فهرست مطالب

مبانی نظری هنرهای تجسمی - پیاپی 1 (بهار و تابستان 1395)
  • پیاپی 1 (بهار و تابستان 1395)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/06/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • صداقت جباری، ملوسک رحیم زاده تبریزی* صفحات 5-20
    صحن عتیق حرم مطهر رضوی از قدیمی ترین بناهای مجموعه آستان قدس است که در دو دوران تاریخی تیموری و صفوی احداث و توسعه یافته و با توجه به این موضوع، معماری صحن نیز بر اساس دو سبک آذری و اصفهانی است. این مقاله در پی آن است که با عنایت به ساختار و آرایه های چهار ایوان، شاخصه های هنری دو دوره ی تاریخی موردنظر را موردمطالعه قرار داده و با مقایسه چهار ایوان و شناخت شباهت ها و تفاوت ها، ویژگی های هنری این دوران را بازشناسد. آنچه از بررسی ها به دست می آید نشان می دهد علی رغم دستور شاه عباس مبنی بر احداث ایوان شمالی به مانند ایوان جنوبی که متعلق به دوران تیموری بوده، هنرمندان دوران صفویه تنها در ساختار کلی ایوان همانندسازی را انجام داده و در استفاده از آرایه ها با پایبندی به اصول دوران گذشته، روش خود را باشکوه و زیبایی به کاربرده و دو ایوان شرقی و غربی را نیز مانند یکدیگر درنهایت زیبایی و با استفاده از مقرنس و کاشی کاری به انجام رسانیده اند. این مطلب نشان می دهد، هنر دوران صفوی تنها گرته برداری صرف از هنرهای پیشین نبوده و هنرمندان همواره در پی خلاقیت و نوآوری در مکان مقدسی چون حرم رضوی، اوج هنرمندی خود را به منصه ظهور نشانده اند. این مقاله به روش توصیفی تحلیلی و با مطالعات کتابخانه ای و تحقیقات میدانی انجام شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: حرم رضوی، صحن عتیق، ایوان، ساختار، آرایه
  • مهدی لونی*، خشایار قاضی زاده صفحات 21-32
    نگارگری معاصر بر اساس ماهیت، نگاه و رجوع به گذشته دارد و هنرمندان متعلق به این جریان، کوشیده اند که کارشان را باسلیقه ی زمان سازگار سازند و ویژگی های جدیدی را در کار خود وارد کنند. از هنرمندان معاصری که با نگاه به گذشته به خلق آثار هنری می پردازند، می توان به اردشیر مجردتاکستانی اشاره کرد. آثار تاکستانی به دلیل مشق زیاد و برداشت از آثار نگارگران گذشته ایران، خصوصا محمد سیاه قلم، تاثیراتی را از وی پذیرفته است. هدف از این پژوهش مشخص ساختن ویژگی های مشترک بصری در آثار این دو نگارگر است که از سه جنبه مضمونی، ساختاری و اسلوب موردمطالعه قرارگرفته است. مقاله حاضر با روش توصیفی و تحلیلی همراه با تفسیر داده ها (تصاویر) و تطبیق آن ها گردآوری شده و شیوه جمع آوری اطلاعات کتابخانه ای و میدانی است. این پژوهش به دنبال یافتن پاسخی به این پرسش است که: آثار تاکستانی در کدام شاخصه های هنری بیشترین تاثیر را از آثار محمد سیاه قلم پذیرفته است؟ بر اساس بررسی های انجام گرفته در این پژوهش، ویژگی های مشترک بصری مابین آثار این دو نگارگر با توجه به سه بند مذکور، به وفور یافت می شود که بیشتر شامل تاثیرپذیری تاکستانی از آثار سیاه قلم، خصوصا در شاخصه های طراحی و ترکیب بندی است.
    کلیدواژگان: مکتب هرات، نگارگری، سیاه قلم، تاکستانی
  • جمال عرب زاده، تکتم حسینی* صفحات 33-44
    ارزش و جایگاه نقاشی ایرانی در میان هنرهای اسلامی بر کسی پوشیده نیست. این هنر به واسطه ادبیات و در خدمت کتاب آرایی جایگاهی برای نمایش نبوغ و عرصه ای برای بیان دیدگاه و اندیشه هنرمند مسلمان به شمار می رفت. این پیوند زمانی بحث برانگیز تر می شود که هنرمند نگارگر به تجسم بخشی متنی ادبی عرفانی می پردازد و سعی در ترسیم مفاهیم انتزاعی آن دارد. تصویرگری این نوع آثار ادبی به دلیل قالب خاص آن، در ادوار مختلف کمتر مورد توجه نگارگران قرار گرفته است. لذا آثار مصور مربوط به این گونه نیز معدود و کم شمار است. از میان متون ادبی عرفانی، از منطق الطیر عطار میتوان یاد کرد که چندین بار دستمایه آفرینش هنرمندان قرار گرفته است. منطق الطیر نسخه موزه متروپولیتن یکی از ارزشمندترین نمونه های مصور در میان آثار برجای مانده و متعلق به یکی از دوره های طلایی نقاشی ایرانی می باشد. لذا پژوهش حاضر به بررسی و تحلیل یکی از نگاره های این نسخه به نام«شیخ مهنه و پیرمرد روستایی» می پردازد و با واکاوی نمادهای استفاده شده در تصویر و با تکیه بر باورهای دینی هنرمند به ارتباط این نمادهای مصور با متن بپردازد. روش پژوهش حاضر از نوع توصیفی- تحلیلی بوده و گردآوری اطلاعات به شیوه کتابخانه ای می باشد. این پژوهش میزان پایبندی هنرمند به متن را مورد سوال قرار داده و به بررسی نمادها و منشا استفاده از آنها و المان های خاصی که در اثر به کار رفته نیز توجه دارد و در پی پاسخ به سوالاتی از این قبیل می باشد: آیا تصویرگری برای متنی عرفانی الزاما نگاره ای عرفانی را بوجود می آورد؟ و آیا باورهای دینی و شخصی نگارگر در خلق اثر و بکارگیری نمادها نقشی داشته است؟
    کلیدواژگان: منطق الطیر، نماد، عرفان، نقاشی ایرانی، کمال الدین بهزاد، هرات
  • آناهیتا مقبلی*، سید سعید حسینی صفحات 45-54
    زبان هنر زبانی جهان شمول است و دراین ارتباط مقوله ای که نباید آن را ازنظر دور داشت توجه به پیچیدگی های تجارب تجسمی است. تحلیل فرآیندهای دیدن و ادراک و تاکید بر فرآیندهای ناخودآگاه در رویکردهای روان شناختی و روانکاوانه هنر ازجمله عواملی است که برای درک بهتر چنین پیچیدگی هایی همواره موردتوجه پژوهشگران قرارگرفته است. این رویکرد ها هم هنرمند و هم اثر هنری و هم به طورکلی فرآیند آفرینش هنری را موردتوجه قرار می دهند. در همین ارتباط روزالیند کراوس مفهوم ناخودآگاه دیدمانی را در مقابله با شیوه های سنتی تلقی از آفرینش هنری و تسلط بصری و خودمختاری هنرمند ارائه کرد. با این وصف پژوهش پیش رو که به شیوه توصیفی-تحلیلی پردازش شده، با استفاده از مفهوم ناخودآگاه دیدمانی در ارتباط با سیاه مشق های میرزا غلامرضا (1304-1246 ه.ق)، بر این موضوع متمرکزشده که فرآیند خلق آثار موردنظر تا چه حد پیچیده و تحت تاثیر ناخودآگاه بوده است. خلاصه آن که هنرمند موردنظر در خلق اثر هنری خود به طور ناخودآگاه، علاوه برافزودن برخی عناصر مطلوب، به حذف عناصر نامطلوب مصالح مورد کاربرد که در درجه اول شامل حروف و کلمات می شود پرداخته و کیفیت های فرمی تاثیر برانگیزی را رقم زده است. این موضوع نشان می دهد که سیاه مشق های میرزا غلامرضا که همچون بسیاری از آثار هنری حاوی ناخودآگاه دیدمانی است تا چه حد پیشاپیش هنرمندان مدرنی همچون پیکاسو و دوشان و ارنست آثار انتزاعی نابی را رقم زده است.
    کلیدواژگان: ناخودآگاه دیدمانی، سیاه مشق، میرزا غلامرضا اصفهانی، خوشنویسی ایرانی
  • زهرا دستان*، نوشین کاظمی صفحات 55-68
    نمادهای حیوانی همواره جایگاه ویژه ای در صورت بندی های هنری داشته اند تا حدی که گاه به عنوان نمادی از خدایان در آیین ها، مورداستفاده و پرستش قرارگرفته اند. این پژوهش به دنبال آن است تا نماد گراز را در دو تمدن ایران و چین، از هنگام شکل گیری جاده ابریشم، مصادف با دوره اشکانی در ایران و هان در چین تا پایان دوره ساسانی و تانگ موردمطالعه قرار بدهد. جستار پیش رو به گرد این پرسش سامان یافته است که «به دنبال نقل و انتقالات ناشی از شکل گیری جاده ابریشم آیا می توان نماد گراز را نمادی انتقالی از تمدن ایران به چین دانست؟». بر این مبنا این فرضیه شکل می گیرد که «به نظر می رسد شکل گیری نماد گراز در آثار هنری تمدن چین، نقشی اقتباسی و راه یافته از ایران است». این نوشتار به روش توصیفی-تطبیقی، هدف تبیین جایگاه نقش گراز در آثار هنری این دوره ها و بیان شباهت ها، تفاوت ها و بازنمایی های آن در دو تمدن ایران و چین را دارد. داده های به دست آمده بیان می دارد که چینی ها این نقش را از ایران گرفته ولی در کاربری، آن را در راستای هنر خود به کاربرده اند. برمبنای یافته ها، نقش گراز در ایران سیر تطوری را پیموده و شکل گیری نقش گراز در چین از آغاز شکل گیری جاده ابریشم یعنی از دوره ای بوده که چین اولین ارتباطات خود را با ایران برقرار کرده است.
    کلیدواژگان: جاده ابریشم، ایران، گراز، هنر ایران، چین
  • محمد کاظم حسنوند*، مریم اسماعیلی نسب، عرفان شهیاد صفحات 69-80
    با توجه به گسترش و نفوذ روزافزون بازی های رایانه ای در جهان معاصر و تبدیل آن به یکی از پررنگ ترین ابزار سرگرمی کودکان، به نظر می رسد این ابزار با تاثیر گذاری بر نقاشی کودکان، عناصر بصری را به سمت داده های مجازی تعریف شده، سوق می دهد و کودک را از فضاهای واقعی دور می کند . بدین نحو خلاقیت و ساختار روانشناختی نقاشی کودک را نیز متاثر می سازد.هدف از پژوهش حاضر، بررسی اثر استفاده زیاد از بازیهای رایانه ای بر ساختار نقاشی کودکان است. جهت انجام این پژوهش مقایسه ای، 126 کودک دبستانی 6 تا 10 ساله یک مدرسه در منطقه یک تهران با استفاده از پرسشنامه محقق ،مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند و از بین آنها 20 کودک در دو گروه،استفاده کم و زیاد از بازیهای رایانه ای آزمون نقاشی دادند و معیار بررسی نقاشی ها توسط سه تخصص ،دو ارزیابی تعیین گردید. براساس یافته های تحلیل توصیفی و کیفی، 77 درصد کودکان روزانه یش از یک ساعت بازی یارانه ای انجام می دهند. بین نقاشی های کودکان دو گروه انتخابی با در نظر گرفتن مدت زمان بازی آنها تفاوت وجود دارد و بررسی کیفی نیز نشان داد استفاده زیاد از بازی های رایانه ای باعث اختلال در شکل گیری ساختار نقاشی کودکان می شود، و. بر اساس یافته ها، اگر چه در بعضی پژوهش ها در مورد استفاده کم از بازیهای رایانه ای مزایایی ذکر شده، اما استفاده زیاد از این بازیها نتایج نامطلوبی به دنبال دارد که در نقاشی کودکان که یک ابزار تشخیصی دوره کودکی نیز هست، مشهود است.
    کلیدواژگان: نقاشی، کودک، بازی های رایانه ای، عناصر بصری، واقع گرایی
  • محبوبه طاهری* صفحات 81-97
    آفرینش تصویر، راهی شناخته شده برای برقراری ارتباط است. در عصر حاضر خلق اثر به دیگر شکل های ارتباطی و متفاوت از ادوار گذشته تغییر کرده است و با رشد اقصاد به سمت تصویرگری در تبلیغات سوق یافته که بسترهای ارائه آن، بکارگیری کارکردهای ارجاع دهیست چراکه هدف عصر پسامدرن استفاده از ارجاعات برون متنی است؛ ارجاعات از آثار دیگر، تحت عنوان بینامتنیت مطرح می شود که استفاده از آن را توجیه و تبین می کند که از سویی با عنوان ازآن خودسازی در هنر منطبق است (براین مبنا تعاریف اصالت و ناب بودن نیز دگرگون می گردد). نیز ارتباطات به عنوان زبان بصری معاصر که تحت نفوذ جهانی شدن قرار گرفته از ارجاع دهی ها در بیان هایی نظیر تبلیغات تجاری بهره می برد؛ که صحبت از بنیان آن ها با استفاده از روابط بینامتنی گشایشی در شناخت و نقد اینگونه از تصویرپردازی هاست. در پژوهش حاضر گردآوری اطلاعات به روش کتابخانه ای انجام گرفته و نمونه گیری، هدفمند است که با شیوه توصیفی و تحلیلی و به روش تطبیقی به تبیین این دیدگاه می پردازد که، هنر تصویرپردازی تبلیغات تجاری مصداق کامل از نمونه های ارجاع دهی است و ازآن خودسازی در تبلیغات تجاری در تطبیق با شیوه های بینامتنیت (همانگونگی همچون پاستیش، شارژ و فورژری و تراگونگی همانند پارودی، تراوستیسمان و ترانسپوزیسون) قرار می گیرد که می توان نتایج را بدین صورت تبیین کرد که اصالت ارجاع دهی و شیوه های ارآن خودسازی با مولفه های دنیای پست مدرن قابل پذیرش است.
    کلیدواژگان: تبلیغات، ازآن خودسازی، تبلیغات تجاری، بینامتنیت
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  • Sedaghat Jabbari, Malousak Rahimzadeh Tabrizi * Pages 5-20
    The ‘Old Courtyard’ of Razavi Holy Shrine stands as one of the oldest parts of Astan Quds complex. Built and developed during two historical periods of Timurid and Safavid reign, the Courtyard enjoys the application of two distinctive architectural styles i.e. Azari and Isfahani. The Courtyard comprises of four magnificent porches, decorated with a variety of ornaments and art styles pertaining to several historical eras. Hence, the study of such art traditions and ornaments could lead to a better understanding of the characteristics of art traditions of earlier epochs. The study seeks to shed some light on the art tradition of the two aforementioned historical periods. Utilizing a descriptive-analytic methodology through conducting desk and field studies, the paper at hand intends to answer two specific questions: what are the structural and decorative similarities and dissimilarities of the four porches and what are the structures and ornaments specific to Timurid and Safavid eras.To this purpose, a historical review of the features and attributes of each of the four porches shall be appraised, followed by a comparative study of the similarities and differences of the aforesaid porches in terms of structure and ornamentation. The result indicates that despite Shah Abbas’s command over the construction of the North porch as a replication of the South one built during Timurid era, the Safavid artists have only pursued the overall structure of the South porch, while ornamenting the structure by adhering to their own, ancient principals, thus creating a masterpiece of art.However, the eastern and western porches have been erected with utmost care and delicacy using Muqarnas and tile work. This is an illustration of the fact that the art of the Safavid era is not a mere reproduction of the former artstyles. On the contrary, the artists have always longed for improvement,exercised innovation and demonstrated paramount artisanship in creating a sacred venue such as the Razavi holy shrine.Moreover, the comparison proves that despite the resemblance of the structure and ornamentation of each of the opposite porches, there exist much dissimilarity, generating a unique visual beauty plus a divergent, harmonious rhythm in a way that the spectator finds a visual association between the opposite and side porches on spot. The paper concludes that generally, the opposite porches are similar in the employment of arches, framings, Muqarnases and compositions; the interior structure of the Golden porch with that of Abbasi, Timpani and Clock porches as well as tile works and inscriptions in the exterior of the four porches. On the other hand, the arch types, number of frame sides, Muqarnases, motifs and colors of tile works, composition of inscriptions in terms of structure and content, as well as the location of inscriptions within the interior composition of the porches are matters of difference.
    Keywords: Razavi Holy shrine, Old Courtyard, porch, Structure, ornament
  • Mehdi Loni *, Khashayar Ghazizadeh Pages 21-32
    Miniature is in origin, an Iranian art and through creating striking images; the dexterous Iranian miniaturists have created fascinating examples of miniatures. The distinctive qualities of Iranian painting consist of richness of color, refinement, symmetry, eye-catching compositions, fancifulness, and demonstrate mystic and romantic approaches of the Iranian miniaturists. Just like any other art discipline, miniature has also been influenced by social and cultural circumstances and developed special and unique characteristics in the course of time, thus leading to the birth of numerous generations of miniature schools. The contemporary miniature is rooted in the priceless treasury of the experiences of the predecessors, and the majority of miniaturists have taken their share of this valuable source of inspiration; therefore, it is evident that contemporary miniature, due to its nature, holds a retrospective view; the advocates of this style have strived to adapt their works to the taste and preference of their era, introducing new qualities in their works on the basis of past artists' experiences. As a result, some distinct features have gradually emerged in modern miniature. For that reason, it can be claimed that the artists and their works have adopted distinctive features from other miniatures styles throughout history. The contemporary Iranian artists, whose spirit, philosophy, and vigor have all been laid upon the foundations of the cultural backdrop of the ancient art, cannot neglect the rich history of their art life. One of such artists of the day who keeps in mind the past trends for creating his works is Ardeshir Mojarrad Takestani, whose method of design is based on applying limited number of analogous colors and a strong sway of sketching. In his artworks, Takestani have made best use of characteristics of line to achieve a special expression.One may claim that due to the frequent practices he made to replicate the works of preceding Iranian miniaturists, one may find the trails of such art styles on Takestani's works to some extent particularly those of Muhammad Siah Ghalam (Ghias-e-din), who was a miniaturist of Herat school. This study aims at delineating the common visual characteristics of the sketches of the two artists in terms of concept, structure and method. Through conducting desk and field studies and the use of data collected (documents, entries and selected images of the artworks created by the two miniaturists), the paper employs a descriptive-analytic and comparative approach to answer this very question that which artistic features of Takestani's works have been most affected by Muhammad Siahghalam's art style.The results of the study displays the recurrence of numerous common visual features between the works produced by the two artists, mostly depicting Siah Ghalam’s influence over Takestani’s sketching and composition.These influences and similarities can be categorized in three thematic domains of two parts: the hallucinating ambiance of the works and focusing on the moods of the faces on one hand, and the structural associations such as the composition and drawing of saddle decorations and paws on the other. Furthermore, the correlation of technique and style employed such as drawing, coloring and the use of parallel structures has been studied.However, it should be noted that Takestani has not been necessarily influenced directly by Siah Ghalam, but it was through the study of the artworks of earlier miniaturists while entirely preserving the originality of his own personal approach that he has created his distinctive style.In fact, the contemporary miniature has adhered to the tradition in which it is rooted; yet the artists of the trend have strived to adapt their works to the taste of their era, resulting in the emergence of distinctive features in modern miniature.Accordingly, we come to understand that such similarities are not coincident but most probably, the art of artists such as Takestani has been influenced by Siah Ghalam.
    Keywords: Harat school, Miniature, Muhammad Siahghalam, Ardeshir Mojarrad Takestani
  • Jamal Arabzadeh, Toktam Hosseini * Pages 33-44
    Painting is among the oldest means of expression noticed for its significance since time immemorial, and artists, at different epochs of times, have employed this art form to express the views and ideas of their own or the community. While serving literature through the art of book illustration and also by the grace of its unique features and the philosophy with which it is woven, this art has been a platform for the manifestation of the artist’s genius and has provided a medium for the expression of thoughts and outlooks of the Muslim artist. In addition to the artistic value of the images, these works, just like any pictorial document, contain abundant material on the social, political, religious, etc. conditions of the society where they were created. The bonds existing between literature and painting and their concomitance becomes more controversial when the painter goes beyond sheer painting of romantic poems, epics or scientific texts and tries to illustrate the abstract mystical concepts. Due to the distinctive character of such types of literature and the complexity involved in the translation of its concepts into proper images, painters of different periods have paid little attention towards the depiction of such notions; for that reason, illustration of such literary genres are rarely found in Iran.Of the remaining literary texts of this genre is Attar ‹Conference of the Birds›. Brimming with texts capable of being transformed into pictures and enjoying a rich symbolical ambience, Attar ‹Conference of the Birds› is one of the exceptions among mystical texts that has attracted the attention of artists. The Metropolitan Museum’s ‹Conference of the Birds› is one of the few, rarely illustrated manuscripts of this text. Due to the unique artistic quality of its paintings, this manuscript is considered as one of the most valuable illustrations surviving in Iranian painting and is of course of prime importance in terms of research. Thus, the methodological analysis of the aforesaid pictures within its historical context may open up new possibilities to study the cultural characteristics of its era.The current study focuses on the analysis of one of the Kamal al-Din Behzad’s fine paintings called ‹Shaikh Mahneh and the Villager›. Belonging to the Herat School of miniature, the painting was created during the adolescence of the artist at the time of the reign of Hussein Bayqara. It is one of Behzad three paintings in this priceless version of Attar’s ‹Conference of the Birds› which has received little attention to date.On this basis, and given the importance and value of the aforementioned manuscript in general and this painting in particular, conducting of the present study deems necessary. Through studying the prevailing religious and mystical traditions of the time as well as the religious ideologies of the artist, the author has attempted to analyze and identify the symbols used in the image and their association with the text.To this purpose, the painting has been divided into two sections based on composition. A list of substantial similarities and differences of the elements employed both within the image and the narrative text has been devised followed by a discussion to prove the theoretical assumptions right or wrong. The research has been conducted through descriptive-analytic method and data collected through desk studies. It primarily questions the artist's adherence to the text and then surveys the origin of the symbols and visual elements used therein. The questions include: will the translation of a mystical text into an image necessarily result in a mystical image? Do the personal, religious beliefs of the painter play a role in the selection and use of symbols? Has the artist, taking note of the social and political conditions of the society, made use of special and sometimes controversial symbols to convey a particular concept? The answers to these questions and more of this sort, as well as various assumptions attributed to each symbol that will be discussed in detail, helps the reader to understand the miniature better. Hence, in addition to the abovementioned points, this study examines the effects of religious beliefs and social conditions related as well as the neighboring cultures in the selection of symbols and their drawing. The results indicate that the artist's doctrines and religious views has a major role in creating this image and each of the elements and symbols used therein is in line with and completely related to the text. Moreover, it is rooted not only in Sufi beliefs but also the artist's religious ideas as a Sufi-oriented painter.
    Keywords: Conference of the Birds, symbols, Mysticism, Iranian Painting, Kamal al-Din Behzad, Herat style
  • Anahita Moghbeli *, Seyyed Saeed Hosseini Pages 45-54
    This is a general opinion that art can be a universal communication medium. But what should not be ignored are the diversity of visual experiences around the world and the different artistic practices of artists of dissimilar cultures. The analysis of the processes of viewing and perception and the emphasis laid upon on the unconscious functions, as matters of importance in psychological and psychoanalytic approaches, are among the most substantial factors which attracted the attention of scholars of the fields to understand such complicated visual experiences. According to these intricate interactions, both the artist and the artwork, as well as the spectator of that artwork and above all the process of its creativity are key subjects for analysis. It was based on such elements that Rosalind Krauss, as an art critic and theorist, used the term ‘optical unconsciousness’ as an incisive objection against the history of modern art and also against the critical tradition that attempted to define modern art according to certain broadly recognized dictum and self-fulfilling truth. Krauss arguments that the artist is not a professional in control of the process of creating and viewing, but is rather a force who releases unconscious drives and desires in the process of creating a piece of art. Moreover, through formal qualities such as rhythm, harmony, transformation and repetition, the artwork prompts unconscious visualizations in viewers.Based on this assumption, this paper aims to examine whether this concept of ‘optical unconscious’ could be attributed to Siyah-mashgh form of script written by Mirza Gholamreza Esfahani who was one of the most famous and outstanding Persian Nastaliq and Shekaste-Nastaliq script calligraphers living during the reign of Qajar dynasty.The general objective of the study is to determine the relationship between unconscious and the creativity as well as the diachronic process of calligraphy. Thus, it is important to understand how much the creation of calligraphic forms, separately and in compositions, is influenced by the unconscious. In the process of conducting this research, a number of published researches and books related to the subject were studied which indicated that in the majority of cases, only the biography of Persian calligraphers as well as the chronological trends of calligraphy styles were taken into consideration. Moreover, most of the researches were carried out regardless of a defined historiography of Siyah-mashgh, its innovator or any reference to the oldest sample of this art style available. In general, it was observed that the researchers have not paid adequate attention to different forms of calligraphy including Siyah-mashgh, which was artistically practiced by Mirza Gholamreza and some of the other calligraphers. Meanwhile, the lack of focus on critical approaches towards modern art history which are rooted in critical theories has turned such researches into redundant studies. To avoid such redundancy, this paper has used a descriptive-analytic approach and employed psychological and psychoanalytic approaches to recognize the role of unconscious factors in the creativity and perception of Siyah-mashgh script. Data have been collected through desk studies of library resources and processed by qualitative method. The main questions to be answered are: Did Mirza Gholamreza’s Siyah-mashgh popped up from his unconscious impulses? What materials the artist has used in this unconscious process?The research mainly comes to this understanding that Mirza Gholamreza created his Siyah-mashgh form of scripture not only by adding elements to them, but also by removing undesirable ones from his unique form of script. We might say that he devised a subtractive concurrently with an additive process, and the main materials and elements forming such course were evidently words and letters.In order to better explain this process through the use of Nastaliq calligraphy, we can say that the additive process includes the repetition of Keshideh or longed words and the arrangement of other identical and analogical words and letters. On the other hand, the marginalizing process of the artist,s unconscious is realized through forgetting the disciplined manner of linear calligraphy and omission of less desirable or less artistic words and letters. Certainly such a process takes place diachronically and not synchronically. For example in the course of time, the calligrapher comes to know that he cannot use three or four Keshideh or longed words on one line; so he performs it in Siyah-mashgh. Or he finds out that some words shall look more pleasant if attached, and so he attaches them together but not in a disciplined linear script because it is only Siyah-mashgh that allows him to do so.Such analytic approaches could pave the way towards the development of theoretical frameworks for studies on the art of calligraphy and help to fill the analytic-based studies’ gap in the field. Although this paper exclusively elucidates on the process involved in creating Siyah-mashgh form of Nastaliq calligraphy; however, the feasibility of this approach can be generalized to other forms of Persian calligraphy, particularly Shekaste Nastaliq and Naqqashi Khat.
    Keywords: Optical unconscious, The Siyah-Mashgh Scripts of Mirza Gholam Reza Esfahani, Persian calligraphy
  • Zahra Dastan *, Noshin Kazemi Pages 55-68
    Animal symbols have ever enjoyed a special position in the artistic compositions, sometimes held as the symbols of gods and worshiped in various rituals accordingly. Such importance might have been due to animals’ role in providing for the livelihood of the peasantry lives. A symbol finds its meaning within the backdrop of the culture with which it is associated. Therefore, a symbol is a context-based concept, the interpretation of which could be altered depending on the circumstances. One of the best ways to grasp the meaning of symbols is investigating the mind frames and belief systems of the ancient communities where such symbols were used. The interactions of the cultures and civilizations have always led to the swap of symbols from one civilization to the other over time because there is always some sort of inexorable cultural exchange involved in such associations. The existence of shared textual signs and symbols among disparate civilizations testifies to this very fact. However, such impressions obtain a new form as the societies’ habitation place and requirements alter in order to fit to the new situation. On this foundation, the study ahead aims to investigate the symbol of boar within the Iranian and Chinese civilizations covering the span of time since the formation of the Silk Road, coinciding with the Parthian period in Iran and the reign of Han dynasty in China, towards the fall of the Sassanid and Tang dynasties. Noteworthy is that when examining the Sino-Iranian relations, the role of Silk Road in the establishment of the relations of these two ancient powers stands out. During thousands of years of historic contacts between Iran and China through the Silk Road, the two countries have also enjoyed extensive cultural exchanges particularly during the Parthian’s era that concurred with the sway of the Han dynasty in China. During this era, commercial transactions between the two countries flourished wherein the Silk Road played an irrefutable part. The use of Boar symbol in Persian art dates back to antiquity. This symbol is frequent in Iranian art but it occasionally appears in some Chinese art works as well. In the Iranian culture, Boar is one of the expressions of ‘Bahram’, the god of war, who is mostly accompanied by the goddess ‘Mitra’ in hunting scenes. Hunting is one of the fundamental signs of demonstrating human authority and dominion over the supernatural forces that have been depicted not only in the illustrative documents but also the religious texts such as Bahram Yašt. In this respect, the boar,’s head within a pearl roundel is one of the most prominent common Boar motifs in Iranian and Chinese art. On this basis, this research tends to answer this question that has the boar motif been transferred from Iran to China due to the cultural exchanges that occurred upon the establishment of the Silk Road? The foundation of the study is laid upon this hypothesis that “it seems that the formation of the boar motif in the artworks of the Chinese civilization is derived from Iranian art”. Conducted through a comparative-analytic approach, the study aims to elucidate on the role of boar in the artworks of the aforesaid eras and recount their similarities, differences and representations in Iranian and Chinese art. The results acquired confirm that due to Iranian influences, this motif became widely popular in ancient China; however, the Chinese artists used it within the principles of their own art traditions. Consequently, this motif has been generally applied to the artworks related to the world of the dead and afterlife such as tomb decorations; in other words, in Funerary arts.The outcomes also approve that the Boar motif has tread an evolutionary path in Iran but its development in China begins with the formation of the Silk Road; when China made its first contacts with Iran. On the other hand, the paper concludes that the spiral, pearl roundels around the Boar head in Chinese textiles are Sassanid motifs transmitted from Iran to China. Called ‘medallion’, this motif evolved along with the Chinese art and emerged in their art forms later on.
    Keywords: Iran, Boar motif, Iranian Culture, China, Silk Road
  • Mohammad Kazem Hasanvand *, Maryam Esmailinasab, Erfan Shahyad Pages 69-80
    Given the upward trend in the spread and influence of computer games in the contemporary world and the development of such games into one of the most leading forms of children’s entertainment, it seems that such amusement tools are affecting children’s drawings through driving the visual elements towards defined virtual data and thus, alienating children from real environments and influencing the creativity and psychological structure of children’s drawings. This study aims to investigate the impact of overusing computer games on the structure of children’s drawings. A custom made questionnaire was used to conduct this comparative study on 126 male schoolchildren aged between 6 and 10 and studying in a school in Tehran’s District One. Twenty children were divided in two groups of ten: one with members using less computer games while the other one consisted of those who made heavy use of computer games. Both groups were given a drawing test, the assessment criterion of which was determined by three specialists and two evaluators. In each period of a child’s development, his or her beliefs are formed based on the notions of the nature and his/her real surroundings in that specific stage of life. Given the increasing growth of computer hardware and software and the role they play as the main and inseparable part of everyday life, some fundamental beliefs of the modern human have indisputably been affected. Computer games are one of such influential factors. Therefore, here two major questions arise. First, what impacts do computer games leave on the visual structure of a child’s drawing? And second, do computer games influence the psychological structure of a child’s drawing? Furthermore, the impression of these games on players, particularly children and teenagers, will be thoroughly investigated. The research results indicate distinct differences in the attitudes and pictorial memory of children who incessantly play computer games in comparison with those who spend less time playing yet more time making contact with real and objective environments. According to the theories and definitions provided by Locke, Piaget and Freeman, the realism of different stages of a child’s drawing is not normal when the mental data is gained virtually and influenced by computer games. Based on the research results, playing computer games slightly (maximum one hour per week) did not have a negative impact on children’s drawings. However, playing computer games more than two and a half hours a week incurred some serious problems in the visual structure and content of children’s drawings. According to the analytical, descriptive and qualitative findings, 77% of children play computer games more than an hour per day. Considering the playtime, there are differences in children’s drawings in the two groups. Qualitative investigations also indicate that the overuse of computer games disrupts the formation of the structures of children’s drawings. Findings show that although some studies point out some slight advantages for playing computer games; however, the overuse of such games will leave undesirable effects which can be observed in children’s drawings known as a diagnostic tool during childhood stage.This confirms the findings based on which one cannot make a unilateral conclusion on the impact of computer games. The playtime should also be taken into account to judge the problem and to train families.
    Keywords: Drawing, Child, Computer Games, Visual Elements, Realism
  • Mahbobeh Taheri * Pages 81-97
    Image creation is a well-recognized mean of communication. Nowadays, the method of creation has changed to other communication forms, different from previous ages. With the flourishing of economies, the image creation moved towards ad illustration which itself evolved into an art form of the globalization age. This art is based on referring functions because the use of references is inevitable for accelerating the message sending process. In addition, the postmodern age aims to use exophoric references and references to other works are considered intertexual, which justifies its use. On this basis, it seems that it matches the concept of appropriation in art (accordingly, the definitions of the originality and nobility also change) because making use of others peoples’ works, completely or partially, is in fact a reference to audiences’ implications. On one hand, communications, as the contemporary visual language influenced by the globalization process, makes use of the references in expressions such as commercial ads in a way that it is seemingly speaking about their fundamentals using the intertexual relations and thus opens up to new horizons to identify and criticize these illustrations; since it both refers to the presence of other works in novel ones and also affirms the element of co-presence. Therefore, art appropriation is investigated through providing a definition of the commercial ads and originality areas as well as piracy. The paper at hand is theoretical and fundamental in terms of the methodology, using descriptive-analytic approach. The required data was collected through desk study of library resources and note taking. A purposeful sampling of images was conducted which, through a comparative approach, explains the view that the illustration art in commercial ads is a perfect example of referencing samples and appropriation in commercial ads are comparable to two general categories of intertexuality, each comprising of three sections (the imitation category such as pastiche, charge and forgery; and the transformation category like parody, travestissement and transposition). The results indicate that creation of works based on pastiche, is the re-creation of the work in commercial ads illustration and its real manifestation appears in violating the copyright law. Parody is a change in preconceptions and imitation and in commercial ads, the work is used to express and convey a new concept through changing others peoples’ works and accepting the changes. Charge is the exaggeration in previous works made by creating a satiric atmosphere in advertisement field. Exaggerating and radical imitation is travestissement where in ads; earlier works are destroyed in order to create new ones. Forgery is a form of imitation which believes in the use of other works based on the similarities of the two forms where either a template is a means of sustainability of the other works or is itself a sustainable template, complementing earlier works and can be compared to serial advertisement strategy in commercial ads. Moreover, transposition is an adapted concept of earlier works where the changes made are serious where semiotic references evoke previous works that in commercial ads, they emerge in semiotic examples of ads using a semiotic reference. The findings confirm that the art of producing commercial ads frequently makes use of referencing procedures and through this, shatters the holiness of the artwork into pieces in technology and information world. With its postmodern taste (the inclination of contemporary works is not the product of an artist’s original thought, but it is of a referencing function and the works’ ambience, is composed of an infinite number of potential relations and connections), it matches the ways of the present age, justifies the originality of artwork based on common criticism theories of the time which are acceptable as the representative of art in contemporary age.
    Keywords: Advertisment, Appropriation, Commercial ads, Intertextuality