Jalal Al-Din Ashraf in Astaneh-ye Ashrafiyeh, Imam zadeh Ebrahim which located in a vilage with same name in Shaft town, Imam zadeh Hashem which is located in a vilage with same name near 30 rd kilometer of Tehran-Rasht highway, Imam zadeh Es-Hagh in Shaft town and finally Imam zadeh Sayyedeh Fatemeh who is known as «Imam’s sister» located in a same district in Rasht city. She is more appreciated by women. The holy shrine of Sayyed Jalal Al_Din Ashraf which is located in Astanehye Ashrafiyeh is the most important and oldest shrine of Gilan Province. Unforetunatly, there is no specific research for this place which has been appreciated by people during centuries.This research is the first detailed professional research provided without any partiality by a researcher and expert in Genealogy of Sadat and Biography. There are some ideas about the real person who was buried in shrine of Astaneh-ye Ashrafiyeh. The most probable idea says that the grave is belong to one of the leader of Zeidiyeh named as Al_Sayyed Al_Imam Ashraf who was died in 1151 A. D. He was died in Tajan Gukeh region of Lahijan and his fans burid him in Kouchan village near to Lahijan. Here, while describing the location and historical geography of Astaneh-ye Ashrafiyeh, the owner of the grave and the history of the building are presented. The mausoleum architecture, as well as the study of the works written in this regard, is discussed in this article too.
    Keywords: Gilan province, Astaneh-ye Ashrafiyeh, Sadat, Sayyed Jalal Al, DinAshraf, Holy shrines
  • Samaneh Shojaee Page 99
    Many Iranian poets in proportion to their morale or society have had special regard to nature. Before Nima emergence, the mystic look to the nature was more customary in the poems and the symbolic role of the nature element had a more strong use in the literature. But, Ali Isfandyari(Nima Youshij) has a special poetic nature. Nima is a naturalist poet and has created his own style by his own look to the nature. Niam s’ special style in symbolism reached to an extraordinary worldview which was seen less in the works before or after him. He showed his pain and the pain of his fellow-thinkers and his contemporaries and all the Iranian people in his poems and has done his poetic mission by symbolizing the Caspian Sea and the Yoush jungle and mountain and intact nature of Mazandaran. The reason of creating such perfect mission was that Nima was reared in the nature and had an intimacy with sea and jungle. He believed that the cure of all man pains was in the nature, specially the Caspian Sea and the Yoush jungle and mountain. The role was obvious in his works. Having used a descriptive – library method, the paper is going to clarify the special look of Nima to the Caspian Sea and it’s around nature.
    Keywords: Ali Isfandyari, the Caspian Sea, nature, Symbolism, Niam poem
  • Mohsen Cheliki Fuladi Page 107
    In folklore basin, specific behavior is to protect agricultural and scare vegetarian wildlife from agricultural fields, it is referred to as «Shupe» or «Shoope”. The particular climate the has embraced this cultural area, has led to similarities in the behavior of residents with its particular wildlife. Of course, moving away from the center of this cultural area is a difference in behavior ( architecture and crops ). Among the agricultural fields there are some structures called «Nefar» for «shupe”. With the difference in climate, we see changes in this type of structure in the fields.
    Keywords: Mazandaran folklore, Shupe, Nefar, cultural differences