- Volume:6 Issue:3, 2019
- تاریخ انتشار: 1398/06/10
- تعداد عناوین: 8
Pages 82-92BackgroundHyperspectral image analysis is a fast and non-destructive technique that is being used to measure quality attributes of food products. This research investigated the feasibility of predicting internal quality attributes, such as Total Soluble Solids (TSS), pH, Titratable Acidity (TA), and maturity index (TSS/TA); and external quality attributes such as color components (L*, a*, b*) as well as Color Index (CI) of Valencia orange fruit using hyperspectral reflectance imaging in the range of 400-1000 nm.MethodsOranges were scanned by the system in order to build full models for predicting quality attributes using partial least squares regression. Optimal wavelengths were identified using the regression coefficients from full models, which were used to build simplified models by multiple linear regression. The coefficient of determination of prediction (R2p) and the Standard Error of Prediction (SEP) were used to measure the performance of the models obtained.ResultsFull models for internal quality attributes had low performance (R2p<0.3, SEP>50%). Full models for external quality attributes presented a high performance for L* (R2p=0.898, SEP=19%), a* (R2p=0.952, SEP=13%), b* (R2p=0.922, SEP=20%), and CI (R2p=0.972, SEP=12%). The simplified models presented similar performance to those obtained for external quality attributes.ConclusionHyperspectral reflectance imaging has potential for predicting color of oranges in an objective and noncontact way.
DOI: 10.18502/jfqhc.6.3.1381Keywords: Spectrum Analysis, Citrus, Quality Control, Food Technology
Properties of Some Commercial Honeys Available in Mexican Market: Effect of Overheating on Quality of the Packaged HoneyPages 93-100BackgroundHoney is a natural product, but it can be adulterated or heat-treated, both of which damage the properties of the original product. This research was focused on the evaluation of quality parameters of some commercial honeys produced in México.MethodsFifteen samples of commercial honeys available in Mexican market were collected. Some physicochemical parameters were determined, including pH, moisture, water activity, electric conductivity, color, sugar content (fructose and glucose), and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) contents.ResultsThe results showed that the physicochemical parameters were found within acceptable ranges according to international regulations, with exception of the HMF content in 8 out of 15 honey samples which presented an unacceptable value (>40 mg/kg). The HMF content of the samples ranged from 14.56 to 224.08 mg/kg. Also, all samples of commercial honeys were classified as dark honey according to the L* values determined less than 50 with range from 14.35 to 35.45.ConclusionSome commercial honeys from Guadalajara, Mexico had HMF levels above the acceptable limit because of overheating during the packaging process. All evaluated commercial honeys were classified as dark according to the L* values which could be due to formation of browning pigments, in particular HMF, during the overheating. The producers of packaged honey should be encouraged to establish more moderate thermal treatments in order to avoid adverse changes, which affect the quality of the product.
DOI: 10.18502/jfqhc.6.3.1382Keywords: Honey, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, Heating, Food Quality, Mexico
Acrylamide Content in Food Commodities Consumed in North Macedonia and Its Risk Assessment in the PopulationPages 101-108BackgroundAcrylamide (AA) is an important food contaminant resulted from Maillard reaction during thermal processing of carbohydrate rich food commodities. The present paper reports the data for the AA content in some types of thermally processed starch rich food, and assessment of dietary exposure for the population in North Macedonia.MethodsThe AA level was determined employing modified and validated ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem quadrupole detector. A total of 160 samples divided in seven most frequently consumed commodity groups were collected for determination of their AA content. Finally, chronic exposure of AA in the population was estimated. Statistical analysis was performed applying OriginPro 8 SR4 v8.0951 software packageResultsThe average AA levels varied from 126.9±122.4 μg/kg for bread samples to 494.5±127.1 μg/kg for French fries samples. The dietary exposure of the population from North Macedonia for the tested food commodities was estimated at 0.643±0.171 μgAA/kgbw/day. The main contributor to the total AA intake was bread, with estimated value at 0.394±0.150 μgAA/kgbw/day. The margin of exposure values were 528 and 264, respectively for neurotoxicity and non-plastic effect calculated on average intake.ConclusionThe risk assessment analysis revealed increased concern for human health regarding the neoplastic effects, especially for infants, toddlers, and adolescents. This is the first study related to AA presence in different food commodities in North Macedonia, and implies that monitoring programs and mitigation strategies must be implemented.
DOI: 10.18502/jfqhc.6.3.1383Keywords: Acrylamide, Chromatography, Liquid, Mass Spectrometry, Food, Risk Assessment
Evaluation of Class 1 and 2 Integrons and Antibiotic Resistance Pattern in Salmonella enterica Isolated from Diarrheal Food-Borne Outbreaks in IranPages 109-114BackgroundSalmonella spp. are major causes of food-borne disease and have been identified among many diarrheal outbreaks. The major aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the class 1 and 2 integrons and antibiotic resistance pattern in Salmonella enterica isolated from diarrheal food-borne outbreaks in Iran.MethodsThis study was carried out on 115 diarrheal feces samples obtained from food-borne outbreak in 2016 in Iran. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of 27 isolated S. enterica seovars and presence of class 1 and class 2 integrons in the serovars were investigated using conventional and molecular methods. Results were statistically analyzed using SPSS software v. 21 and Chi-Square test.ResultsOverall, 27 S. enterica were characterized as 14 S. Paratyphi C, 7 S. Enteritidis, 5 S. Paratyphi D, and 1 S. Paratyphi A serovars. Results of molecular assay showed that class 1 integron presented in all and class 2 integron in three strains. All isolates with class 2 integron genes were resistant to almost all the antimicrobials.ConclusionMost studied Salmonella strains from diarrheal food-borne outbreak of Iran in 2016 were multiple resistant to the highlighted antimicrobials. Knowledge about risk factor involving the salmonellosis and their control measures could help the national authorities to prevent the outbreaks. Further comprehensive studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to acquire more data about risk factors of multiple resistant Salmonella outbreaks in the country.
DOI: 10.18502/jfqhc.6.3.1384Keywords: Disease Outbreaks, Diarrhea, Salmonella enterica, Integrons, Iran
Pages 115-120BackgroundContaminated handmade street foods are often claimed to occur food-borne diseases, especially in developing countries. Therefore, considering the public health issue, this study was conducted to assess the microbial contamination of handmade sauce used by street food vendors in Jashore, Bangladesh.MethodsA total of 30 samples of Plum Sauce (PS) and Tomato Sauce (TS) were collected from Jashore district, Bangladesh. The quantitative microbial tests were done by dilution plate technique. Identification of particular bacterial group or species was performed using selective media. All the data related to microbial count were subjected to ANOVA test using SPSS version 21.0.ResultsAll the sauce samples contained viable Enterobacteriaceae cells; whereas 80% and 83.33% of the total samples were found to be contaminated with Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli, respectively. Total viable bacterial cells found in the samples ranged from 1.2×103 to 4.2×109 Colony Forming Unit (CFU)/g. In addition, total Enterobacteriaceae and E. coli counts ranged from 30 to 2.0×107 and from 0 to 7.0×105 CFU/g, respectively. Although PS samples contained a higher amount of Enterobacteriaceae and E. coli compared to TS, no significant difference (p>0.05) was found.ConclusionThe consumption of street foods is of great concern in Bangladesh. Making the vendors aware of sanitary practices is too crucial that could be achieved through training of the vendors at the root level of the country. Furthermore, it is necessary to monitor the street foods frequently by the national authorities.
DOI: 10.18502/jfqhc.6.3.1385Keywords: Enterobacteriaceae, Bacterial Load, Colony Count, Microbial, Fast Foods, Bangladesh
Pages 121-127BackgroundDried fruit is one of the main sources of sulphur dioxide (SO2) exposure. The major goal of the current study was to determine SO2 concentration in some widely consumed dried fruits in Hamadan, Iran. In addition, an estimate of sulphite intake was made through the aforementioned dried fruit.MethodsTotally, 126 dried fruit samples were randomly collected from local market in Hamadan, Iran. The sulfur dioxide, moisture contents, and pH of dried fruit samples were measured by iodometric titration, gravimetric method, and pH meter, respectively. Data analysis was performed using SPSS statistical software.ResultsThe mean sulphite residue in raisin, sultana, half-dried apricot, whole-dried apricot, dried prune, peach fruit leather, and apricot fruit leather was 236.49±231.34, 485.84±217.55, 1204.00±750.21, 2257.78±1406.63, 597.32±401.82, 84.74±109.22, and 38.28±32.40 mg/kg, respectively. Eleven out of 18 (61.11%) whole-dried apricot samples and 3 out of 18 (16.66%) half-dried apricot samples had unacceptable level of sulphite. The moisture contents and pH of all dried fruit were at an acceptable level. The amount of daily sulphite exposure through the consumption of dried fruits for preschool children, adult females, and adult males were 0.53, 0.35, and 0.30 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively.ConclusionAs the intake of sulphite through the dried fruit in Iran was lower than acceptable daily intake, it appears that the content of this food preservative in dried fruits consumed in Iran has no serious risk for Iranian consumers. However, consumers should be advised to avoid excessive consumption of dried fruits, especially whole-dried apricot.
DOI: 10.18502/jfqhc.6.3.1386Keywords: Sulfur Dioxide, Fruit, Risk Assessment, Dietary Exposure, Iran
Fluoroquinolone Residues in Fish Collected from Farms and Retail Stores in Stara Zagora Region, BulgariaPages 128-132BackgroundFluoroquinolones are among various antibiotic groups used in livestock husbandry. The aim of this screening study was to evaluate the presence of fluoroquinolone residues in fish samples of Stara Zagora region, Bulgaria.MethodsA total of 69 samples from freshwater, marine, and anadromous fish were collected randomly from fish farms and retail stores in Stara Zagora region, Bulgaria. Fluoroquinolone residues were determined using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay method. Data were statistically processed using STATISTICA 10.0 software.ResultsFluoroquinolones were detected in 44.3% of freshwater and 42.9% of marine fish samples, with no significant difference (p>0.05). Their concentrations varied from 1.03 to 271.73 μg/kg for common carp, 1.43 to 12.63 μg/kg for rainbow trout, 1.17 to 1.94 μg/kg for silver carp, 1.00 to 1.82 μg/kg for rudd and 1.27 to 2.15 μg/kg for striped catfish. Among marine fish, fluoroquinolone positive samples were found in European sprat (1.68 μg/kg), Longtail southern cod (1.30 μg/kg), and European hake (1.83 μg/kg).ConclusionHigh levels of fluoroquinolones were found in some fish samples of Stara Zagora region, Bulgaria. Regular monitoring of antibiotic residues is too necessary in fish distributed in this region.
DOI: 10.18502/jfqhc.6.3.1387Keywords: Fish Products, Fluoroquinolones, Drug Residues, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Bulgaria