فهرست مطالب

Reproductive BioMedicine - Volume:17 Issue:8, 2019
  • Volume:17 Issue:8, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/05/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
|
  • Hamid Alavi Majd, Fazlollah Ahmadi, Giti Ozgoli*, Vida Ghasemi, Marzieh Saei, Fahimeh Ramezani, Farzaneh Rashidi Pages 533-542
    Background
    Polycystic ovarian syndrome is an endocrine disorder with many complications. This syndrome is a growing concern among adolescents around the world, with varying reports of its prevalence in different parts of the world.
    Objective
    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescents by a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Materials and Methods
    In this study, a search for published articles with an English language limitation and without a time limit was done in different databases (Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science, Emabse and Cochrane) in January 2019. The 12 studies that met the criteria for entering a qualitative assessment scale of 5 and higher were subjected to systematic review and meta-analysis. Egger and Begg's tests were used to check the publication bias. Data were analyzed with STATA software, version 11.1.
    Results
    Twelve studies were included for meta-analysis. The total number of participants in the study was 149,477. The average quality score of all studies was 8.67 (range: 5-10). The prevalence of polycystic ovarian syndrome in adolescents based on the Rotterdam criteria was 11.04% (95% CI: 6.84-16.09%), based on the National Institute of Health criteria, it was 3.39% (95% CI: 0.28-9.54%), and based on Androgen Excess and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Society, it was 8.03% (95% CI: 6.24-10.01%)
    Conclusion
    The result of this study showed that there is a variation in the prevalence of PCOS in adolescents based on different criteria; we suggest more community-based studies among adolescences in different parts of the world.
    Keywords: Polycystic ovary syndrome, Prevalence, Meta-analysis, Adolescence
  • Ali Vali Nejad, Golamreza Ataei, Alireza Tafazoli, Dariush Ghasemi, Rita Siam, Mohammad Baqer Hashemi* Pages 543-550
    Background
    Genetic testing has been widely introduced for many hereditary disorders. While the attitudes towards these facilities have been evaluated in many countries, there are only a few reports on the knowledge of and the orientation among Iranians.
    Objective
    The current study assesses the attitudes and knowledge of pre-marriage individuals toward the availability and use of genetic tests.
    Materials and Methods
    A comprehensive questionnaire was distributed among 408 marrying individuals. The questions addressed the demographic characteristics along the registration of participant's knowledge, education, and attitude toward genetic testing. The individuals were divided into three groups based on their knowledge: 1) Scored above 80 to 100 were defined as "good" 2) 60 to 80 as "average" 3) less than 60 as "poor" knowledge.
    Result
    Most participants (86%) believed consanguineous marriages increase the risk of genetic diseases; 82.3% knew that thalassemia is a type of genetic disease, only 33.3% could distinguish prenatal diagnosis (PND) from other laboratory tests. The relationship between the participants' knowledge and their level of education was significant (r= 0.78, p< 0.001), age (r= -0.16, p< 0.01), and urbanity (p< 0.01). A prominent relationship was observed between the knowledge (r= 0.64, p< 0.001) or education (r= 0.62, p< 0.001) and people’s desire to use the genetic tests before the wedding ceremony. No significant correlations were found between the participant’s attitude and their ages/urbanity. Most of the individuals agreed to arrange a genetic counseling before marriage (0.94%).

    Conclusion
    This study revealed that most individuals were interested in using genetic counseling services and genetic tests before marriage.
    Keywords: Attitude, Knowledge, Genetic testing, Genetic counseling, Prenataldiagnosis
  • Sana Karamolahi, Reza Salman Yazdi, Mehrangiz Zangeneh*, Behnam Farhoodi, Mahin Jamshidi, Mohammad Ali Sedighi Pages 551-556
    Background
    Viral hepatitis is one of the health problems which have the effects on the health issues. It seems that hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have negative impacts on the semen quality and male infertility rate.
    Objective
    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of HBV and HCV on sperm quality among Iranian infertile men referred to Royan Institute Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center between 2003 and 2014.
    Material and Methods
    This retrospective case-control study included 112 HBV positive infertile men and 47 HCV positive infertile men as case group and 112 HBV negative and HCV negative matched infertile men as a control group. All semen analysis and viral parameters assessment was performed in the central laboratory with the same method and instruments.
    Results
    Sperm count among infertile men with HBV and HCV infection was significantly lower than control group [the mean of the total sperm count 100.95 ± 118.59, 118.22 ± 141.18, 166.27 ± 151.25 (p < 0.001)]. Sperm motility was significantly decreased in HBV and HCV positive men in comparison to the control group [30.97 ± 25.88, 31.09 ± 28.72, 40.87 ± 23.37, respectively (p < 0.007)]. The percentage of normal sperm morphology was significantly higher in control group in comparison to HBV and HCV infected group [the mean of the normal semen morphology 3.23 ± 3.27, 3.70 ± 3.83, 4.51 ± 3.15 p< 0.015]. Although there is a significant decline in liquefaction time in the case group but the viscosity, semen volume, and PH of semen samples were similar in the both case and control groups.
    Conclusion
    Our results suggest that HBV and HCV infection are associated with poor sperm quality.
    Keywords: Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C virus, Male, Infertility, Sperm
  • Mohammad Mehdi Heidari*, Amirhossein Danafar, Fahime Moezzi, Mehri Khatami, Ali Reza Talebi Pages 557-566
    Background
    Numerous researches have provided great evidence that revealed the relationship between varicocele and sperm DNA damage.
    Objective
    Because of the crucial role of nuclear transition proteins (TPs) in sperm DNA condensation and integrity, this case-control study was designed to study TNP2 gene nucleotide variations in Iranian patients with varicocele.
    Materials and Methods
    PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing were used to search for mutations in exons 1 & 2 of the TNP2 gene in 156 infertile patients with varicocele and 150 fertile men.
    Results
    The results of sequencing showed three variants at positions c.301C>T (p.R101C), c.391C>T (p.R131W), and g.IVS1-26G>C (rs8043625) of TNP2 gene. It was found that varicocele risk in men who have the CC genotype of g.IVS1-26G>C SNP is higher than those who don't have these genotypes (according to Co-dominant model, Dominant model, Recessive model, and Over-dominant model). The haplotype-based analysis showed that (C/C/T) and (C/T/T) haplotypes were a risk factor of in patients with varicocele compared to controls (OR = 3.278, p = 0.000 and OR = 9.304, p = 0.038, respectively).
    Conclusion
    Because of the significant difference in the genotype and allele frequencies of g.IVS1-26G>C SNP in the intronic region of TNP2 in patients with varicocele compared with controls and also because of the high conservation of this SNP position during evolution, this SNP may be involved in some important processes associated with the expression of this gene like mRNA splicing, but the exact mechanism is not clear.
  • Apichakan Sampannang, Supatcharee Arun, Jaturon Burawat, Wannisa Sukhorum, Sitthichai Iamsaard Pages 567-576
    Background
    Types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are known to be the cause of sub/infertility. However, the comparisons of potential markers in spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in DM males have never been elucidated.
    Objective
    This study aimed to examine the expressions of tyrosine-phosphorylated and steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) proteins in testis of DM mice.
    Materials and Methods
    Fifty-six male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups (n = 14/ each): control of MLD-STZ (multiple low doses of streptozotocin), MLD-STZ, control of HFD-STZ (high-fat diet with STZ), and HFD-STZ. MLD-STZ mice (type 1 DM) were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with STZ at 40 mg/kg BW for five days. HFD-STZ mice (type 2 DM) received an HFD for 14 days and i.p.-induced by STZ at 85 mg/kg BW and fed with HFD. At the end of the experiment (days 36 and 72), the expressions of phosphorylated proteins and StAR were examined.
    Results
    Tyrosine phosphorylated proteins were localized in late spermatids, luminal fluid, and Leydig cells. The intensities of phosphorylated 110, 85, 72, 60, and 55 kDas were lower in the 36 day-DM mice. Although such intensities were present in both groups, only 85 kDa in the MLD-STZ mice was higher in HFD mice at 72 days. StAR expressions in both groups were decreased than that of the controls.
    Conclusion
    Decreased expressions of StAR and tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins may be directly involved in low testosterone levels and impaired spermatogenesis. These findings support the notion that both DM types play a role in male infertility.
    Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Testicular phosphorylated protein, Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, Streptozotocin, Mice
  • Bita Eslami, Sadaf Alipour, Reihaneh Hosseini, Bentolhoda Fattah, Ashraf Moini* Pages 577-584
    Background
    Epidemiological studies suggested a positive relationship between breast density and risk of breast cancer. One of the common hormonal disorders in women's reproductive age is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and the results from the studies about the risk of breast cancer among PCOS patients are equivocal.
    Objective
    The objective was to evaluate the breast density in PCOS patients compared with the control group.
    Materials and Methods
    In this case-control study, the PCOS patients who were older than 40 years and were referred to infertility or gynecology outpatient clinic of Arash women's hospital between 2015 and 2017 were selected as the case group. Control group was selected from healthy women who attended the same hospital and were older than 40 years. By digital mammography, breast density was classified according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) of the American College of Radiology and it was graded by one expert radiologist.
    Results
    Final analysis in 68 cases and controls showed statistically significant differences between breast densities in PCOS patients compared to the control (p = 0.03), and when the analysis was conducted by considering the category of age, the control group who were younger than 45 years had higher breast density compared with PCOS patient. Multivariate logistic regression analyses manifested a statistically significant adverse association between body mass index (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.79-0.95), vitamin D intake (OR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.16-0.81), and breast density.
    Conclusion
    Our data suggested that the PCOS patients had lower breast density compared with normal population. However, in multivariate analysis, considering other confounders, this association was not confirmed.
    Keywords: Breast density, Mammographic, Polycystic ovarian syndrome, Breast cancer
  • Mahbobeh Faramarzi*, Parvin Hassanjanzadeh, Soraya Khafri Pages 585-590
    Background
    There is lack of information about the effect of general distress and pregnancy-specific distress in mid- and late-pregnancy separately on neonatal outcome.
    Objective
    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of mid-maternal distress on late-maternal distress and birth outcomes with a causal model of relationships among general distress and pregnancy-specific distress.
    Materials and Methods
    In this longitudinal descriptive study, 100 low-risk pregnant women participated. Participants completed three questionnaires at mid-pregnancy (13-26 wk) and at late pregnancy (27-40 wk). Pregnancy-general distress was assessed by the Perceived Stress Scale and the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale. Pregnancy-specific distress was evaluated by the Prenatal Distress Questionnaire. The pregnant women were followed to after birth and neonatal outcome were assessed.
    Results
    All total effect pathways were significant as predictors of birth outcomes (height, weight, and head circumference). Mid-pregnancy-specific distress had a significant relationship with late pregnancy-specific distress. However, mid-maternal distress was not related directly to birth outcomes. The effect of mid-maternal distress on birth outcomes was related indirectly to late-maternal distress. Both late general distress and late pregnancy-specific distress had direct negative effects on three indexes of birth outcome. The negative effect of late general-pregnancy distress and mid-pregnancy-specific distress on birth outcome was mediated through late pregnancy-specific distress.
    Conclusion
    Both late pregnancy-general distress and pregnancy-specific distress have negative effects on birth outcomes. These findings support a role for negative effect as mediating the relationship between late pregnancy-specific distress and birth outcomes.
    Keywords: Birth outcomes, Pregnancy, Distress, Anxiety, Depression
  • Atossa Mahdavi*, Sasan Kazemian, Emad Koohestani Pages 591-594
    Background
    Intrauterine retention of fetal bone fragments is a rare condition that could happen after abortion (especially illegal abortion). It can cause secondary infertility as bone fragments can work as an intrauterine contraceptive device.
    Case
    A 25-year-old Iranian woman was referred to Shariati Hospital due to infertility. During infertility work up to normal semen analysis, adequate ovarian reserve with regular ovulatory cycles was documented. An ultrasound scan revealed focal echogenic shadowing lesions inside the uterine cavity. Hysteroscopy was conducted and many intrauterine bone fragments were revealed. Six months after hysteroscopic removal of fetal bones, the patient became pregnant and delivered a healthy and term baby.
    Conclusion
    Intrauterine fetal bone retention is a scarce event that happens after pregnancy termination due to the incomplete evacuation of fetal tissues. It can cause dysfunctional uterine bleeding, menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain, abnormal vaginal discharge, and secondary infertility. The detection of the problem and the removal of the remained bones by hysteroscopy have made possible to treat the patient safely and restore normal uterine function and female fertility.
    Keywords: Bone, Infertility, Hysteroscopy, Pregnancy, Abortion