فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:8 Issue:3, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/06/09
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Liquid feather protein hydrolysate as a potential fertilizer to increase growth and yield of patchouli (Pogostemon cablin Benth) and mung bean (Vigna radiata)
    Anissa Nurdiawati*, ucu Suherman, Yudithia Maxiselly, Maulana Ali Akbar, Bayu Adji Pages 221-232
    Purpose
    Protein hydrolysates (PHs) have attracted much interest in recent years owing to the beneficial effects on plant growth. Feather, one of the most abundant wastes generated from the poultry industry, is rich in proteins and amino acids. It can be utilized to generate value-added bioproducts such as liquid feather protein hydrolysate (FPH). This research aims to evaluate the effect of FPH as fertilizer on plant growth.
    Methods
    Hydrothermal treatment (HTT) at a temperature of 160–180 °C and a holding time of 30 min was employed to convert feathers into a liquid feather-derived protein hydrolysate (FPH) containing nitrogen and amino acids. To evaluate the effect of FPH produced from the HTT process on plant growth, FPH (0.5–5 mL/L) and its combination with 50% recommended dose of chemical fertilizers were applied to patchouli and mung bean plants.
    Results
    Results showed that the combination of FPH and 50% dose chemical fertilizer on patchouli yielded a statistically significant increase in leaf area, dry weight, and chlorophyll content in comparison to the control, suggesting that the application of FPH along with the inorganic fertilizer can increase fertilizer use efficiency. Combined treatment of inorganic fertilizer and FPH on mung bean also showed a relatively higher yield per plant compared with control.
    Conclusion
    Hydrothermal treatment (HTT) can be a useful method for nutrient recovery from animal residuals such as feather. The application of FPH obtained through HTT could improve crop productivity and reduce chemical fertilizer consumption
    Keywords: Protein hydrolysate, Feather waste, Hydrothermal treatment (HTT), Mung bean, Patchouli
  • Gneiss and steatite vermicomposted with organic residues: release of nutrients and heavy metals
    Irene Maria Cardoso, André Mundstock, Maria Eunice * Pages 233-240
    Purpose
    Use of silicate rock powders as fertilizer improves nutrient cycling, thus benefitting agriculture. The availability of nutrients to plants is often low, but can be increased when rock powder is vermicomposted and added. However, these powders can be rich in heavy metals, which may impair their use. We evaluated maize growth and heavy metals in plants and soil after fertilization with vermicomposted gneiss or steatite powders.
    Method
    Vermicompost was prepared with cattle manure, with or without gneiss or steatite powders. The experimental units were kept in the dark at room temperature for 70 days. Subsequently, a greenhouse experiment was carried out with maize grown in highly weathered oxisol soil and fertilized with vermicompost alone, or with gneiss or steatite powder.
    Results
    A small proportion of heavy metals was immobilized in the earthworm bodies, but did not hinder their growth. Maize growth was superior in the treatment with vermicomposted gneiss powder. The gneiss-enriched treatment contributed to increased Zn concentration in plants and may also be an alternative to Zn fertilization. High Ni and Cr concentrations in steatite powder apparently induced higher levels of these elements in plants. However, metal concentrations in the soil after cultivation in all the treatments were below acceptable limits.
    Conclusion
    Increased plant growth in gneiss-enriched vermicompost suggests the possibility of using this material to enrich vermicompost with nutrients, thus improving the chemical quality of organic fertilizer. Use of steatite powder in agriculture deserves further investigation.
    Keywords: Fertilization, Stonemeal, Manure, Plant growth, Vermicompost
  • Aerated chicken, cow, and turkey manure extracts differentially affect lettuce and kale yield in hydroponics
    Peter Tikasz, Sarah MacPherson, Viacheslav Adamchuk, Mark Lefsrud Pages 241-252
    Purpose
    Manure extracts possess great potential as alternate inorganic fertilizers. However, limited information exists on how manure influences plant growth. This study’s aim was to determine the impact of aerated manure extracts on romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. longifolia) and Russian kale (Brassica napus var. ‘Red Russian’) in hydroponic systems.
    Methods
    Chicken, cow, and turkey manure extract solutions (10, 25, and 50 g/L manure) were compared to a control (Hoagland) solution for lettuce and kale grown in an ebb and flow hydroponic system.
    Results
    The aboveground dry mass of lettuce grown in a 50 g/L turkey manure extract solution was greater than that of the control. The largest aboveground wet mass for kale occurred with the control. Nutrient analyses of all manure extract solutions showed a 29%–79% higher concentration of NH4–N and higher total nitrogen than the control. Principal component analysis of the nutrient solutions identified six nutrients that should be monitored to maximize plant yield when using manure extracts in hydroponics: NO3−, NH4+, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Na.
    Conclusions
    Healthy lettuce and kale plants were grown in turkey manure extract solution (50 g/L). However, reduced aboveground wet and dry mass were recorded for both plants in chicken and cow manure extract solutions compared to the control. NH4+ toxicity likely killed all plants grown in chicken extract (50 g/L). Apart from NH4+ and P, all nutrients were below suggested concentrations suggested for lettuce growth. A combined manure/mineral fertilizer may be necessary to optimize hydroponic solutions.

    Keywords: Brassica napus, Composting, Hydroponics, Lactuca sativa, Manure
  • Organic waste composting and sustainability in low-income communities in Palestine: lessons from a pilot project in the village of Al Jalameh, Jenin
    Alessandra Bonoli, Sara Zanni, Eric Awere* Pages 253-262
    Purpose
    A pilot composting project was initiated as part of a 200 tons/day solid waste recycling plant with active involvement of several local stakeholders. The project aimed at introducing compost production and use in the village of Al Jalameh, Palestine. This paper describes the successes and lessons from the pilot project.
    Methods
    Based on the data collected on the population, waste production and economic activities, the best production methodology and composting units were designed and piloted. The compost was produced from animal manure, farm waste and organic fraction of domestic solid waste. Approaches to increase profit and sustain the initiative was implemented.
    Results
    The facility managed by Al Jalameh Agricultural Cooperative Society, recycles 60% organic fraction of domestic waste reducing the quantity of waste to the landfill. An estimated 1425 m3/year of compost are required for local agriculture while 800 tons/year is produced. With most of their compost coming from Israeli sources, the composting facility is at a competitive advantage. To increase the profit, around 28,125 kg of waste plastic sheets from greenhouses are collected for recycling each year generating a stable income of 5625.00 JOD/year.
    Conclusions
    The compost produced in the village is purchased by the local farmers increasing access to compost at competitive price. Farmers are economically encouraged by compost production that could solve the organic waste management issue and at the same time guarantee a sort of “self-production” of fertiliser useful for local agriculture. This initiative could be extended to other villages in Jenin and other developing countries where agriculture is their major occupation.
    Keywords: Composting, Jenin, Organic waste, Palestine, Waste management
  • Composting and co-composting of coffee husk and pulp with source-separated municipal solid waste: a breakthrough in valorization of coffee waste
    D. Dadi, *· G. Daba, A. Beyene, P. Luis, B. Van der Bruggen Pages 263-277
    Purpose
    In this study, the composting and co-composting potential of coffee husk and pulp with source-separated municipal solid waste (SSMSW) was investigated.
    Methods
    Coffee husk and pulp were mixed independently with SSMSW in different proportions (0, 33, 50 and 100%), and composted in triplicates with a total of 24 composting piles for 3 months. From each compost type, different physicochemical parameters were analyzed. In addition, the seed germination, growth and fresh head weight yield of each compost type were investigated on each matured compost type using cabbage seed (Brassica oleracea).
    Results
    The results indicate that the two coffee by-products can be composted alone or co-composted with SSMSW yielding very mature and stable compost. The results indicated that the addition of 1/4th of local soil (wt/wt) on C8 compost type yields the optimum fresh head weight of the cabbage among all field experiments. In addition, when C8 compost type is mixed with local soil in 3:1 ratio, it could yield an optimum fresh head weight of the cabbage (572 ± 10 g/kg of compost). This could be due to the relatively higher concentration of total nitrogen in the C8 compost sample.
    Conclusions
    Generally, the final compost can be served for unrestricted type of agricultural purposes. Thus, co-composing of coffee husk and pulp with SSMSW can alleviate the multidimensional problems of rural and urban dwellers.
    Keywords: Coffee husk, Valorization, Co-composting, Maturity, Compost quality, Productivity
  • Physico-chemical, microbial and phytotoxicity evaluation of composts from sorghum, finger millet and soybean straws
    P. S. Jagadabhi*, S. P. Wani, M. Kaushal, M. Patil, A. K. Vemula, A. Rathore Pages 279-293
    Purpose
    Composting is an environmentally sustainable alternative for bioconversion of agricultural residues into a nutrient-rich product that can enhance soil fertility/microbial diversity and thereby improve agricultural productivity. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the decomposition pattern of the agro-residues and assess the maturity and phytotoxicity of the composts obtained using physico-chemical, microbial and statistical analyses. The study also attempted to determine a threshold germination index (GI) to serve as a maturity index for the composts by conducting seed germination assays with tomato, chickpea and soybean seeds.
    Methods
    Three agricultural residues/straws of Eleusine coracana (finger millet), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) and Glycine max (soybean) were subjected to aerobic composting for a period of 60 days to study the impact of saw dust on the decomposition pattern and the ultimate compost quality/characteristics.
    Results
    The results showed efficient decomposition pattern of the agricultural residues characterized by high temperature profiles (up to 70 °C), high microbial activity, a sharp decrease in C/N ratio of the composting materials, i.e., from an initial 41–61 to final 10–17.
    Conclusions
    Statistical evaluation of seed germination assays showed that only the compost obtained from sorghum straw + saw dust was mature and free from any phytotoxicity as all the tested seeds showed higher and statistically significant GIs. It was difficult to attribute a single threshold GI value to indicate maturity of compost and could not further be applied to different types of composts as different seeds responded differently to the same compost.

    Keywords: Straw, Compost, Phytotoxicity, Maturity, Germination index (GI), eed germination
  • Effects of biochar and nitrogen fertilizer on soil physicochemical properties, nitrogen use efficiency and upland rice (Oryza sativa) yield grown on an Alfisol in Southwestern Nigeria
    Segun Oladele*, Adebayo Adeyemo, Moses Awodun, Ayodele Ajayi, Abayomi Fasina Pages 295-308
    Purpose
    Biochar and inorganic fertilizer when co-applied have been reported to increase crop yield and enhance soil fertility. However, studies on this complementary effect on soil properties and rain-fed upland rice performance in Sub-Saharan Africa are still scanty.
    Methods
    Field factorial studies conducted over 2 years was set up to investigate the interactions between rice husk biochar and inorganic nitrogen (N) fertilizer on a sandy clay loam Alfisol. A two-factor (4 × 4) in RCBD where rice husk biochar was incorporated at four doses, 0, 3, 6, and 12 t/ha−1, inorganic N fertilizer (urea) at four rates, 0, 30, 60 and 90 N kg/ha−1, and their combinations was adopted.
    Results
    Results showed that combination of biochar and N fertilizer exerted significant (P > 0.05) interactive effect on rice harvest index, grain and straw yield and N-use efficiency. Interaction between biochar and N fertilizer increased agronomic efficiency by 140% and grain nutrient recovery by 191% over 2 years. Combination of biochar and N fertilizer reduced soil bulk density, increased water holding capacity and soil chemical status such as pH, N, P, K, Corg, Ca, ECEC and base saturation, all within the top 10 cm depth of the soil.
    Conclusions
    Overall, the results established that rice husk biochar can be used as a soil conditioner to enhance upland rice yield on an Alfisol. The combined dose of 3–6 t/ha−1 biochar and 30 kg/ha−1 of N fertilizer is thus recommended for upland rice farmers in the study area.

    Keywords: Rice husk biochar, Grain yield, Biomass yield, Soil fertility, Alfisol
  • Nutrient content of fermented fertilizers and its efficacy in combination with hydrogel in Zea mays L.
    Joel Velasco, Mario Alejandro, Ariadna Linares, Gustavo López, Nereida Rodríguez, Catalino Jorge * Pages 309-315
    Purpose
    The nutritional content of fermented fertilizers was determined, and the effect of its application in combination with hydrogel was evaluated in a bioassay with maize plants.
    Methods
    The fertilizers were produced in artisanal biodigesters and the bioassay was carried out in pots with CP-569 maize. The nutritional content of the fermented fertilizers was evaluated, and in maize plants growth variables were measured, along with N–P–K contents in the aerial and root biomass.
    Results
    The types of biol show different characteristics for organic matter, N, N–NH4, N–NO3, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and B, as well as physical characteristics. The terms of the bioassay, the treatments with super absorbent polymer (SAP), biol and biol + SAP, showed significant statistical differences in terms of plant height, stem diameter and number of leaves 30 days after emergence. In the dry weight of aerial and root biomass, no statistical differences were found. In terms of the contents of N–P–K in biomass, statistical differences were found for P in aerial biomass and K in both aerial and root biomass.
    Conclusion
    Due to their physical and chemical properties, biols are an alternative to fertilizers. With the application of biol and SAP, maize plants undergo significant increases in height, stem diameter and number of leaves. By applying biol and SAP, the contents of N–P–K were not increased significantly in the aerial and root biomasses in comparison to the control.
    Keywords: Fermented fertilizer, Agroecology, Hydrogel, Zea mays L, · Nutrition
  • Change of soil quality based on humic acid with date palm compost incorporation
    Hadda Ben Mbarek, Imen Ben Mahmoud, Rayda Chaker, Hafedh Rigane, Sameh Maktouf, Nabil Soua, Mouna Khlifi, Aissa Arous, Kamel Gargouri* Pages 317-324
    Purpose
    The most important factor affecting soil quality is soil humic fraction. Effects of adding carbon in soil humic compounds in arid environments have only been slightly investigated. The change in soil humic acids’ structures in relation with manure and palm compost application and the evolution of humic acids’ structures during palm composting have not been sufficiently investigated. The purpose of this study is to evaluate if date palm compost is suitable for the sustainable increase of soil carbon content with increasing soil humic compounds.
    Methods
    Soil was amended with date palm compost and sheep manure, which represented two treatments, in addition to a control represented by unamended soil. Soil samples were taken from depth layers of 0–20 cm and 20–40 cm. Physicochemical and spectroscopic analyses were used to study humic acids extracted from organic amendment and soil.
    Results
    The neutral pH and the C/N ratio of 11.9 revealed that the palm/manure compost was mature. Date palm compost application on soil showed its effectiveness in improving soil quality. Spectroscopic studies of humic compounds extracted from date palm compost and manure, showed the abundance of aromatic structures, confirmed by the low E4/E6 ratio associated with an increase in polycondensation and polymerization. Infrared spectroscopy of humic acids extracted from amended soil revealed its enrichment with aromatic structures.
    Conclusions
    Using date palm compost for a short term suggests that this compost may be useful as an alternative to increase the soil fertility by increasing the humic acids quantity with enhancing aromaticity degree and functional groups.
    Keywords: Humic acids, Soil quality, Compost, Date palm waste, Manure
  • Additive effect of cow dung slurry and cellulolytic bacterial inoculation on humic fractions during composting of municipal solid waste
    Mansi Rastogi*, Meenakshi Nandal, Lata Nain Pages 325-332
    Purpose
    The work aimed to investigate the effect of cow dung and cellulolytic bacteria on humic characteristics during municipal solid waste composting. Four Bacillus isolates (B. subtilis, B. tequilensis, B. venezuelans and B. amyloliquefaciens) sourced from dumpsite soil were formulated as consortium for the study.
    Methods
    Four treatments were considered with addition of bulking agents (ratio 1:7:6) to 15 kg MSW. Treatment Cs1 (control): only MSW, Cs2: MSW + cellulolytic bacterial inoculum @ 5 ml (2 × 109 CFU ml−1); Cs3—MSW + cow dung slurry @ 1 kg (1:100 based on wet weight) and Cs4—MSW + cellulolytic bacterial inoculum @ 5 ml (2 × 109 CFU ml−1) + cow dung slurry @ 1 kg (diluted 1:100 based on wet weight). The analyses of humic acids were done by elemental analyzer, UV and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy during 90 days of composting.
    Results
    MSW amended with consortia of effective microorganisms and cow dung slurry projected highest humification degree at 82.4% (P < 0.01). Highest temperature (63 °C) was recorded in the treatment Cs4 during composting. The data corresponded to an increase in H/C ratio (0.9%) with a decrease in C/N (14.8%) and O/C ratio (0.5%). In addition, most stabilized values for E4/E6 ratio (4.1) and E2/E3 ratio (2.1) were observed in Cs4. The humification indices manifest positive regression values (F (4, 1) = 0.007; P < 0.01) and 99% significant model.
    Conclusion
    In the study, bio-augmentation (bacterial consortia and cow dung slurry) to MSW composting facilitates early maturity compared to other inoculated/uninoculated treatments. The result substantiates the effect of temperature on the humification rate of composting.
    Keywords: Municipal solid waste, Composting, Cellulolytic bacteria, Humic acids, Cow dung, Spectroscopy