فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:17 Issue:41, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/06/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • Hourieh Ahadi* Pages 187-196
    Objectives
    Grammar is frequently considered as the strength in the language profile of autistic children. Only a few studies have investigated the grammatical knowledge of these children. There are some research studies, but they are inconclusive, and less is known about the linguistic characteristics of children with autism in some languages, like Persian. Thus, the present study aimed at the detailed examining of syntax comprehension in Persian speaking children. 
    Methods
    The required data were collected from 10 children with autism (6-9 years old) and 20 healthy children (10 age-matched and 10 language-matched). Then, we used the Gilliam autism rating scale (GARS-2) for diagnosing autistic children. We used syntax comprehension test for assessing syntactic structures in children with autism and their normal peers. The obtained data were analyzed by statistical tests.  
    Results
    The obtained results suggested a significant difference between the autistic group and age-matched healthy group in all structures, except for two elements, negative, an irreversible three-element sentence, reversible above and below, as well as sentences with object and subject pronoun. However, a comparison between the autistic group and the language-matched group revealed no significant difference in most structures, except for reversible passive, relative clause in the subject, relative clause in the object, and singular/ plural infection.
    Discussion
    Overall, autistic children have consistent comprehension impairment in relative clauses, reversible sentences, and morphosyntax, which should be seriously treated. The comparison of children with autism with age-matched healthy children indicated that a syntax comprehension test could be useful for differentiating Persian speaking children with autism from those with simple language delays.
    Keywords: Autistic disorder, Child, Language, Comprehension
  • Mahsa Fadavi, Akram Azad*, Mahsa Meimandi, Zohre Arani, Hamze Ghorbanpo Pages 197-206
    Objectives
    The elderly residents of nursing homes experience falling at least once a year. The fear of falling influences the quality of life and causes limitations in their daily living activities. Therefore, this study aimed to translate the Falls Efficacy Scale (FES) and investigate its validity and reliability in the elderly Iranian residents of nursing homes.
    Methods
    The current methodological study was conducted on 100 healthy 60-87 years older adults in Tehran City, Iran. The subjects were selected by convenience sampling method. The translation was conducted using forward-backward procedure. The face and content validities of the scale were determined by impact score, Content Validity Index (CVI), and Content Validity Ratio (CVR). We established the construct validity by Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), applying principal component analysis by varimax rotation. The scale’s convergent validity was examined using the Spearman correlation coefficient with the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) and Single Item Question (SIQ). Cronbach's α and Intra-Class Correlation (ICC) were calculated to investigate the scale’s internal consistency and test-retest reliability. There were 4-7 days of interval for assessing the test-retest reliability.
    Results
    The CVR and CVI of all items were greater than 0.57 and 0.79, respectively. The obtained results suggested an impact score higher than 1.5 for each item. The EFA results indicated two factors in the FES. Convergent validity revealed very high to high correlation between the FES and FES-I (rho=0.92, P<0.0001), and SIQ (rho=0.72, P<0.0001). Excellent internal consistency (α=0.95) and test-retest reliability (ICC=0.98) were reported for the scale.
    Discussion
    The obtained results indicated that the original version of FES was a reliable and valid tool for assessing the fear of falling among the elderly residents of nursing homes.
    Keywords: Accidental falls, Geriatric assessment, Nursing homes, Psychometrics, Translations
  • Mohammad Rostami, Shafigh Mehraban, Farshad Zarei, Mehdi Sharifi, Giuta Movallali* Pages 207-214
    Objectives
    The challenges of caring for students with learning disabilities expose their mothers to mental health problems; however, less attention has been paid to treatment interventions for them. The present study aimed to examine the effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) group training on subjective wellbeing and interpersonal relationships in the mothers of students with learning disabilities. 
    Methods
    In this experimental research, 40 mothers of students with learning disabilities were selected through simple random sampling method. They were randomly divided into two experimental and control groups after observing ethical issues. The study participants completed the subjective wellbeing and interpersonal problems questionnaires Then, the multivariate analysis of covariance was used to analyze the obtained data. 
    Results
    There were significant differences between the two groups (F30.9=P<0.001) in subjective wellbeing and interpersonal relationships in the mothers of students with learning disabilities.
    Discussion
    DBT skills training can be useful both alone and in combination with other training methods for reducing interpersonal problems and improving subjective wellbeing in the mothers of students with learning disabilities.
    Keywords: Dialectical behavior therapy, Subjective wellbeing, Interpersonal problems
  • Preeti Chaudhary, Nusrat Hamdani*, Prateek Sharma Pages 215-224
    Objectives
    The primary study objective was to assess the effects of visuomotor training on grip strength and wrist movements in adults and the elderly to be efficiently used in rehabilitation. The secondary objective was to compare the post-training changes between the two groups.
    Methods
    This was a pre-test-post-test quasi-experimental study, including healthy individuals aged 25-44 (adults) and 65-79 (elderly) years. Individuals suffering from neuromuscular or musculoskeletal system disorders were excluded from the study. Grip strength (kg) and wrist movements (˚) were recorded by the equipment (Pablo system). Moreover, the scores of the Michigan Hand Outcome Questionnaire (MHQ) were recorded after interviewing the individuals. The study subjects were then provided with training (game-based) by Pablo system for 24 min/ d, thrice a week. Finally, post-test scores were recorded after 4 weeks of training. 
    Results
    Groups 1 and 2 had the Mean±SD age of 35.8±9 and 68.5±7.2 years, respectively. The obtained data were analyzed using the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison test. The within-group analysis of group 1 demonstrated differences (pre-post) of 1.09 kg, 4.39°, and 3.7° in grip strength, wrist extension, and flexion, respectively, after the training. The differences between the different parameters of MHQ viz. function, work, pain, and satisfaction were 2.7, 1, 1.1, and 0.3, respectively. No change was observed in the Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) and satisfaction. The within-group analysis of group 2 indicated the mean score differences of 0.3 kg and 6.53° in grip strength and wrist extension, respectively. Wrist flexion revealed a decrease from pre-test to post-test phases. The difference in MHQ parameters; function, ADLs, work, pain, aesthetics, and satisfaction were 2.4, 1.2, 2.4, 4, 0.5, and 1.59, respectively. The between-group analysis suggested better improvement of grip strength, wrist flexion, and function in adults; while wrist extension, ADL, and work were better in the elderly. There was no significant difference in this area.
    Discussion
    Previous studies have explored the visuomotor training, using game-based rehabilitation, non-immersive virtual reality, or robotic therapy. They have suggested that it would provide neuroplasticity and cortical reorganization, and enhance brain reward system. The low scores obtained in some subjective parameters like satisfaction could be due to different perceptions in individuals. Degenerative changes like osteoarthritis could be a possible reason for the high score of pain in the elderly. Future studies are required with larger sample sizes, control groups, incorporating other factors, and so on. This study may be beneficial in overcoming the limitations of conventional protocols such as labor, compliance, and adherence. It could also play an important role in rehabilitation, especially neurorehabilitation, by providing a new perspective.
    Keywords: Visuomotor training, Grip strength, Pablo system, Michigan hand outcome questionnaire, Computer-based rehabilitation, Elderly
  • Fateme Razavi, Hojjatollah Haghgoo, Enayatollah Bakhshi, Sina Tavakoli, Seyed Mohammad Ali Miri, Masoume Pourmohamadreza Pages 225-234
    Objectives
    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have problems in communicating and social interaction skills. Moreover, deficits in pragmatic language and executive functions are among the most important causes of communication and social interaction problems in this group. The present study aimed to determine the relationship between executive functioning and two of its indices (behavior regulation and metacognition), and pragmatic language in children with ASD. 
    Methods
    This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study. The study population included all 6- to 11-year-old children with ASD in Tehran autism schools in the academic year 2017-2018. A total of 74 children with ASD (68 boys and 6 girls) (Mean±SD age: 8.58±1.88 y) were selected from autism schools in Tehran City, Iran, using a convenience sampling method. The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the Children’s Communication Checklist (CCC) were used to collect data.
    Results
    The significant, negative correlations were found between executive functioning and pragmatic language (r=-0.47, P<0.001); behavioral regulation and pragmatic language (r=-0.42, P<0.001); and metacognition and pragmatic language (r=-0.45, P<0.001). 
    Discussion
    The study results suggest that the better the executive functioning and its indices performance in children with ASD, the fewer their difficulties in the proper use of language in social situations would be. In addition, the ability to use language appropriately in different social situations allows students with ASD to control their behavior and thoughts in these situations better. According to the obtained results, the language skills of children with ASD can be improved through designing appropriate therapeutic interventions to improve executive functioning and its indices in them.
    Keywords: Executive functions, Behavioural regulation, Metacognition, Pragmatic language, Autism
  • Nafisa Muhammad Kassim, Auwal Abdullahi*, Jibril Sammani Pages 235-240
    Objectives
    Facial Nerve Paralysis (FNP) may cause disfigurement of the face, which result in psychological disturbances and isolation because of society’s reaction to people’s physical appearance. This study aimed to determine the relationship between psychological symptoms, age, the severity of symptoms, and societal integration in people with FNP.
    Methods
    The present research is a cross-sectional study involving patients with FNP approved by the research ethics committees of Kano State Ministry of Health and Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. The instruments used in the study are Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to assess psychological distress, House-Brackmann Scale (HBS) to assess the severity of facial nerve damage, and the Facial Nerve Palsy Integration Register (FAIR) to assess community integration of patients with FNP.
    Results
    Thirty-seven patients with FNP (16 males and 21 females) with the age range of 14 to 70 years participated in the current study. The findings of this study showed differences in societal integration between males and females (in favor of the males); the severity of FNP decreased as the societal integration of the patients increased, and as age increased, the societal integration decreased. Additionally, there was no difference in the integration between single and married ones. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between depression and societal integration, but no significant correlation existed between anxiety and societal integration of the patients. Similarly, the findings showed a moderate negative significant correlation between the degree of disfigurement (severity) and societal integration of the patients.
    Discussion
    Women and older patients with FNP may have less community integration. However, Women may be less depressed than men since they have social contacts with both men and women.
    Keywords: Facial nerve, Depression, Anxiety, Rehabilitation, facial palsy
  • Seyyed Mohammad Hossein Javadi, Lotfollah Mohseni*, Iraj Esmaili, Ataollah Mohammadi, Hamed Seddighi, Seyyed Hadi Moosavi Pages 241-252
    Objectives
    Delinquency is one of the severe social problems. Today, changing criminal behavior and reducing the way and method of delinquency is one of the most important challenges in the juvenile justice system.
    Methods
    Based on the cognitive-behavioral approach, this study used three principles of Red Cross and Red Crescent fundamental principles, three skills of basic life skills, and first aid skill. A group intervention in 13 sessions was designed for changing the attitudes of juveniles in conflict with the law and was implemented in juvenile detention centers in 5 provinces. Then, the efficiency of the model was evaluated. In this quasi-experimental study, two groups were compared as the pre-test, and then post-test. The statistical sample contained 127 boys with the age range of 12 to 19 years, who were randomly selected among delinquent juveniles in the mentioned centers. The reliability and validity of the researcher-made and normalized questionnaires were examined and confirmed by the opinions of experts and statistical methods.
    Results
    There were significant differences between the experimental and control groups in humanity, impartiality, and voluntary services as well as the sum of fundamental principles and first aid skills, self-awareness, problem-solving, and anger management scores. These significant differences suggest that the model can develop these scores.
    Discussion
    This model is effective in improving knowledge and skills and changing the attitude of delinquent juveniles. Based on the findings of this study, a model was designed, using three principles of the Red Cross society, basic life skills, and first aid skills that can be effective in changing the attitudes and behavior of people in the juvenile detention centers. This finding is consistent with the studies and similar experiences at this level and requires additional longitudinal studies to investigate its effects on the frequency of recidivism, arrest, trial, and return to the center or imprisonment.
    Keywords: Juvenile delinquency, Behavioral intervention, Adolescent, Intervention research
  • Rosa Alikhani, Mehdi Tehrani, Zahra Shahrivar* Pages 253-262
    Objectives
    More attention is now paid on the importance of emotional and mental well-being of the youth. To better plan for psychiatric health care and rehabilitation in this age group, we need to shed light on the epidemiological picture of their mental disorders. The present study aimed to evaluate the demographic and clinical characteristics of the referrals to a child and adolescent psychiatric ward during 5 years.
    Methods
    In this prospective observational study, all the youth, who had been admitted to the Roozbeh Hospital for the first time, were recruited. All of the participants were evaluated, using the Roozbeh Hospital Item Sheet as a standard tool for obtaining their demographic and clinical features. The level of global functioning was also assessed, utilizing the Children Global Assessment Scale.
    Results
    Over 55% of the inpatients (n=192) were male with a Mean±SD age of 15.2±2.36years. The average length of admission was 40 days. The most common diagnoses were (in descending sequences): 1. bipolar mood disorder; 2. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; and 3. autism spectrum disorder. The global functioning mean score of the participants was between 29 and 59 out of 100 through the worst and the best situations of the psychiatric condition.
    Discussion
    The study findings highlight the predominance of mood disorders and their complications among this group of inpatients as well as their required and special assessments and interventions. Future annual reports can help with better understanding the trends in mental health issues that potentially aids in policymaking and developing treatment guidelines.
    Keywords: Psychiatry, Rehabilitation, Inpatient
  • Roya Mahmoodi, Maryam Farzad*, Amirreza Kachooei, Fereydoun Layeghi, Erfan Shafiee Pages 263-270
    Objectives
    Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) is now the most common type of nerve compression neuropathies constituting about (90%) of the neuropathic disorders. To attain the optimal recovery following the operation, a rehabilitation intervention is urgent. This study aims at investigating the efficacy of short and long term rehabilitation interventions following Carpal Tunnel Release (CTR) on motor functions, sensory, and pain.
    Methods
    Thirty patients were randomly assigned to two groups after CTR. The intervention group received rehabilitation exercises within a week after the operation, and the control group received a progressive home exercise program. The patients were assessed in terms of pain, sensation, function (measured by Boston Questionnaire), pinch, and grip (measured by dynamometer) in three periods of time, before operation, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks after operation by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Semmes Weinstein Test of Monofilaments, Boston questionnaire test, and dynamometer.
    Results
      No significant differences in function were seen between the two groups (P=0.28). The average score of pain decreased. In spite of the increase in sensory score in the intervention group, no significant difference was found (P=0.19). A considerable difference was found in pain, grip, and pinch between the two groups during the first 6 weeks after the operation.
    Discussion
    The rehabilitation interventions, even in short term, affect the pain and power (pinch and grip). Also, they facilitate returning to work. In the long term, however, there were no considerable diversities. In other words, improvements gained in two groups are the same in the long-term.
    Keywords: Carpal tunnel syndrome, Carpal tunnel release, Rehabilitation
  • Ali Yalfani, Behnam Gholami * Pages 271-278
    Objectives
    The respiratory function is often overlooked in people with Low Back Pain (LBP), while it is one of the factors for the continuation and recurrence of lumbar spine injury. Aim of this study was survay the immediate effect of Respiratory Muscle Sprint-Interval Training (RMSIT) on the plantar pressure variables of athletes with LBP.
    Methods
    This randomized controlled trial was conducted on two groups with LBP, one experimental group (24 patients) and one control group (23 patients). The plantar pressure variables were recorded using a plantar pressure measurement device. The experimental group performed the RMSIT protocol. The RMSIT was fulfilled as six sets of 30-second deep breathing exercises (with two minutes of rest between sets) with constant tidal volume, maximum breathing rate, and added resistance. The paired t-test and one-way covariance tests were used to analyze the data.
    Results
    The results of (95%) confidence ellipse showed that RMSIT caused a significant decrease in the amount area of sway, but the exercise did not make a significant difference in the length of minor axis and length of the major axis. The results of the Center of Presure (COP) factors showed that the training program significantly reduced the amount of path length, the standard deviation in the Y axis, but the results did not show a significant difference in the velocity and standard deviation in the X axis in the experimental group. The results demonstrated no significant difference between the experimental and control group in the plantar pressure symmetry indices.
    Discussion
    It can be concluded that, these exercises can be used to reduce some postural oscillation indices in athletes with LBP.
    Keywords: Respiratory muscle, Sprint-interval training, Plantar pressure, Low back pain, Athlete
  • Marie, Laure Kaiser*, Caroline André Carrascob Pages 279-284
    Objectives
    This study aimed at analyzing the test-retest and interrater reliabilities of the Test of In-Hand Manipulation-Modified (TIHM-M), as well as the relationship between in-hand manipulation and handwriting.
    Methods
    We administered the TIHM-M twice, two days apart, and the Beknopte Beoordelingsmethode voor Kinder Handschriften (BHK) - Concise Assessment Method for children’s handwriting test once to 105 children (51 boys and 54 girls) aged 6.5 to 9.5 years in regular school. Speed and quality of in-hand manipulation and handwriting were recorded. We performed a Pearson correlation test for the relationship between the speeds and the qualities of the TIHM-M and the BHK.
    Results
    Test-retest of the TIHM-M was excellent for the speed (ICC=0.84; 95% CI:0.73-0.90) and good for the quality (ICC=0.62, 95% CI:0.36-0.78). Interrater reliabilities for both speed (ICC= 0.87; 95% CI:0.78-0.92) and quality (ICC= 0.86, 95% CI:0.60-0.84) were also excellent. We found a significant relationship between the speeds of the TIHM-M and the BHK, but there was no significant relationship between the qualities of handwriting and the TIMH-M.
    Discussion
    The TIMH-M assessed the speed and the quality of in-hand manipulations, and it had good reliability. Nevertheless, the relationship between in-hand manipulation and handwriting needs more investigation to be confirmed.
    Keywords: Children, Motor skills, Child
  • Mehdi Rassafiani *, Aisha Al, Fraij, Abrar Al, Mahri, Fahad Manee Pages 285-292
    Objectives
    To assess the effectiveness of mirror therapy (MT) on upper limb (UL) function of sub-acute stroke patients.
    Methods
    This study is a single case experimental design with two participants. Twenty minutes of MT were implemented four times a week over a period of four weeks. For baseline phase, repeated measurements were performed six times for one participant and four times for the other participant using Fugl-Meyer Motor Function Assessment (FMA), and it was applied twice a week during the intervention phase. Brunnstrom Recovery Stages (BRS) and Barthel Index (BI) were applied once before the baseline phase, as well as prior and after the intervention phase.
    Results
    Based on percentage of non-overlapping data (PND) for FMA subtests, MT had questionable effectiveness on UL for both participants, and MT was unreliable intervention on wrist function. For the hand, of the second participant, MT had questionable effectiveness, whereas for the first participant it was unreliable intervention. For coordination, MT was fairly effective for the first participant and had questionable effectiveness for the second participant. BRS-Arm scores indicated improvements for the second participant from 3 (out of 6) to 4. BRS-Hand scores indicated improvements for the first participant from 5 (out of 6) to 6. No changes were shown in BI.
    Discussion
    This study revealed that MT had positive effects on some sections of UL motor function and coordination, whereas no change in wrist motor function was observed. No functional improvements in BI and slight difference in BRS were noticed.
    Keywords: Stroke, Upper Limb, Therapy