فهرست مطالب

مبانی نظری هنرهای تجسمی - سال دوم شماره 2 (پیاپی 4، پاییز و زمستان 1396)
  • سال دوم شماره 2 (پیاپی 4، پاییز و زمستان 1396)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/12/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • آناهیتا مقبلی* صفحات 5-18
    در سده شانزدهم م/دهم ه.ق در آسیای مرکزی و بخارا کانون فرهنگی آن، هنری تحول یافت که شمار زیادی از استادان محلی را دربر گرفت. بسیاری از کارگزاران فرهنگ در هرات به آنجا دعوت یا فرستاده شدند و همکاری استادان محلی با ایشان، هنر نومایه ای را به بار آورد که باعث معروفیت هنر بخارا در سده شانزدهم م./دهم ه.ق شد.نسخ نفیس بخارا در نیمه سده شانزدهم م/دهم ه.ق. از دو گرایش تاثیر گرفته اند. نخست، به نگارگران هرات و نیز شاگردانشان مربوط می شد و دومین، شیوه مستقل بخارا را منعکس می ساخت. گرچه هنر نگارگری سده هفدهم م/یازدهم ه.ق، عمدتا در ادامه سنت نگارگری قرون پانزدهم و شانزدهم م/نهم و دهم ه.ق. آسیای مرکزی و مکتب هرات است، دستاوردهای تازه نیز در آن مشاهده می شود؛ مانند امضاء آثار و وقایع نگاری. از این دست مبادله روش های هنری بین نگارگری آسیای مرکزی و هند و مشابهت هایی میان آثار هنرمندان این دیار با هنر نگارگری مغولی هند. این مقاله، به عنوان نقطه هدف، سیر تحول هنر نگارگری و جریانات تاثیرگذار بر آن را مورد بررسی قرار می دهد؛ نگارگران بنام این عصر را معرفی می کند و ویژگی های نسخ انتخابی خطی مربوط به این دوران را شرح می دهد؛ پژوهش با روش تاریخی توصیفی، تحلیل خود را به ثمر می رساند. یافته های مهم نشان می دهند که نگارگری سده دهم ه.ق. در آسیای مرکزی، دنبال کننده و تحول یافته مکتب هرات است؛ و در سده یازدهم علی رغم ظهور نشانه های هندویی در مکتب بخارا، کما فی السابق معیارهای کیفی قبلی را حفظ کرده است.
    کلیدواژگان: نگارگری، مکتب بخارا، مغولان هند، آسیای مرکزی (قرون شانزدهم و هفدهم م، دهم و یازدهم ه.ق)
  • سیامک علیزاده، اکرم مردی* صفحات 19-32
    مسجد تاریخی فریومد یکی از مساجد مهم ایرانی- اسلامی، مربوط به دوران سلجوقی- خوارزمشاهی است؛ از نظر تاریخی- هنری و غنی بودن تزئینات گچ بری جزو آثار مطرح و مهم در این زمینه محسوب می شود. این مسجد، در روستایی به همین نام، در استان سمنان و نزدیکی شهر شاهرود قرار دارد. وجود تزیینات گچ بری غنی و کم نظیر در محراب، ایوان و دیواره های صحن، از ویژگی مهم این مسجد است. لذا باید دانسته شود که ویژگی های زیبایی شناختی انواع نقوش به کار رفته در این مسجد، چگونه است. البته درباره این مسجد، بیش تر پژوهش هایی که تاکنون صورت گرفته اند، با رویکرد معماری بوده است؛ اما در زمینه تزئینات و نقوش گچ بری آن، با کمبود مطالعات و منابع لازم، مواجه می شویم. لذا انتخاب این موضوع در راستای برطرف کردن آن کمبودها، شناخت بیش تر و در صورت لزوم، کاربردی کردن آن ها، صورت گرفته است. حاصل این مطالعات منجر به شناخت، طبقه بندی و تحلیل زیبایی شناختی نقوش به کار رفته در این بنا شده، و با کمک نرم افزار رایانه ای به نام وکتور تکمیل و ارائه گردیده است. مطالعات نیز حاکی است که فراوانی تنوع در این نقوش چنان است که، نیازمند بررسی های جداگانه و دقیق تری باشد. تحقیق از نظر نوع، کاربردی محسوب می شود؛ با استفاده از روش توصیفی- تحلیلی و با به کارگیری مطالعات کتابخانه ای- اسنادی، و هم چنین مطالعات میدانی، مطالب آن تهیه و تنظیم گردیده است.
    کلیدواژگان: مسجد فریومد، تزئینات، نقوش، گچ بری، دوره خوارزمشاهی
  • جلال الدین سلطان کاشفی* صفحات 33-52
    هدف از نگارش مقاله حاضر بررسی و مقایسه ساختار بصری آثاری است که بعد از مسیحیت طی قرون متمادی، با موضوع شام واپسین یا شام آخر زیر چتر سبک ها و شیوه های متعدد شکل می گیرد، و بسیار از «پارودی» یا «نقیضه» تاثیر می پذیرد. در این پژوهش سعی شده است، تا ابتدا به پرسش اصلی این تحقیق پاسخ داده شود که، آیا انتخاب موضوع شام واپسین توسط هنرمندان تنها به اوج دوران مسیحیت و توجه به امور مذهبی برمی گردد یا اینکه نقاشان، چاپگران و عکاسان در دوران افول مسایل دینی نیز به این مهم می پردازند؟ و آیا برگزیدن این موضوع توسط هنرمندان سراسر جهان به برداشتی یگانه منجر می شود یا با توجه به دیدگاه های فرهنگی و اجتماعی گوناگون و سودجستن از سنن و آداب و رسوم متعدد، به نظریات و رویکردهای مختلف راه می گشاید؟به عنوان یافته های این پژوهش می توان چنین اظهار کرد که با گذشت زمان و سپری شدن قرون متمادی از یک سو، و با توجه به گونه گونگی فرهنگ ها، جوامع بشری، تغییر و تحولات تکنیکی از دیگر سو، این موضوع دستخوش تغییرات شگرفی می شود که در بسیاری از قرون گذشته مطرح نبوده است؛ و متعاقبا در این گونه آثار، تفاوت ها و همسانی های قابل توجهی دیده می شود که جای واکاوی و تعمق دارد. سرانجام به عنوان نتیجه حاصل شده، باید گفت که ابتدا، این موضوع از رویکردی کاملا قدسی و مذهبی سرچشمه گرفته است؛ اما بعدها با بهره گیری از دستاورد های «پارودی» و برداشت های طنزآلود و مضحک، این موضوع جدی و عمیق مذهبی، به نگاهی پارادوکسال (متناقص و خلاف عقیده عمومی) تبدیل شده است؛ در واقع، استفاده از پارودی یا به دیگر سخن، نقیضه، همیشه برای به طنز کشیدن و نفی ارزش های آثار مطروحه نبوده است؛ بلکه گاهی هنرمندان از پارودی در قالب تراژدی و کمدی، برای بیداری و آگاه سازی جامعه استفاده کرده اند. در این پژوهش، روش تحقیق اتخاذ شده، توصیفی، تحلیلی- تطبیقی است؛ و گردآوری منابع کتابخانه ای بوده، و در برخی موارد از مآخذ و سرچشمه های اینترنتی معتبر نیز استفاده شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: شام واپسین، لئوناردو داوینچی، سالوادور دالی، پارودی، امیل نولده، استانلی اسپنسر
  • حسین رضوی فرد، حسن علی پورمند* صفحات 53-70
    با توجه به هندسی بودن شاکله خط نستعلیق، بخش قابل توجهی از تغییرات سبک در این خط، از آغاز شکل گیری و رواج آن تا دوره معاصر، قابل سنجش و اندازه گیری می باشد. این مقاله با هدف به دست آوردن چهارچوبی برای شناخت سبک استادان متقدم تا پایان دوره قاجار و درک دقیق تر ارزش های بصری خط نستعلیق، تدوین شده است. در این پژوهش سعی شده است به دو پرسش ذیل پاسخ داده شود: 1. چگونه می توان از قرن نهم تا چهاردهم ه.ق(دوره تیموری تا پایان دوره قاجار) مشخصات، مشابهت ها و تفاوت های اصلی سبک خط نستعلیق قدما را تبیین کرد؟ 2. ملاک های صاحب سبک بودن در خط نستعلیق چیست؟ اطلاعات این پژوهش از طریق مطالعه کتاب ها، مقالات، رساله ها، نسخ خطی، قطعات و مرقعات موجود در کتابخانه ها و موزه ها جمع آوری و طبقه بندی و با روش توصیفی و تحلیلی ارزیابی شده اند. در این مقاله چهار سبک شاخص در خط نستعلیق معرفی و به صورت هندسی و با کمک مبانی سواد بصری از دو منظر حسن تشکیل و حسن وضع تحلیل شده اند؛ در پایان مقاله، ضمن شناخت شباهت ها و تفاوت های حروف و مفردات و به دست آوردن توانایی در تشخیص آن ها از یکدیگر و معرفی نمونه هایی از ترکیب بندی در چهار سبک، درمی یابیم هر تفاوت در شیوه خلق اثر، مصداق شکل گیری سبک نیست؛ بلکه شرط لازم برای صاحب سبک بودن در خط نستعلیق، اصلاح و تغییر فرم حروف و مفردات است و شرط کافی آن، غنای بصری بخشیدن به یکی از قالب های خط نستعلیق و در نتیجه تاثیرگذاری بر شیوه نوشتاری بخشی از خوشنویسان هم عصر و متعاقب آن می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: خوشنویسی، سبک، نستعلیق، قدما
  • فرشته دیانت* صفحات 71-84
    با توجه به اولین نمونه های هنر مفهومی که عکس ها نقشی اصلی در اجرای آثار مفهومی دارند. این مقاله برآنست، تا با بررسی اهمیت نشانه شناسی در عکس های مفهومی، طبق نظریه پیرس، به اهمیت دلالت های معنایی در آثار هنر مفهومی بپردازد. با این سوال که، عکس چه نقشی در دلالت های معنایی هنر مفهومی دارد؟ بنا به یافته های این پژوهش می توان گفت، عکس سند تلقی می شود و رویکردی به واقعیت دارد؛ بنابراین به گونه ای پای ثابت هنر مفهومی به شمار می رود. همچنین از آنجایی که عکس ها بیش ترین شباهت را به موضوع دارند، نشانه های شمایلی به حساب می آیند که گاهی نقش نماد و گاه نقش نمایه پیدا می کنند و در انتقال معنا و مفهوم اثر هنری، نقشی اساسی و محوری بازی می کنند. روش تحقیق در این مقاله، توصیفی- تحلیلی و در برخی موارد میدانی است و شیوه گردآوری منابع نیز میدانی و کتابخانه ای است. نتیجه بررسی این است که، عکس با تاکید بر واقعیت، خاصیت های شمایلی، نمایه و نمادین، امر دیداری و تجسد زدایی، روایت داستان، تجربه و... نقشی مهم و اساسی در هنر مفهومی بازی می کند.
    کلیدواژگان: عکاسی، هنر مفهومی، دلالت معنایی، ایران
  • فریناز فربود*، ماه منیر سیاحی صفحات 85-98
    فاطمیان مصر در زمره اولین حکومت های اسلامی بودند که با پذیرش تشیع و تلاش برای تشکیل سلسله ای مستقل از خلافت عباسی، هنر را به مظهری برای تجلی باورهای مذهبی خود بدل ساختند. پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی نحوه بازتاب عقاید شیعی در منسوجات این دوران، پس از ترسیم پیش زمینه های تاریخی، سیاسی و هنری با روش تاریخی و توصیفی- تحلیلی، به جستجوی مضامین شیعی در نقوش و مضامین منسوجات فاطمی و تمایز آن ها نسبت به ادوار پشین، به ویژه عباسی پرداخته است. نتایج، نشانگر حمایت فاطمیان از ارتقای کیفی و بصری محصولات خود با هدف ارتقای شکوه و قدرت خلافت، توسعه مضامین شیعی در قالب استفاده از رنگ سفید، ثبت نام های حضرت محمد(ص) و حضرت علی(ع) و ادعیه و عبارات متضمن باورهای شیعی و نماد شیر، در تقابل با پوشش سیاه و طراز خلفای اهل تسنن عباسی، و طرد منع تصویرسازی انسانی با بهره برداری مجدد از هنر قبطی مصر است.
    کلیدواژگان: سلسله فاطمیان، مصر اسلامی، منسوجات فاطمیان، مذهب تشیع، نقوش منسوجات
  • علی اصغر میرزایی مهر*، مهدی حسینی صفحات 99-110
    همین که نمونه های فراوانی از هنرهای تصویری با محوریت پیکر شاه و دیگر صاحبان قدرت و جاه از عهد فتحعلی شاه قاجار (1212-1250ه.) برجای مانده، نشانگر رونق هنرهای تصویری در آن روزگار است. پیکرنگاری ها از الگوهای مشترکی پیروی می کنند که ریشه در فرهنگ و آیین و ادب ایران زمین دارد. رعایت هرچه دقیق تر این الگوها را می توان در شمایل شاه سراغ گرفت. از این روست که، صدها تصویر از فتحعلی شاه در هیاتی ثابت و با ابزارها و کاربردهای مختلف بر دیوارها، بوم ها، کتاب ها، قلمدان ها و سکه ها برجای مانده است. پرسش این جاست که، الگوی اولیه چنین تصاویری چگونه پدید آمد؟ پشتوانه های نظری و زیباشناختی آن کدام بود؟ نظام حکومتی، از انتشار و پراکندن آن در سطح جامعه، چه هدفی را دنبال می کرد؟ به نظر می رسد کنش گران عرصه هنر، در تعاملی مطلوب با راس هرم قدرت یعنی شاه، به درک متفاوتی از عملکردهای بالقوه و ارزش های نهفته تصویر دست یافتند؛ از این رو، با الگو قراردادن تمثال شاه، به عنوان نشان وحدت ملی و تکثیر آن به روش ها و اسلوب های گوناگون، از تصویر بهره برداری هایی کردند که پیش تر سابقه نداشت؛ از جمله: تصویر به مثابه هدیه ای تشریفاتی و درباری، تصویر به عنوان الگوی آرایشی و مد، تصویر به نشانه مرغوبیت کالا، تصویر به مثابه شمایلی آیینی و یا مذهبی. نتیجه کشف ارزش های تصویر است که اولین سکه های تصویری بعد از اسلام، نخستین نقش برجسته ها و حتی اولین سنگ قبرهای تصویری دوران اسلامی، در عهد فتحعلی شاه پدید آمده اند. این مقاله، به روش توصیفی - تحلیلی نوشته شده و اطلاعات ارائه شده در آن، تلفیقی از شیوه کتابخانه ای و میدانی است.
    کلیدواژگان: تصویر، فتحعلی شاه، پیکرنگاری، نقاشی قاجار
  • فاطمه کاتب* صفحات 111-121
    «تصویرشناسی» از شاخه های هنر و ادبیات تطبیقی است و موضوع آن، بررسی فرهنگ خودی در ادبیات دیگری و فرهنگ دیگری در ادبیات خودی است. در مطالعات تصویرشناسانه، فرض بر این است که تصویرپردازی از دیگری، آمیخته با دیدگاه اگزوتیکی است که بر مبنای کلیشه ها و استروتایپ ها از جامعه دیگری، شکل گرفته است. دوره صفوی آغاز روابط جدید میان ایران و اروپا است. از این رو، سفرنامه های این دوره به عنوان متون ادبی، بیانگر بازنمایی تصاویر غربیان از زندگی، هنر و فرهنگ ایران و محل مناسبی برای نمایش دیدگاه قالبی و فرادستی نسبت به هنر و فرهنگ ایران است. از آن جا که نویسندگان موجوداتی منفرد و مستقل نیستند، و بیش از هر چیز، متعلق به تاریخ جامعه ای هستند که هویتشان را شکل داده است؛ بازخوانی تصویرپردازی سفرنامه نویسان غربی از جلوه های هنر اصفهان، می تواند به شناخت زمینه های استعماری و دیرینه شناسی تقابل فرهنگی شرق و غرب، یاری رساند.این پژوهش از نوع تاریخی-تحلیلی و نحوه گردآوری اطلاعات، اسنادی(کتابخانه ای) است. مقاله حاضر قصد دارد به مطالعه تصویرشناسانه هنر اصفهان از دیدگاه سفرنامه نویسانی نظیر شاردن، کمپفر، سانسون، تاورنیه و... بپردازد. نتیجه آن که، عموم غربیان در سفرنامه های خود، حتی در جایی که زبان به ستایش فرهنگ و هنر ایرانی می گشایند، آن را با نمونه های غربی مقایسه می کنند؛ گویی هنر و هنرمندان غرب را مبدا خلاقیت و هنرپروری در نظر گرفته اند. از سوی دیگر، مبدا شکل گیری هنر ایران را دیدگاه های کلیشه ای درباره شرقیان می دانند که شامل صفاتی نظیر حسادت، کینه توزی و... است.
    کلیدواژگان: سفرنامه صفوی، استروتییپ، تصویرشناسی، اگزوتیک، میدان نقش جهان
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  • Anahita Moghbeli * Pages 5-18
    During the 16th/10th century, an entirely original art style developed in Central Asia and its cultural capital of the time i.e. Bukhara which encompassed a large number of local masters. Initially, several cultural brokers of Herat were invited or dispatched there, where their collaboration with local masters led to the advent of a novel art tradition which, during 16th/10th century, brought Bukhara's art fame. Bukhara's surviving exquisite manuscripts created in the middle of the 16th / 10th century contain useful information about the painting tradition of the period. Two different trends have affected the creation of these works of art. The first one was associated with the painters of Herat and those of their followers who had gone to Bukhara and the second, reflected Bukhara’s emerging independent style. Seventeenth/ eleventh century painting of the region is the continuation of Central Asia’s painting tradition and the Herat school of the 15th and 16th/ 9th and 10th centuries, but there are also new developments such as emergence of signature and chronology on the works. Moreover, we can see artistic exchanges between Central Asian and Indian paintings and similarities between the works of the regional artists with the Indian Moghul paintings. Sixteenth / tenth century painting of Transoxiana was the reflection and simple continuation of the illustration school of Herat in the late fifteenth / ninth and early sixteenth / tenth century. The local progress of Transoxiana’s painting school finally led to the emergence of a new style of painting in twentieth and thirtieth years of the sixteenth / tenth century, which, in comparison to Herat's works was simpler and more limited in composition with lighter paints. Nevertheless, towards the end of the sixtieth year of the same century, the school gradually and noticeably declines due to its monotonous and stagnant composition as well as the failing of professional skills. It should be noted that the number of surviving manuscripts of Transoxiana containing sample paintings of sixteenth / tenth century, has decreased significantly in the last trimester of this century as compared to the first and second ones. These manuscripts mainly contained large images which, perhaps, might have been due to their poor artistic quality. Most artists of this era maintained copying the Herat school’s composition and figures and rarely went beyond its boundaries. As the artists abandoned personal quests for exploring new forms of composition and expression, thus uninspiring, spiritless works were created. Yet the most brilliant master painters didn't take in the traditions of Herat school thoughtlessly and their contribution led to the formation of a distinctive painting style during this period. In general, we can say that sixteenth / tenth century Central Asian painting is the continuation and development of Herat art school. Despite the appearance of some Hindu features in Bukhara miniature school during the seventeenth /eleventh century, its former quality was preserved, because Bukharan miniatures follow firm artistic disciplines with one of the major ones being color. Light, very bright and pure colors and uncommon combination of sapphire, pale goldenrod and yellow tones in the paintings of this age led to the formation of a notable color tradition of painting specific to the Central Asia. But we can say that the Indian miniature painting of this period enriched the visual art of Central Asia and offered the achievements of Iran's different schools of miniature painting gained in the During the sixteenth / tenth century, Iran had gained many achievements in different schools of miniature; however, due to the cessation of direct diplomatic ties with Central Asia due to religious and political differences, the exchange of such accomplishments was impossible. Yet, the Indian miniature of the era, played bridge for the transfer of such achievements and thus, enriched the visual art traditions of this region. This paper intends to study the developments and factors influencing the miniature painting of the 16th and 17th/10th and 11th century Central Asia, get acquainted with some prominent regional miniature painters of the era and the works available to them. Through employing a historical, descriptive and analytic approach to examine a number of outstanding examples selected from among the available foreign and local sources, this research seeks to answer these questions that how the miniature painting tradition of the 16th and 17th /10th and 11th centuries Central Asia has developed and evolved, what are its specific features and which works were available to the artists of the region?It seems that during this period, three major trends may be found in the Islamic miniature works of Central Asia: first, the impressions of Herat School; second, independent Bukharan style that evolved gradually and third, impressions of the Indian Mughol miniature painting style. Also, apparently, since the 11th century AH, the tradition of signing the artworks and registering their chronology has been initiated in the Central Asian Islamic painting.
    Keywords: Miniature Painting, Bukharan School, Indian Mughals, Central Asia (16th & 17th centuries AD, 10th & 11th AH)
  • Siyamak Alizadeh, Akram Mardi * Pages 19-32
    Registered under number 345 in the Iranian List of National Heritage and being under the protection of the Iranian Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization, the historic Faryoumad Mosque is located in a village with the same name in Semnan province, near Shahroud city. From historic-artistic point of view, the Mosque is one of the most important Iranian-Islamic mosques of the Seljuk - Khwarazmian era and one of the significant ones due to the rich stucco decorations scattered around its altar, iwan and the courtyard walls. All the Mosque’s inscriptions have been destroyed and thus, no date of construction has been discovered; however, there is the signature of the master constructor, i.e. Ali Jamyalsnayi Semnani. Keeping in view the comparisons made between this building and the similar monuments, to André Godard the structure more probably dated 6th Hijra / 12th century built in Khorasani style. Therefore, one should know about the aesthetic features of the various motifs employed in the Mosque. It is worth mentioning that most of the studies made regarding this mosque so fa have employed an architectural approach and few have been made on its embellishments and motifs of stucco decorations. This necessitates conducting the current research to address such deficiencies and also gain more understanding on the issue, paving the way for future, probable application of the research outcomes if required. The result of this study, completed with the help of ‘vector’ computer software, has led to the recognition, classification and aesthetic analysis of the motifs used in this structure. The research also suggests that there exists so much diversity in the motifs that requires more detailed, independent studies. Moreover, the Mosque’s stucco patterns are historically, artistically and technically valuable. These patterns have been drawn on geometrical rules which indicate the then architects and master constructors’ knowledge and wisdom materialized through the use of the common materials and tools of the time. According to the studies made to date on the Mosque’s motifs, the diversity of their patterns could be classified into: geometric, Eslimi, geometric-Eslimi, vegetative, geometric-vegetative, Eslimi-vegetative, Kufic inscriptions, inscriptions in Naskh script.The motifs are technically complex in terms of design, constructed in several layers by means of special techniques of stucco work employed by the artists of the time who created exquisite works of art through their technical and practical knowledge of geometry principals.The Faryoumad mosque has been one of the favorite architectural monuments for the prominent national and foreign scholars. One of the contemporary authors who has visited Faryoumad four times and written about it is ‘Iraj Afshar’. “Faryoumad’s popularity is due to the fact that it is one of the most luxurious mosques of Iran’s vibrant history”, Afshar states. Besides André Godard who has also referred to this Mosque and its stucco ornaments, Dr. Ali Shariati in his book ‘Travel Guide to Khorasan’ has talked about Faryoumad Mosque and its grandeur.In the book ‘Khorasan Historical Monuments’, Abdolhamid Molavi (1974) writes: “Faryoumad Mosque is one of the masterpieces of Iranian art styles in terms of its delicate stucco work”. The Encyclopedia of Historical Monuments of Islamic Era (Mosques) published by the Research Center of Islamic Art and Culture (1999) declares: “from top the bottom of the inscriptions, the walls of the northern iwan were covered by stucco which has disintegrated. Yet the vaults survived are decorated with inscriptions and vegetative stucco works”.Neda Davari and Saeed Qalandari, in their research paper titled ‘A Survey of the Decorative Motifs Derived from Nature in Faryoumad Jameh Mosque’, write: “Plant patterns are the only nature-driven motifs used in the ornamentation of this Mosque and other manifestations of nature such as water, animal forms or human figures are totally absent from Faryoumad’s decorative designs. The designs are sometimes used independently and at times in combination with geometric patterns or inscriptions. Nevertheless, in every case, we see that the vegetative motifs standout as compared to other patterns. Likewise, Dr. Mohammad Ebrahim Zare’i writes in his article titled ‘Faryoumad and its Jameh Mosque’ (2011): “Faryoumad’s Jameh Mosque may be considered as the museum of Iranian architectural decorations during the Islamic era.” So, in light of the above, it must be acknowledged that the importance of recognizing and further studying these rich motifs is of great importance. Therefore, the current study has employed applied approach of research with the data collected through descriptive-analytical method of research gained both through desk study of library resources and field studies.
    Keywords: Faryoumad Mosque, Decorations, Motifs, Stucco, Khwarazmian
  • Djalaleddin Soltan Kashefi * Pages 33-52
    This essay aims to analyze and compare the visual context of the artworks with 'The Last Supper' as their subject matter created by various artists at different epochs of times across centuries in various styles and methods, and concludes with an analysis of parody's effect on them.The author intends to answer the main research question which is: Has 'The Last Supper' been the favorite theme of artists merely during Christianity’s peak when religious affairs were of paramount importance or it is still a favored one for the painters, print makers and photographers even after the decline of focus on religious issues? Then the paper continues to explain whether choosing such subject by different artists across the world leads to a unified result, or it yields diverse ones based on the social and cultural perspectives of the creators and the variety of their cultures, customs and traditions.Anyways, the research findings indicate that as time elapsed, affected by the diversity of cultures and human societies from one hand and the technical developments and progresses on the other, the subject underwent significant changes unprecedented in many of the foregoing eras. Thus, specific differences and similarities aroused between these works of art calling for more deliberation upon. The study then reaches this conclusion that in the beginning, the subject was merely religious. But afterwards, it developed into a paradoxical issue to be followed by a parody which is 'apparently' a satirical and humorous perception of a very solemn religious issue. In fact, parody is not always employed to burlesque or reject the values of artworks; on the contrary, some artists apply it in the form of tragedy or comedy to awaken the society and inform it. As believers in Christianity – particularly western artist believers of the faith living in different epochs of time – have paid great attention to 'The Last Supper' and as a result, started visualizing this tragedy or lament using different techniques in various styles. They have created artworks that not only narrate the story of this tragic event but also reflect the depth of their individual religious and spiritual philosophies. Another group of artists have made use of the subject for propaganda purposes. In this case, the artwork does not present any type of mystical or divine belief; it is mainly created as commissioned by religious leaders to be displayed in churches and cathedrals of the time or in aristocratic mansions. Yet there is another group of artists who have “apparently” ridiculed 'The Last Supper' and represented it paradoxically (in contrast and against public views) in the form of parody. Hence, so as to understand the role of time and place and various cultures, traditions and customs of different nations in the creation of artworks as well as the social perspectives which play a powerful, definite role in this regard and finally, to become acquainted with the core implications and meanings hidden in these works of art, the author briefly addresses the research questions, reviews literature and explains the research methodology, to be followed by elaboration on the terms 'parody', 'catacomb' and 'cubiculum'. Subsequently, he expounds the process of formation of this subject during the olden times and accordingly, endeavors to make a visual comparison of different artworks. Eventually, he touches upon the issue of the effects of parody on those works of art known as 'The Last Supper'.Conducted through desk study of library resources and use of some reliable internet sources and databases, the paper has taken a descriptive, analytical and comparative approach to deal with a variety of inexplicit factors. Moreover, the paper lays emphasis on taking an analytical approach to elucidate and establish the relations clearly. It particularly highlights the role of diversity of cultures, sociological, traditional and ethnic viewpoints in this regard. In fact, the analysis has been established upon the study of 'The Last Supper' theme reflected on murals, sculptures and easel paintings, mosaics, miniatures, printmaking, photographs and few cinematic creations to present a well-defined upshot by finding resemblances and differences as well as the inspirations taken from parody or humor - known as burlesque – within these works of art.
    Keywords: The Last Supper, Leonardo Da Vinci, Salvador Dali, Parody, Emil Nolde, Stanley Spencer
  • Hossein Razavifard, Hasanali Pourmand * Pages 53-70
    More than six hundred years has passed since the creation of Nastaliq script in Iran. This type of calligraphy became popular for writing manuscripts and divans of Persian language poets from the 8th century AH onwards. Many masters of the field attempted to write in this style and hence, the creations of each master varies from the other one living in another era. These slight alterations produced by different masters in structure across time occurred gradually and so, it seems difficult for the unprofessional to distinguish the modifications. On the other hand, due to the geometrical nature of the structure of Nastaliq script, a significant part of such changes occurred since the advent of the script so far are measurable. This article aims to define a framework to recognize the writing styles of the earliest masters to those living in the closing years of Qajar reign and also obtain a more precise comprehension of the visual values of Nastaliq calligraphy. The term »style« used to describe the writings of these masters, denotes the features in visual literacy that enables one to recognize and compare a work of art with those of the other artists. Through this research, the author attempts to answer these questions: 1) how can we elucidate the characteristics, main similarities and differences of Nastaliq calligraphy practiced by old masters since the Timurids reign till the overthrow of Qajar dynasty, who presented new styles and 2) what is the criteria of becoming a pioneer of a Nastaliq calligraphy style.To find the answers to the aforementioned questions, first single letters and words written by each of the four leading calligraphers were extracted from those works that have undoubtedly attributed to them so far. Then, those letters and words which are most similar to their generally known works have been compared with the ones written by the three other master calligraphers so that not only the master's style is identified but also the similarity and difference of his art style with the others is clarified.For making the comparison, effort has been made to employ explicit, often math-based rules. Each single letter or word has been displayed within a specific framework so as to facilitate visual comparison using distances and angles. Subsequently, those single letters and words were reviewed in the compositions of the works of the masters.The results indicate that the above mentioned four styles have been formed in three periods: first during 850 - 950 AH considered as the genesis of Nastaliq script. Considering the fact that the script developed and evolved in the works of Mir Ali Heravi, he should be regarded as the foremost master of the style in this period. During the second period (950-1200 AH), it was Mir Emad’s time who mostly benefited from studying the existing treatises and works of his predecessors including Mir Ali Heravi, Baba Shah Esfahani and Mohammad Hussein Tabrizi. With his specific style, Mir Emad modified and restructured Nastaliq script. Throughout the third period (1200- 1350 AH), some renowned calligraphers including Mirza Mohammad Reza Kalhor, Mirza Gholamreza Esfahani, Mir Hossein Turk and Mirza Kazem practiced Nastaliq. The widespread popularity of Nastaliq calligraphy in printing industry that occurred with the writings of Mirza Kalhor who presented manuscript writing in a new form, the development of Siah-Mashgh’s principles and its development in the works of Mirza Gholam Reza are considered to be the stupendous characteristics of this era. Mirza Kalhor and Mirza Gholamreza’s styles are considered the two remarkable ones of this period with the others being secondary. Accordingly, through studying the works of the four renowned master calligraphers of Timurid, Safavid and Qajar eras i.e. Mir Ali Heravi, Mir Emad, Mirza Mohammad Reza Kalhor and Mirza Gholamreza Esfahani, the Nastaliq style of the early masters can be appraised and categorized. The reason for such classification is that the works created by other masters are whether a subcategory of these four or they are not distinctly different as to be considered a separate style. More importantly, masters of the succeeding epochs have been unable to present any innovation in the structure or instigate any new art movement. So generally, their works of art have been copied less during the contemporary era. While recognizing the similarities and differences of single letters, words and compositions of the four distinct styles mentioned herein and gaining the ability to differentiate the styles, this paper concludes that not just establishing any alteration in the structure of an already existing Nastaliq style leads to the emergence of a pioneer; Rather, becoming that, requires not only making modification and alteration in the structure of the letters and words but also enriching a Nastaliq style with sufficient visual lure and thus, influencing the writing styles of some contemporaneous and future calligraphers.
    Keywords: Calligraphy, Style, Nastaliq, Old Masters
  • Fereshteh Dianat * Pages 71-84
    As one of the branches of new art being practiced independently, the conceptual art, or at times merely called 'conceptualism', is a type of art wherein ideas and concepts take precedence over the traditional aesthetic, technical, and material concerns involved for the creation of the artworks. Taking into consideration the first examples of conceptual art, such as the 'One and Three Chairs' by Joseph Kosuth, photos play the main role in creating such works. This piece consists of a wooden folding chair, mounted photograph of a chair, and mounted photographic enlargement of the dictionary definition of 'chair'. Here, the question put before the audience was which of the above presents the real or virtual nature of an object or phenomenon, here being 'the chair'In conceptual art, it's the artist's idea that matters, not the artwork's object or theme. In fact, the conceptual art endeavors to highlight the intellectual and mental aspect of an artwork that reflects the artist’s intention. Nevertheless, such intention is not a clear, certain truth for the audience; on the contrary, any spectator can perceive a different meaning from the work of art or generalize its implicit concept.With the advent and development of diverse branches of new art between the 1960s and 1970s, photography was considered as one of the main mediums of the new art, particularly the conceptual one, due to its ease of availability, the possibility of recording the real time events and thus bearing witness to the reality. Semiotics not only involves what we refer to as 'signs' in everyday life, but also anything which 'stands for' something else. In a semiotic sense, signs may appear as words, images, sounds, gestures and manners. Semiotics tell us that we live in a world of signs and so, understanding this world without identifying the existing signs and codes is impossible. Semiotics is the key to the cognition of a work. It is the solution to grasp the meaning (s) of artworks, helps comprehend the implications, clarifies how symbols are created and what rules over them.Moreover, since photos are hard copy or digital copies of a real life subject, they themselves are considered codes which sometimes function as symbols and at times as indices and thus, play an essential role in conveying the concept and meaning of an artwork. The photo reminds works that have proceeded before and now an image is enough for its objective visualization and presence and frees the viewer from need to its presence. Due to the fact that in the contemporary era, photos are taken as one of the main mediums of replication, they have always been associated with and connected to the reality and hence, are sometimes categorized in semiotics as iconic or indexical symbols. Yet, such classification should not take the photo context as a separate, single entity. It seems that photos always contain a track of visible/concealed symbols of time conveyed through the recording of the reality.Through a survey of the significance of semiotics in conceptual photographs, the paper at hand intends to investigate Pearce's theory regarding the importance of implications in conceptual works of art. The question here is: What role photography plays in conveying the implications in conceptual artworks?A review of the research studies conducted indicates that as photo is considered a reality oriented document, it is somehow a fixed company to conceptual art. The study of theories of new Semitists like Saussure and Pearce as well as the implication of reality in photos show that implicit and explicit implication play an essential role in conceptual art. Roland Barthes propounded such implications as a 'significant achievement in the semiotic study of photography'. As a context, each photo can have a conceptual and implicit meaning besides a unique, explicit one. It's based on the recognition of these two implications, particularly the former one, that a photo should be examined. In other words, implicit implication of a photo or an image is totally dependent on the mental structure as well as the earlier individual, emotional experiences of the audience and is thus a personal, rather than collective, experience which is different from others. Implicit implications are manifold, while explicit ones are exclusive. Implicit implications depends on the personal background, earlier experiences and understandings of the audience (interpreter) against any given written or pictorial context such as photo or painting.This research employs a descriptive – analytical method and in some cases field studies to examine the data collected from library sources and filed studies and comes to this conclusion that since photos are considered real documents, they somehow constitute the main part of conceptual art. Moreover, as photos are the most accurate replications of real subjects, they are considered symbolical or indexical signs. As a result, they play an essential role in conveying the concept and meaning of an artwork. A photo reminds of past events and actions for which, the respective image sufficiently serves the objective visualization and consequently, eliminates the necessity for the real presence of the subject matter before the spectator. Due to the fact that a photo makes a silent, visual world for the audience, it does not impose its own perspectives on the spectator's mind. On the other hand, taking into account the fact all elements of photography are two-dimensional replications of daily, real life experiences, they are the best medium to employ symbols in conceptual art because in this type of art, the main emphasis is put on the artist's ideas.
    Keywords: Photography, Conceptual Art, Implication, Semiotic
  • Farinaz Farbod *, Mahmonir Sayyahi Pages 85-98
    The art of textile production has enjoyed a special position in the Egyptian civilization since ancient times. This heritage of several thousand years has changed frequently with that of the changes of government, religion and politics. In the early years of the first century, Egypt was converted to Christianity. The impact that the Christian beliefs has left on the production of textiles of this period until around the seventeenth century, is known as Coptic art. Following the conquest of Egypt by Muslims (642 CE / 21 AH), the art of this area was influenced by the Islamic thoughts of the Umayyads, followed by the Abbasids. Subsequent to every seizure, the Muslim rulers took advantage of arts and techniques of the occupied lands, but at the same time they applying their own principles and beliefs. Textiles were no different. During the Islamic era, textiles enjoyed a lofty position within the society both for their own sake and also as an important adjunct to religious rituals and also a precious commercial commodity (Harris, 1993: 71).During the early years of Islam, artists were prohibited from reproducing images on living beings on textiles and thus, tiraz fabrics containing inscription patterns and no decorations became popular. However, upon the arrival of Fatimids in Africa and Egypt (969 BC / 359 AD), these countries became subjected to the influence of Shi'a Muslims' beliefs. They had taken their names (and, according to their own claims, their nicknames) from the Prophet Muhammad's daughter, and were of the opinion that the true line of the Imams or rulers had ceased with the demise of Islmail. Due to such belief, they were called ‘the Ismailis’.Following the domination of the Fatimids Shi'as over Egypt, apparently the differences in their beliefs as compared to their predecessor, the Abbasids, brought about changes in the appearance of the textiles of this era.Although researches conducted on the textiles of this region have not specifically addressed this issue, yet the importance of textiles in political and cultural contexts has been highlighted in most cases. Emphasizing on this point, Baker says: 'changes in tiraz textiles of this era can be regarded as rejection of political sovereignty' (Baker, 1385, 57). Researchers such as Farideh Taleb-Pour and Abdollah Hemmati have studied the textiles and tiraz of Fatimid Egypt in their articles. This paper mainly intends to answer this questionthat whether any indication of impact of religion and faith of Fatimids’ Shi’a ruler could be found on the textiles of the era and if positive, how these changes have been reflected within the textiles? In fact, this research aims to elucidate the political conflict resulting from the religious difference between the Shi'a Fatimids and the Sunni Abbasids.For this purpose, the article employs a descriptive-historical approach to study digital and written sources available on the Egyptian textiles before the Islamic era particularly the Coptic era in terms of motifs, themes and knitting techniques. The study further elucidates the historical and political aspects of the Fatimids reign in Egypt and finally deals with the Egyptian textiles of Abbasids and Fatimids rules to determine the differences in themes, designs, compositions and technical developments. Lastly, few examples of the works created during the Fatimid era have been examined in detail as for their motifs, colors, and compositions in order to find out the traces of impact of Shi'a thought on them.The results indicated that the change of government definitely resulted in the change of textiles, part of which could be directly associated with religious beliefs. The most noticeable changes in the Fatimid textiles are the change in the caliphate’s favorite color, visual concepts as well as the content of tiraz texts, which are in clear contradiction with the textiles of the preceding period, but at the same time, in line with the beliefs of the Shi'a religion. The application of white color and light is one of the most evident and most characteristic feature of the Fatimid textiles, which in addition to implying the purity of the caliphate against the Abbasids, was one of the main mediums of declaring the change of government in that period. Another indication of the impression of religion on Fatimids is the availability of sample textiles that according to the contents of their inscriptions as well as the written documents were used as a grave cloth at the funeral, and this, although rooted in Egyptian culture, is one of the distinctions of Abbasids over Sunnis. Furthermore, by choosing Egypt as the capital of the government during this period, the textiles enjoyed the Caliphates attention and were thus produced with a better quality and value.
    Keywords: Fatimid dynasty, Islamic Egypt, Fatimid textiles, Shi’a religion, Textile motifs
  • Aliasghar Mirza`Imehr *, Mehdi Hosseini Pages 99-110
    A glance at the history of creating pictorial representations in the past societies indicates that prior to the invention of the photography and printing industry, the world around us was indeed suffering from the lack proper illustrations. Hence, the earlier societies should have also been in scarcity in terms of images since replication was impossible then. With the invention of photography camera and the subsequent boom in printing industry as the main factors in facilitating the reproduction of image, happened and spread after the reign of Fath-Ali Shah Qajar (1212-1250 SH / 1834-1797 AD); however, if we compare the legacy of image production remaining from the era of Fath-Ali Shah's reign with those of the preceding years, we find out a fundamental change in the volume of image production and its application. Of course, in this article, ‘image’ means the human figure and in particular the king's physiognomy, which is portrayed wearing various materials and tools. However, such iconography also contains images of chiefs, chieftains, governors and princes, and even from time to time, the image of maidservants and dancers, but their presence is secondary to that of the king. The images follow common aesthetic patterns, including calm faces with monobrows, languish eyes, bud-shaped mouths with beauty marks around the lips, with fit bodies and narrow waists, armed with all kinds of weapons such as dagger, mace, sword… (for men) and adorned with aristocratic jewelry and garments and expressionless countenance looking at distant landscapes.The more precise application of these patterns, which are deeply rooted in Iran's culture and literature, in Fath-Ali Shah’s image is due to the fact that hundreds of images of this handsome King have remained with almost ever the same portrait unaffected by the passage of time. These images are created using diverse tools, in different sizes with various applications. Some are on canvases or on the walls of palaces and mansions in large scales on while others are on penholders, containers and coins, even on jewelry and ornaments in very small sizes.Undoubtedly, such number of images have been carried out by artists of different professional expertise and have enjoyed the all-out support of the government and the King as its top authority. The diversity of images signifies a great management and wise interaction with painters.This paper intends to answer this main question that what purpose the government, and the King as its leader, sought in supporting the production and spreading of such images within the society. Evidently, more questions also arise that how the primary pattern of such images or royal representation was created and what were their specific features?In addition to elucidation of the aesthetic features and the theoretical foundations of the creation of these images, this study seeks to shed light on the hidden intentions of the government for dispersing such images.The research findings indicated that the newly established Qajar Government was aware of the necessity of propaganda for the consolidation and expansion of social influence on one hand and the importance of developing favorable interaction with the artists and supporting them on the other, promotes the artists' and the society's understanding of the image. Thus different types of pictures are produced with a variety of interpretations and applications.Apparently, the artists, while maintaining good relations with the head of the state, achieved a fresh understanding of the potential functions and hidden values of image, insofar as they might have 'discovered' its true value. Therefore, using Shah's icon as a sign of national unity and its propagation in various ways and modes, they used image in an unprecedented manner which included utilizing image as a ceremonial or royal gift; a model of beauty and fashion; a sign of the quality of goods as well as ritual and religious icons.The discovery of the values of image resulted in the emergence of, during Fath-Ali Shah’s rule, the first pictorial coins after the advent of Islam in Iran, the first bas-reliefs and even the first pictorial gravestones of the Islamic era. This research has employed descriptive-analytic method of research with the data collected through analyzing library resources and findings of field studies.
    Keywords: Image, Fath-Ali Shah, Iconography, Qajar Painting
  • Fatemeh Kateb * Pages 111-121
    As one of the most popular areas of research in contemporary comparative studies in works of art and literature, imagology aims to explore the image of one's own culture as presented in the literature of another and vis-e versa. Such study posits that exoticism forms the foundation for portraying other nations' image which is rooted in the clichés and stereotypes written on the destination society.Since antiquity, Iran has always attracted the attention of oriental and occidental travelers. Concurrently with the developments in world and regional interactions, Iran-EU connections entered a new era and obtained a new form. Numerous travelers from different backgrounds and with different intentions, made their journey to Iran from the European countries and each of them left his own set of reports, notes and travel literatures on his experiences of the journey made. The narration of these travel literatures could be considered as a way of expressing one’s ideas and thoughts wherein the distinction between eastern and western identity, nature and understanding had been portrayed. These travel literatures hold a very important position because they not only portray the characteristics of the destination society but also contribute to better understanding of the formation of the society of origin. Therefore, the way modern societies have been established and the characteristics of western societies, such as economic booms, the powerful, orderly political system and other features could be related to cultural and economic interactions with other countries.Safavids’ reign was the golden era of the promotion of arts and culture in Iran. On the other hand, their rule marks the beginning of a new chapter in Iran-EU relations and so, many well-known European travelers made their journey to Iran, whether as officials or ambassadors of the European countries, to become acquainted with the country and its rich arts and cultural traditions. They used to spend most of their time in the court in Esfahan which was the royal capital of the Safavids’ Kings and record their personal reflections. That is the reason why most of the travel literatures on Iran have been written during this period and such records are brimming with accounts of Esfahan city as well as the manifestations of arts and culture therein. Such manifestations, which have always been the center of attention of travelers of Safavid era, include the Nashq-e Jahan Square with its four main architectural landmarks which are Ali Qapu Palace, Imam Mosque, Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque and Qeysariey Bazaar.Hence, travel literatures of the era, considered as literary texts, represent the western viewpoint regarding the Iranian lifestyle, arts and culture and thus, they constitute a proper platform for studying the prevailing stereotype views towards Iranian arts and culture.Employing a historical-analytical approach with the data collected through desk study of library sources, this research article intends to conduct an imagology study of Esfahan's art from the perspective of travel memoirists such as Tavernier, Chardin, Kaempfer who have mainly focused on the art traditions manifested in Naqsh-e Jahan’s architectural landmarks.Since authors are not single, independent creatures but are part of the history of the society that has formed their identity; re-studying the images created by the western travel memoirist of Esfahan's art could contribute to recognizing their colonialist backgrounds as well as the chronology of the culture of orient vs. occident.The imagology studies take this assumption that although the understandings and experiences the travel memoirists have been obtained through their direct contacts with the destination culture, yet their accounts are profoundly affected by images and texts already portrayed and written on the oriental culture by the westerns. In fact, although in most travelogues, the nature of the narrator’s relation with ‘others’ is direct conversation he has made during his real trip, still his accounts are overshadowed by the stereotype, cliché and hegemonic perspectives which are the characteristics of the western literature.Through the study of the travel literature written during the Safavids’ rule by those western travelers who had journeyed to Iran for whether trade purposes or just for the sake of travel, we find out that in their travel records, even where they are admiring the Iranian arts and culture, they are comparing them with their western examples as if the west has been the cradle of art and creativity. On the other hand, the prevailing stereotype views regarding the residents of the orient, including jealousy, hatred and etc. is considered the origin of the Iranian art.
    Keywords: Safavid Travel literature, Stereotype, imagology, exoticism, Naqsh-e Jahan Square