فهرست مطالب

Rangeland Science - Volume:9 Issue:2, 2019
  • Volume:9 Issue:2, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/06/08
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
  • Mostafa Zare, Ehsan Zandi *, Ardavan Ghorbani Pages 104-113

    Information on forage quality could help rangeland managers to select suitable grazing method to achieve higher animal performance without damage to vegetation. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the forage quality of S. yazdiana and S. tomentosa, which are the most important species of saline rangelands in Ardakan in Yazd province, Iran. These two species are grazed by goats and camels. The edible biomass of both species was sampled in three phenological stages during 2015-2016. Forage quality indices such as Crude Protein (CP), Dry Matter Digestibility (DMD), Metabolizable Energy (ME), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF), Crude Fiber (CF), and Water Soluble Carbohydrate (WSC) were measured using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS). Data were analyzed using a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design. Means comparison was conducted using Duncan's Multiple Range test. According to the results, phenological stages showed significant differences for DMD, CP, WSC, ASH, ADF (P<0.01) CF and ME (P<0.05). Moreover, results showed significant differences between species for DMD, WSC, ASH, ADF (P<0.01) and CP (P<0.05). However, interactions (species × stage) showed significant differences only for DMD and ASH (P<0.05). In both species, forage quality based on positive indicators such as DMD (72.83, 63.91), CP (11.18, 10.12), and ME (7.7, 7.44) for both S. yazdiana and S. tomentosa had the highest values at the vegetative stage. By the progress of growth stages in both species, these indices were decreased. In comparison, S. tomentosa had higher forage quality than that of S. yazdiana. Although the grazing season for goat and camel in these rangelands is in fall and winter, the suitable time for grazing by these livestock is the late winter and early spring at the vegetative stage. Thus, by considering the grazing time of goat and camel from these species, supplementary feeding is required.
    Keywords: Animal nutrition, Forage quality, Halophytes, Saline rangelands, ChahAfzal, NIRS
  • Bahareh Behmanesh, Ahmad Abedi Sarvestani *, Hossein Barani, Mohammad Reza Shahraki, Majid Mohammad Esmaeili Pages 114-125
    Social responsibility of pastoralists is one of the most important elements and an integral part of rangelands exploitation. It not only leads to better rangeland health, but also enhances exploiters’ satisfaction for continuous sustainable utilization of rangelands. The present study investigated the role of social responsibility in rangelands condition in nomadic areas of Gonbad County in Golestan province, Iran. Survey method was conducted in 2016. Population consisted of 180 nomadic households. A sample size of 115 households was selected using stratified random sampling method in ten pastoral units (nomadic and nomadic–rural systems). Required information was collected using questionnaires. Content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by academics and social experts of rangelands management. The findings showed that the social responsibility of respondents could be evaluated at high level. The ethical dimension of social responsibility was ranked in the first priority but the economic dimension was the last one. There was a significant and positive relationship between social responsibility and range condition. Also, social responsibility of uneducated exploiters (unable to read and write) was higher than other educated exploiters. Due to a positive relationship between social responsibility and range condition, it is recommended that exploiters’ responsibility can be enhanced by delivering appropriate educational opportunities in order to improve range condition.
    Keywords: Mobile pastoralists, social responsibility, Rangeland health, Pastoral unit, Iran
  • Azam Khosravi Mashizi* Pages 126-135
    Scientists predict climate changes and warmer conditions for the world in future. Predicting the warming effect on plant performance is one of the most important challenges in ecological sciences. In this study, the effects of short-term warming on physiological traits of Pteropyrum aucheri as one of the domain shrubs was assessed in riverside of semi-arid rangelands of Kohpanj region, Bardsir, Kerman province, Iran in 2014. Five 5×5 m2 blocks were selected with the same elevation, slope and aspect. In each block, mature individuals of Pteropyrum aucheri were studied in 10 circular plots with 2m diameter during spring and summer. For simulating the warming phenomenon, Open-Top Chambers (OTCs) were placed on 5 plots and other plots were considered as control plots. OTC is applied in natural ecosystems and provides nearly the same growth condition for species with higher temperature. Results showed that the OTCs enhanced monthly average of air temperature (5cm above soil surface) as 1.5 ºC, surface soil temperature of 2 ºC and soil temperatures (5 cm below soil surface) as 1.7 ◦C in warming plots. Results showed that photosynthetic pigments (Chlorophyll a, b and total) were significantly reduced and carotenoid was significantly increased with short-term warming in warming plots (p<0.05). Water content, leaf area and dry matter production were none significantly declined with warming. In general, short-term warming affected photosynthesis performance of Pteropyrum aucheri but biomass was not considerably affected by warming.
    Keywords: Warming, Open-Top Chambers, physiology, Pteropyrum aucheri
  • Mohsen Kazemi *, Reza Valizadeh Pages 136-150
    Awareness of the forage nutritive value of rangeland species is important to provide a balanced diet in order to meet the nutritional requirements of ruminants and to determine the suitable grazing time and rangeland grazing capacity. Hence, different laboratory methods were used to compare the nutritional value of Centaurea cyanus, Fumaria officinalis, Galium tricornutum and Vicia sativa as compared to Medicago sativa. Whole plant samples just before flowering were randomly collected from different rangelands of Torbat-e Jam in spring 2018. The means of Crude Protein (CP), Ether Extract (EE), Crude Fiber (CF), Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF), Organic Matter (OM), Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL), Nitrogen-Free Extract (NFE) and Non-Fiber Carbohydrates (NFC) of five studied plants were 19.67, 1.79, 19.16, 35.96, 27.20, 86.98, 9.95, 46.36 and 29.56% of dry matter (DM), respectively. The macro and micro elements were in a reasonable range as compared to Medicago sativa. The in vitro organic matter degradability (IVOMD), in vitro dry matter degradability (IVDMD), 24 h in vitro gas production (24 h IVGP), metabolizable energy (ME) and net energy for lactation (NEl) were the highest in Centaurea cyanus and Galium tricornutum, respectively. Differences in fermentation parameters (NH3-N, total volatile fatty acids: TVFA and pH) were observed in the media following incubation of plants. The 24 h IVGP was positively correlated (P<0.0001) with IVOMD, IVDMD and TVFA and negatively with ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N; P<0.0001), crude protein (CP; P<0.01) and ether extract (EE; P<0.05). The results indicated that all rangeland plants studied in this experiment had a favorite nutritional value compared to Medicago sativa.
    Keywords: Rangeland plants, Medicago sativa, Nutritional value, Livestock, Torbat-e Jam
  • Ahmed M. M. Lazim, Elnazir M. Daw elbait, Sahar Ezzat *, Salih. A. Elsheikh Pages 151-158
    In order to determine the optimum rate of Vigna sun-hum seed sowing for rangeland rehabilitation in sandy soil of North Kordofan, Sudan, two trials were conducted separately under managed and unmanaged conditions at El-obeid Agricultural Research Farm in Sheikan locality of North Kordofan State in 2015 and 2016. Seed rates were 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 Kg/feddan (4200m) and arranged by a Completely Randomized Block Design with three replications. The species in both trials was established under rain-fed conditions by broadcasting seeds on prepared seed beds early in the rainy season. In the managed trial, seeds were broadcasted on a clean seed bed. The first and second weeding was carried out after two and four weeks from seed broadcasting. In the un-managed trial, a bare area or an area with scatter occurrence and low density of herbaceous species was selected annually and weeding was not done. Vegetation cover, density and forage dry weights were obtained using (50x50 cm²) quadrate. MSTAT-C statistical software package was used for the statistical analysis. In both managed and un- managed trials, the results revealed that there were significant (P≤0.001) differences in most measured variables. In the managed trial of 2015 cropping season, the seed rate of 3 kg/feddan recorded the highest vegetation cover (33.3%) and the highest dry weight (260.3 g/m²) whereas the one kg/feddan had the least vegetation cover (10%) and dry weight (52.1 g/m²). In un-managed trial of 2016 cropping season, the seed rate of 4 kg/feddan recorded the highest density (98 plant/m²) and the highest dry weight (100.3 g/m²) whereas the third seed rate recorded the least density (37 plant/m²) and dry weight (33.6 g/m²). Results of combined analysis indicated that there were significant (P<0.001) differences among the five seed rates in most studied parameters. For Vigna sun-hum as endangered leguminous range species, two optimum seed rates of 3 and 4 kg/feddan were recommended for ranches and natural rangeland rehabilitation in the managed and un-managed areas, respectively.
    Keywords: Seed rate, Density, Vegetation cover, Biomass, Rangeland
  • Ali Asghar Naghipour borj *, Zeinab Ostovar, Esmaeil Asadi Pages 159-171
    Climate change has a great impact on the species distribution range and many endangered plant species. Fritillaria imperialis as a species that is native to Central Zagros, Iran is a medicinal plant with great ecological and commercial profits. Its population has decreased considerably and the species would be endangered in later decades. Understanding the habitat needs of this species, evaluating habitat conditions, and forecasting its potential habitat are important for protecting F. imperialis. The presence of F. imperialis points recorded from our field surveys in Chaharmahal-va-Bakhtiari province as a part of Central Zagros, Iran in spring 2017. In order to model its distribution based on correlation analysis, two topographic variables and eight bioclimatic ones as the input of Maximum Entropy model (MaxEnt) were used. The results showed that temperature seasonality (55.1%) and precipitation of driest quarter (22.9%) were important factor drivers of F. imperialis suitable habitat. The accuracy of the maximum entropy model in predicting the distribution of the studied species was high (AUC=0.91) as 2.33% (37986 ha) in Chaharmahal-va-Bakhtiari Province for the F. imperialis, which has had suitability. About 18% and 16.5% of F. imperialis habitats in the area may be lost due to climate change by 2070 under two climate warming scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, given by the IPCC). As shown by the model, under the current climatic conditions, the suitable habitat would be rendered to an unsuitable one in the future resulting in local extinction. The results of this study can be used to identify sites with high extinction probability of F. imperialis and protect susceptible habitats against the effects of climate change.
    Keywords: MaxEnt, Bioclimatic variables, Species distribution modelling, Suitable habitat, Chaharmahal-va-Bakhtiari province
  • Reyhaneh Azimi *, Gholam Ali Heshmati, Mohammad Farzam, Morteza Goldani Pages 172-183
    The most important and sensitive level in the modification of rangelands surrounding the mine is the initial seedling establishment of plants, which often faces failure due to adverse environmental conditions, poor soil nutrients, disturbance of soil different layers and its instability and unstable soil around the mines. New methods of rangeland improvement using biological and non-biological materials (zeolite, superabsorbent and mycorrhiza) and strategies may help to establish plants in the soil around abandoned mines. This research aims to investigate the possibility of improving the primary establishment and growth of Agropyron desertorum in mine areas infected with heavy metals. Initially, seeds were sown in paper pots. After two months, pots were treated with Glomus intraradices, zeolite and superabsorbent along with control. Pots were transplanted in the field in semi-arid lands of East Mashhad cement factory using a completely randomized block design with four replicates in 2016. The plants were irrigated only once for the establishment. Data were collected about establishment rate, plant height, the percentage of mycorrhiza root inoculation and shoot, root and total dry weight. The results showed that the application of mycorrhiza, zeolite and superabsorbent increased plant establishment rate (50, 42 and 25%) and root dry weight (62, 72 and 15%) higher than that for control. Application of the mycorrhiza and zeolite treatments increased plant height (44 and 42%), aboveground dry biomass (51 and 61%) and total dry matter biomass (54 and 66%) higher than that for control treatment. The results showed that mycorrhiza and zeolite treatments had the greatest effect on increasing the initial establishment and improving the growth characteristics of A. desertorum. It was concluded that using zeolite and Glomus intraradices may be effective method for the initial establishment of plants in areas contaminated with heavy metals in the mining area in the semi-arid regions.
    Keywords: Heavy metals, Inoculation, Seedling transplantation
  • Samira Hossein Jafari *, Adel Sepehry, Hassan Soltanloo, Ali Akbar Karimian Pages 184-195
    Ferula pseudalliacea (Bitter asafetida) is an endemic medicinal plant grown in the center of Iran, which is used in pharmaceutical industries. There is less report about its habitat characteristics and distribution in Iran. So, this research was conducted to study the effects of topography and soil properties on distribution of this species in Yazd Province, Iran in 2016 and 2017. Two habitats (Chenarnaz and Borooieh) were selected and data were collected for vegetation cover and soil parameter using random systematic methods. All data were analyzed in SPSS software. The results indicated that this plant often grows in mountainous regions with calcareous formation. Its phenological activities are extremely under the effect of climate conditions. This species grows in all aspects and slopes higher than 25%. In Chenarnaz, the highest canopy covers was in north aspect (3.13%) and the lowest canopy covers was obtained in south aspect (1.65%). Similarly, the highest amount of canopy covers was observed in north aspect (2.55%) and the lowest one was in south aspect (1.65%) in Borooieh. 2400-2500 m altitude had the highest amount in two habitats, So that the amounts were obtained in Chenarnaz 3.42% and in Borooieh 2.55%. There were significant differences for many parameters between two habitats. The higher mean values of canopy cover percent, density, plant area, collar diameter, thousand seed weight and soil parameter as saturated moisture, silt, pH and organic matter were obtained in Chenarnaz and the highest sand percent and EC were obtained in Borooieh habitat. The results showed that this species grows in soils with lime amount between 55.92% to 58.27% and sandy loam texture, acidity of 8.09 to 8.23 and organic matters of 1.20% to 1.97%. The results of this study can be noticed for proper range management, conservation and development of this valuable species in such conditions.
    Keywords: Bitter Asafetida, Canopy cover, Ecological conditions, Soil texture
  • Mansoor Mesdaghi* Pages 196-201
    Severe range degradation was critically extended in many region of Iran and caused many rangelands were restricted and interwoven with croplands in a complex system. Therefore, rangeland planning and inventory as an isolated activity has become almost impossible. Current landscape planning involves contributions of different social organizations often with different interests and with different desired outcomes. In this study, landscape is considered as a management unit. I have proposed an integrated model based on traditional pastoralism which will facilitate sustainable land use of natural resources in future. Combining the benefits of different rural groups is the most important part of our decision making plan which provides solution to the problems of non- dependency of villagers to the rangelands. Formation of research work group from urban specialists and rural skilled workers with cooperation of international organization are the keys of preparation the integrated projects. Our monitoring of the past land use, suggests that the use of rangelands by local herders was being co-adapted with natural environments. We have proposed an integrated model that includes various levels of management, needs of social organizations, potential rangeland classes, and agro-ecological-based dry land farming. The main advantage of planning based on landscape unit is that by consideration of ecological aspects of past use and present features of land use, integrated models can be provided based on land suitability. Combining the benefits of different rural groups is the most important part of such decision making which provides solution to the problems of non- dependency of villagers to the rangeland as Badripour et. al. (2016) emphasized on them.
    Keywords: Cultural ecology, Endemic knowledge, Traditional rangeland boundary, Sustainability