فهرست مطالب

  • سال یازدهم شماره 2 (تابستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/06/31
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • تغذیه نشخوارکنندگان
  • سید مرتضی کاظمی، اسدالله تیموری، یدالله چاشنی دل* صفحات 133-149

    این تحقیق به منظور بررسی تاثیر مصرف سطوح مختلف روغن دانه کتان بر تجزیه پذیری، عملکرد، خصوصیات لاشه و فراسنجه های خونی در بره های پرواری انجام شد. در آزمایش اول، تجزیه پذیری شکمبه ای ماده خشک، پروتئین خام وNDF جیره های آزمایشی با استفاده از روش کیسه نایلونی و با 3 راس گوسفند دارای فیستولای شکمبه ای نژاد زل تغذیه شده در حد نگهداری اندازه گیری شد. زمان های شکمبه گذاری در این آزمایش شامل زمان های صفر، 4، 8، 16، 24، 36، 48، 72 و 96 ساعت بود. نتایج نشان داد که تفاوت معنی داری در  تجزیه پذیری ماده خشک و پروتئین خام بین تیمارها در این آزمایش مشاهده نشد. در آزمایش دوم، 16 راس بره نر (وزن 2±27 کیلوگرم و سن حدود پنج ماهگی) برای بررسی اثرات سطوح مختلف روغن کتان بر عملکرد، خصوصیات لاشه و فراسنجه های خونی، در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با 4 جیره آزمایشی (حاوی صفر، 1/5، 3 و 4/5 درصد روغن کتان) به مدت 90 روز پروار شدند. جیره ها از نظر انرژی و پروتئین قابل متابولیسم مشابه بودند. جیره های آزمایشی اثر معنی داری بر خوراک مصرفی داشت، علاوه  بر این بره های تغذیه شده با جیره حاوی 5/4 درصد روغن کتان بیشترین تاثیر منفی را بر قابلیت هضم مواد مغذی جیره کاملا مخلوط نشان دادند. همچنین جیره حاوی روغن کتان باعث ایجاد اختلاف معنی دار در برخی از خصوصیات لاشه بره ها نسبت به تیمار شاهد شد. روغن کتان سبب افزایش سهم اسید لینولئیک، اسید لینولنیک و نسبت اسیدهای چرب غیراشباع با چند پیوند دوگانه به اسیدهای چرب اشباع چربی داخل ماهیچه ای در لاشه بره های پرواری شد. همچنین روغن کتان تاثیر معنی داری بر فراسنجه های خونی دام های پرواری داشت. نتیجه کلی حاصل از این تحقیق نشان داد که با افزایش سطح روغن کتان ، میانگین تجزیه پذیری الیاف نامحلول در شوینده خنثی، مصرف خوراک، و قابلیت هضم ظاهری مواد مغذی روند کاهشی داشت ولی در صفات کیفی لاشه بهبود حاصل شد.

    کلیدواژگان: اسید لینولنیک، روغن کتان، خصوصیات لاشه، فراسنجه های خونی
  • حسن علی عربی*، رضا علی محمدی صفحات 151-163

    آزمایشی به منظور بررسی اثر منابع مختلف مکمل های آلی و معدنی روی بر عملکرد رشد، فراسنجه های هماتولوژی، پروفیل مواد معدنی و لیپیدی خون در بره های پرواری به صورت طرح کاملا تصادفی انجام شد. تعداد 30 راس بره نر با سن 5-4 ماه و میانگین وزن بدن 2/8 ± 30/8، به طور تصادفی به 5 گروه تقسیم شدند. تیمارها شامل: 1- جیره غذایی پایه بدون مکمل روی (حاوی 19/72 میلی گرم روی در کیلوگرم ماده خشک)؛ 2- جیره پایه بعلاوه 30 میلی گرم روی به ازاء هر کیلو گرم ماده خشک به شکل روی متیونین؛ 3- جیره پایه بعلاوه 30 میلی گرم روی به ازاء هر کیلوگرم ماده خشک به شکل روی پروتئینات؛ 4- جیره پایه بعلاوه 30 میلی گرم روی به ازاء هر کیلو گرم ماده خشک به شکل روی گلایسینات و 5- جیره پایه بعلاوه 30 میلی گرم روی به ازاء هر کیلو گرم ماده خشک به شکل روی سولفات بودند. این آزمایش 70 روز به طول انجامید. میزان ماده خشک مصرفی روزانه، افزایش وزن روزانه و ضریب تبدیل خوراک تعیین گردید. میانگین افزایش وزن روزانه و ماده خشک مصرفی برای همه گروه های تغذیه شده با مکمل روی بالاتر از گروه شاهد بود و ضریب تبدیل نیز بهبود پیدا کرد. علاوه بر این، فراسنجه های خونی در روزهای صفر، 35 و 70 آزمایش مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. غلظت روی و هموگلوبین و تعداد گلبول های قرمز و سفید خون با افزودن روی به جیره بطور معنی داری افزایش یافت، اما در بین تیمار های دریافت کننده مکمل اختلاف معنی داری وجود نداشت. غلظت آهن پلاسما به طور معنی داری در بره های دریافت کننده سولفات روی نسبت به گروه شاهد کاهش یافت. در بین تیمار ها از نظر غلظت پلاسمایی مس، کلسیم، فسفر، تری گلیسیرید، کلسترول و لیپوپروتئین ها (شامل HDL، LDL و VLDL) اختلاف معنی داری وجود نداشت. به طور کلی می توان نتیجه گرفت که استفاده از مقدار 30 میلی گرم روی در کیلوگرم ماده خشک از منابع روی متیونین، روی پروتئینات، روی گلایسینات و روی سولفات سبب بهبود عملکرد رشد، میزان روی پلاسما و فراسنجه های هماتولوژی در بره های پرواری تغذیه شده با جیره پایه حاوی 19/72میلی گرم روی در کیلوگرم ماده خشک شد.

    کلیدواژگان: بره، روی پروتئینات، روی سولفات، روی گلایسینات، روی متیونین
  • امیر تیماس، صیاد سیف زاده، رضا سید شریفی، جمال سیف *، حسین عبدی صفحات 165-178

    در این مطالعه، اثر پروبیوتیک و بوتیرات منوگلیسرید بر عملکرد، برخی از فراسنجه های خونی و قابلیت هضم مواد مغذی در گوساله های شیرخوار هلشتاین بررسی شد. 24 راس گوساله هلشتاین نر با میانگین سنی 6 روزه و میانیگن وزنی 2±36 کیلوگرم با 4 تیمار و 6 تکرار به روش فاکتوریل (2×2) و در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی استفاده شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل: 1) جیره پایه (استارتر و شیر کامل) 2) جیره پایه + روزانه 2 گرم پروبیوتیک مخلوط با شیر 3) جیره پایه + روزانه 5 گرم بوتیرات منوگلیسرید مخلوط با استارتر 4) جیره پایه + 2 گرم پروبیوتیک مخلوط در شیر + 5 گرم بوتیرات منوگلیسرید مخلوط با استارتر بودند. افزودن پروبیوتیک به تنهایی و یا با بوتیرات منوگلیسرید، تاثیری بر وزن نهایی بدن گوساله ها نداشته، ولی افزودن بوتیرات منوگلیسرید به تنهایی به جیره، منجر به افزایش وزن نهایی گوساله ها شد (0/05>P). مصرف خوراک روزانه تحت تاثیر پروبیوتیک و یا بوتیرات قرار نگرفت. با این حال افزودن پروبیوتیک به شیر سبب افزایش معنی دار آن شد (0/05>P). میزان قابلیت هضم جیره گوساله ها با افزودن پروبیوتیک و بوتیرات افزایش نیافت (0/05<P). افزودن همزمان پروبیوتیک و بوتیرات منوگلیسرید تاثیر معنی داری بر غلظت کلسترول، تری گلیسیرید، پروتئین کل و آلبومین خون نداشت (0/05<P). لیکن غلظت بتا هیدروکسی بوتیرات پلاسمای خون با بوتیرات منوگلیسرید بیشتر شد (0/05>P). نتایج این مطالعه نشان داد که افزودنی های پروبیوتیک و بوتیرات منوگلیسرید اثر مثبتی بر عملکرد رشد، قابلیت هضم و فراسنجه های خونی نداشت. پس افزودن مونوگلیسرید بوتیرات به جیره غذایی گوساله های شیرخوار هلشتاین اثر مطلوبی بر عملکرد و توسعه شکمبه آن ها دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: بوتیرات مونوگلیسرید، پروبیوتیک، فراسنجه های خونی، گوساله هلشتاین
  • میترا مزینانی، رضا ولی زاده، محسن دانش، عباس علی ناصریان* صفحات 179-193

    به منظور کاهش نرخ آزادشدن اوره در شکمبه با روش پوشش دار کردن و قابلیت استفاده از آن در جیره نشخوارکنندگان، دو آزمایش  برون تنی و یک آزمایش دورن تنی انجام شد. در آزمایش اول برای بررسی نرخ آزاد شدن نیتروژن از اوره پوشش دار در مقایسه با اوره معمولی و ترکیب اپتی ژن تجاری (اوره کند آزاد شونده) در 6 سامانه آبی مختلف و در 8 نقطه زمانی انکوبه شدند و باقیمانده نیتروژن آن ها در بخش جامد مورد آزمایش و مقایسه قرار گرفت. در آزمایش دوم میزان تولید گاز 3 نمونه خوراکی (آرد جو، آرد جو+ ملاس و جیره خوراکی فرموله شده برای گاو شیری) که به هر کدام معادل 3% از چهار منبع نیتروژنی (اوره معمولی، اوره پوشش دار، اپتی ژن و کلزا) افزوده شده بود در شرایط برون تنی اندازه گیری شد. در آزمایش سوم تاثیر تیمارها بر قابلیت هضم جیره، عملکرد و فراسنجه های خونی بز سانن بررسی شد. در این آزمایش، 16 راس بز شیری به چهار تیمار نیتروژنی در غالب طرح کاملا تصادفی یکطرفه اختصاص داده شدند. اختلاف بین میزان نیتروژن باقیمانده تیمارها در تمام زمان ها بجز 10 دقیقه، معنی دار بود. تولید گاز تجمعی (96 ساعت) در اثر تیمارهای مختلف نیتروژنی متفاوت بود. مصرف کل خوراک در تیمار اوره پوشش دار و اپتی ژن بیشتر از شاهد بود. اختلاف قابلیت هضم ماده خشک، ماده آلی و خاکستر بین تیمارهای مختلف معنی داری نبود. تولید شیر در تیمار اپتی ژن بیشتر از سایر تیمارها و سپس اوره پوشش دار و شاهد بالاترین تولید شیر را داشتند. ترکیبات شیر نیز تحت تاثیر جیره قرار نگرفت. اثر تیمارها روی متابولیت های کلسترول و اوره خون معنی دار بود. اوره و تری گلیسرید خون در تیمار اپتی ژن بیشتر از سایر تیمارها بود. با توجه به اینکه نرخ رهایش اوره پوشش دار متناسب با نیاز آمونیاکی میکروارگانیزم ها است، می توان از این منبع NPN بعنوان جایگزین بخشی از پروتئین خوراک برای کاهش قیمت جیره و افزایش بهره وری از قابلیت میکروارگانیسم های شکمبه استفاده کرد.

    کلیدواژگان: اپتی ژن، اوره، اوره کند آزاد شونده، تجزیه پذیری شکمبه ای اوره
  • تغذیه طیور
  • سیده فریبا احمدی نژاد، محسن افشارمنش *، محمد سالارمعینی، هادی ابراهیم نژاد صفحات 195-206

    به منظور بررسی تاثیر استفاده از پودر فلفل قرمز در مقایسه با آنتی بیوتیک فلاوفسفولیپول بر شاخص های عملکرد، جمعیت میکروبی و ریخت شناسی روده جوجه های گوشتی، آزمایشی در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با 4 تیمار و 4 تکرار و 10 جوجه یک روزه (نر سویه راس 308) در هر تکرار به اجرا درآمد. تیمارهای آزمایشی در دو دوره 21-0 روزگی و 42-22 روزگی تنظیم شد و شامل، 1) جیره شاهد بدون افزودنی (پایه)،2) جیره حاوی 0/04درصد فلاوفسفولیپول، 3 و 4) به ترتیب حاوی جیره هایی 0/1 و 0/3درصد پودر فلفل قرمز بودند. شاخص های مورد اندازه گیری شامل عملکرد، جمعیت میکروبی و ریخت شناسی روده بودند. نتایج نشان داد که افزایش وزن روزانه، مصرف خوراک و ضریب تبدیل تحت تاثیر تیمارهای آزمایشی قرار نگرفت (05/0P<). جمعیت لاکتوباسیل های روده (ایلئوم فوقانی) در تیمار های پودر فلفل قرمز (0/1و0/3درصد) در مقایسه با تیمار آنتی بیوتیک و شاهد افزایش پیداکرد (p<0/05). تعدادکلی فرم ها نیز در تیمار حاوی 0/1 درصد پودر فلفل قرمز نسبت به تیمار شاهد کاهش پیدا کرد p<0/05. تغذیه با پودر فلفل قرمز باعث افزایش طول پرز (ایلئوم فوقانی) در مقایسه با گروه شاهد گردید، عرض پرز در جوجه های تغذیه شده با 1/0 درصد فلفل قرمز در مقایسه با گروه شاهد و آنتی‌بیوتیک افزایش یافتp<0/05. به طور کلی پودر فلفل قرمز باعث کاهش باکتری های کلی فرم و افزایش جمعیت لاکتوباسیل ها شد و روی عملکرد تاثیر معنی داری نداشت. لذا استفاده از آن به عنوان جایگزین آنتی بیوتیک فلاووفسفولیپول توصیه می شود.

    کلیدواژگان: آنتی بیوتیک، جمعیت میکروبی، فلفل قرمز، ریخت شناسی روده
  • ژنتیک و اصلاح دام و طیور
  • مریم اسرافیلی، رضا به مرام* صفحات 207-221

    برای بررسی هم خونی و تاثیر آن بر صفات رشد از اطلاعات شجره 39408 راس گوسفند مغانی که طی سال های 1365 تا 1394 در ایستگاه پرورش و اصلاح نژاد گوسفند مغانی جمع آوری شده بود، استفاده گردید. برای آماده سازی، ویرایش داده ها، برآورد ضریب هم خونی و میزان تابعیت صفات از هم خونی به ترتیب از نرم افزار های Fox Pro، Excel، CFC و Wombat استفاده شد. میانگین نسل معادل کامل به عنوان معیاری از کامل بودن شجره 1/60 بدست آمد. نتایج نشان داد که 69/16 درصد از کل حیوانات، هم خون بودند. میانگین ضریب هم خونی در کل جمعیت و حیوانات هم خون به ترتیب 0/58 و 3/47 درصد محاسبه گردید. در مدت سال های مورد مطالعه، مقدار هم خونی 0/047 درصد در سال افزایش یافت. بالا ترین میزان هم خونی در گله 44/64درصد بود. افت ناشی از هم خونی به ازای افزایش یک درصد هم خونی برای صفات وزن تولد، شیر گیری، شش ماهگی، نه ماهگی و یک سالگی به ترتیب 5/94-، 19/03-، 20/23-، 35/26- و 38/74- گرم برآورد شدند، که به غیر از صفات وزن شش ماهگی و یک سالگی در بقیه صفات مورد مطالعه تاثیر معنی داری نداشت. نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که اگر چه در این گله طی سال های مورد مطالعه بین حیوانات خویشاوند آمیزش هایی صورت گرفته بود، لیکن مقدار ضرایب هم خونی حیوانات هم خون با توجه به تعداد این دام ها نشان داد که در این جمعیت آمیزش ها هدف دار و تا حد زیادی کنترل شده بود.

    کلیدواژگان: آمیزش، صفات رشد، گوسفند مغانی، نسل معادل کامل، هم خونی
  • رضا سید شریفی *، سجاد بادبرین، نعمت هدایت، سیما ساور، جمال سیف، حسن خمیس صفحات 223-232

    نژادهای بومی به دلیل دارای بودن ویژگی های منحصر به فرد، جزء ذخایر ژنتیکی کشور محسوب شده و شناخت بیشتر ساختار ژنتیکی آنها به حفظ و حراست آنها و تدوین برنامه های اصلاح نژادی کمک خواهد کرد. در این پژوهش تنوع ژنتیکی 136 راس اسب از سه نژاد ایرانی (کاسپین، عرب و تالشی) با استفاده از 12 نشانگر ریزماهواره توصیه شده توسط انجمن بین المللی ژنتیک حیوانی، مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. تمام نشانگرهای استفاده شده چند شکل بودند و نشانگرهای ASB17 با 12 آلل و HMS6 با 6 آلل به ترتیب بیشترین و کمترین تعداد آلل را تولید کردند. بیشترین و کمترین میزان هتروزیگوسیتی مورد انتظار به ترتیب در نشانگرهای VHL20 (0/78) و ASB23 (0/62) محاسبه شد. میانگین شاخص شانون برای همه جایگاه ها برابر با 1/72 به دست آمد. در نمودار فیلوژنی رسم شده با استفاده از ضریب تشابه جاکارد و روش UPGMA (14)، اسب های کاسپین و تالشی در یک شاخه و اسب های عرب در شاخه جداگانه قرار گرفت. آنالیز واریانس مولکولی نشان داد که تنوع ژنتیکی زیادی در درون نژادهای بررسی شده وجود دارد و با توجه به جمعیت کم اسب های تالشی و کاسپین، پیشنهاد می شود برنامه های اصلاح نژادی جهت بهبود کارایی و جلوگیری از انقراض آنها تا رسیدن به سطح امن طراحی و اجرا گردد

    کلیدواژگان: اسب های تالشی، تنوع ژنتیکی، روابط فیلوژنی، کاسپین و عرب، نشانگرهای ریزماهواره
  • وحیده عباسی، محمد رضا نصیری، علی جوادمنش* صفحات 233-245

    در سال های اخیر با روشن شدن اهمیت ریزRNAها در فرآیندهای حیاتی بدن موجودات زنده، شناسایی ژن های ریزRNA اهمیت زیادی پیدا کرده است از سویی دیگر روش های بیوانفورماتیکی نیز گسترش یافته و سبب شده تا روند شناسایی ریزRNAها با سرعت بیشتر و هزینه ی کمتری پیش برود. تحقیقات در سال های اخیر بر روی گونه های زیادی از جمله انسان و موش و همچنین حیوانات اهلی از قبیل گاو و بز و مرغ باعث شده تا در این گونه ها ریزRNAهای زیادی گزارش شود با این حال در گونه ی گوسفند هنوز اطلاعات نسبتا کمی وجود دارد. در این مطالعه پس از پیش بینی ریزRNAهای کروموزوم 20 گوسفند، جهت تایید با اورتولوگ ها در سایر گونه ها مقایسه و در نهایت برای بررسی بیان از داده های ترنسکریپتوم گوسفند استفاده شد همچنین در این تحقیق برای ارزیابی روش مورد استفاده از داده های شاهد مثبت استفاده شد. با استفاده از این روش در کل 400 ریز RNA و از این تعداد 81 ریزRNA جدید در کروموزوم 20 گوسفند پیش بینی شدند. بررسی ترنسکریپتوم نشان داد که از این تعداد 33 ریزRNA فقط در بافت عضله، 10 ریزRNA فقط در بافت کبد، 35 ریزRNA در هر دو بافت کبد و ماهیچه و 3 ریزRNA نیز در مخلوط بافت های قلب، کلیه، مغز، تخمدان، پوست، چربی سفید و ریه بیان شدند. مقایسه با پایگاه داده miRbase مشخص کرد که تعداد 64 ریزRNA از ریزRNAهای پیدا شده برای اولین بار گزارش شدند. حساسیت و دقت انتخاب این روش برابر 67 و 95 درصد ارزیابی شد و از این رو می توان گفت این روش می تواند به عنوان مکمل روش های پیش بینی ریزRNA اطلاعات ارزشمندی را فراهم کند. از این روش می توان برای پیش بینی ریزRNAها در سایر کروموزوم های گوسفند و یا در سایر پستانداران استفاده نمود.

    کلیدواژگان: بیوانفورماتیک، روش از، گوسفند، ریزRNAها
  • اسما مرادعلی پور، فرخنده منصوری، فرنگیس فتاحی، زینب صالحی، مصطفی محقق * صفحات 247-257

    نرخ باروری یکی از صفات مهم اقتصادی در گوسفند است، که تحت تاثیر ژنتیک و محیط می باشد. ژنBMP15  یکی از ‌ژن‌های موثر بر این صفت می‌باشد و جهش های مختلف در این ژن باعث تغییر راندمان صفات تولیدمثلی و رشد در گوسفند می‌شود. چنانکه باروری بالا در گوسفندان به علت جهش در جایگاه BMP15 با منشا اووسیتی (ژن فاکتور رشد) شناخته شده است. در این مطالعه از روش PCR-RFLP برای شناسایی چند شکلی‌ جایگاه‌های ژنی FecXI، FecXH وFecXB  استفاده شد. بدین منظور از تعداد 92 راس میش نژاد لک قشقایی و بهمئی به طور تصادفی خون‌گیری صورت گرفت و استخراج DNA با استفاده از کیت استخراجDNA  انجام شد. قطعات مورد نظر با استفاده از آغازگرهای اختصاصی (قطعه bp 204 از FecXI، قطعه bp 235 از FecXH و قطعه bp 153 از ژن FecXB)، و توسط واکنش زنجیره پلی‌مراز (PCR) تکثیر گردید. پس از مجاورت محصولات PCR با آنزیم های اختصاصی (XbaI، SpeI وDdeI)، مشاهده گردید که همه قطعات FecXI و FecXH فاقد جایگاه برش برای آنزیم هضم‌کننده بوده و تنها یک الگوی باندی در آن ها مشاهده شد. این مطالعه تنها وجود آلل های تیپ وحشی را تایید کرد. تمامی نمونه‌ها دارای ژنوتیپ هموزیگوت بودند و جهش اینوردل و هانا (جهشی که در حالت هتروزیگوت باعث افزایش میزان تخمک‌گذاری می‌شود) در آن ها یافت نشد. براساس نتایج این مطالعه، ژن BMP15 نمی تواند تاثیری بر میزان چند‌قلوزایی در گوسفندان مورد مطالعه داشته باشد، بنابراین باید به دنبال جهش ها یا ژن های دیگری بود

    کلیدواژگان: باروری، چندشکلی، گوسفند، ژنBMP15
  • فیزیولوژی
  • مسعود دیدارخواه*، موسی وطن دوست صفحات 259-272

    در این پژوهش تاثیر افزودن مکمل های افزودنی به شیر بر شاخص های عملکردی، متابولیت های خون، جمعیت میکروبی و انتقال غیرفعال ایمیونوگلوبین ها به گوساله مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. شانزده راس گوساله ماده هلشتاین تازه متولد شده با میانگین وزن 41/5در چهار گروه تیماری در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی به مدت 60 روز استفاده شد. تیمارها شامل: 1- گروه شاهد (شیر فاقد افزودنی) 2- گروه پروبیوتیک (شیر + دو گرم پروبیوتیک) 3- گروه پری بیوتیک (شیر + چهار گرم پری بیوتیک) 4- گروه سین بیوتیک (شیر + دو گرم پروبیوتیک چهار گرم پری بیوتیک) بود. گوساله های تغذیه شده با جیره دارای مکمل پروبیوتیک (گروه 2)کمترین مصرف خوراک و بهترین ضریب تبدیل غذایی را درکل دوره نسبت به سایر تیمارها داشتند. غلظت کلسترول کل، غلظت پروتئین کل پلاسما و آلیومین پلاسما تحت تاثیر مکمل های پروبیوتیکی و پری بیوتیکی در جیره ها قرار نگرفت و هیچ گونه اختلاف معنی داری بین جیره ها مشاهده نشد. مصرف مکمل پروبیوتیک باعث کاهش معنی داری (p<0/05) غلظت تری گلیسیریدها در پلاسمای خون، گوساله های تغذیه شده با مکملهای افزودنی شد. بیشترین غلظت تری گلیسرید مربوط به گروه شاهد بود که اختلاف معنی داری (p<0/05) با سایر گروه ها داشت. کمترین غلظت بتا هیدروکسی بوتیرات مربوط به گروه شاهد بود که اختلاف معنی‌داری (p<0/05) با سایر گروه ها داشت. در گوساله های مصرف کننده پروبیوتیک مقدار جمعیت کل باکتریها به میزان اندک بعد از خوراک دهی افزایش یافت ولی هیچ گونه اختلاف معنی داری در سنین مختلف در بین گروه های دریافت کننده مکمل مشاهده نشد. بیشترین مقدار ایمیونوگلوبولینG مربوط به گروهی بود که پروبیوتیک مصرف کرده بودند و با گروه های شاهد و گروه سین بیوتیک اختلاف معنی داری(0/05>P) داشت ولی ازگروه پری بیوتیک بیشتر بود و این روند در همه سنین 3، 7 و 30 روزگی ادامه داشت. در مجموع، نتایج حاکی از آن است که افزودن مکمل های پروبیوتیکی در جیره باعث بهبود عملکرد گوساله های شیری هلشتاین می شود

    کلیدواژگان: ایمیونوگلوبین ها، جمعیت میکروبی، گوساله، مکمل افزودنی، نشخوارکنندگان
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  • Yadollah Chashnidel* Pages 133-149
    Introduction

    The extracted oil from linen contains about 50% linolenic acid from the family of omega-3 fatty acids. Among edible sources, fish oil and linseed oil are a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids. Linoleic acid and linolenic acid are a key factor in the normal growth and reproduction of animal, were not considered an important issue for animal nutrition. Essential fatty acids, including linoleic acid, linolenic acid and arachidonic acid, and in recent years the demand for foods with omega-3 long-chain fatty acid conjugated linoleic acid is high because of important biological role of these fatty acids in the body. Alpha-linolenic acid is an essential fatty acid that cannot be manufactured by the human body, but are essential for the body's metabolism. Although mammals cannot make omega-3 fatty acids, but have limited functionality in the form of fatty acid. Linseed has a high linolenic acid as a substrate for the synthesis of long-chain omega-3 fatty acid that for the (EPA), which is the precursor for eicosanoids. Eicosanoid are similar compounds of hormones that play an essential role in the immune response. In addition, EPA can become (DHA), which is an essential fatty acid in cell tissue layers of the eye and brain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of linseed oil on degradability, performance, carcass characteristics and some blood parameters in fattening lambs

    Material and methods

     In first experiment, ruminal degradability of dry matter, crude protein, NDF and ADF were measured by nylon bag technique using three fistulated Zell sheep that fed at maintenance level. Incubation time consisted of 0, 4, 8, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96. The experimental animal were kept in individual cage and fed at 8 am and 20 pm with experimental diet to ratio of 70 to 30 forage to concentrate. In the second experiment, the effects of various levels of linseed oil on performance, carcass characteristics and blood parameters were studied. The performed experiment was completely randomized design (CRD) with four diets containing zero, 1.5, 3 and 4.5 percent linseed oil on 16 male lambs with initial average weight 27± 2 kg and 5-6 months old for 90 days. Energy and chemical composition of rations were similar. The experimental diet was balanced using the Small Ruminants Nutrition System (SRNS). Monthly weighing was carried out at the end of the experiment by applying 12 hours of starvation before weighing, and daily feed intake was used to calculate the feed conversion ratio. Data obtained were analyzed by statistical software SAS (version 1.9).

    Results and discussion

     Dry matter degradability significantly affected by experimental treatments (P<0.05). However, the crude protein, NDF and ADF not observed significant difference between treatments. In first experiment, ruminal degradability of dry matter, crude protein, NDF and ADF were measured by nylon bag technique using three fistulated Zell sheep that fed at maintenance level. Incubation time consisted of 0, 4, 8, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h. Dry matter degradability and crude protein not observed significant difference between treatments. In the second experiment, experimental diets had significant effect on feed intake also results of the current experiment showed that linseed oil in 4.5% of dry matter had most negative effects on nutrient digestibility of total mixed ration (P< 0/05). Diet contained linseed oil and thyme oil affected some carcass characteristics significantly compared to other treatments (P<0/05). Linseed oil increased C18:3, C18:2 and P/S ratio (P<0.05). Linseed oil had a significant effect on the blood parameters of treatments.

    Conclusion

    In general, degradation of dry matter results showed that adding linseed oil, had little effect on the degradation of dry matter and protein and numerically, was reduced compared to control. With increasing the level of linseed oil in the diet, the mean of NDF degradability, feed intake, and apparent digestibility of nutrients was a downward trend and did not improve these indices. In this study, adding linseed oil improved daily gain and feed conversion ratio compared to the control. The carcass fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids increased, which is an indicator of health. The overall result of this study showed that increasing the level of linseed oil decreased the average degradation of NDF, feed intake and digestibility of nutrients but improved the carcass quality traits.

    Keywords: Blood parameters, Carcass characteristics, Linolenic acid, Linseed oil
  • R. Alimohamady*, H. Aliarabi Pages 151-163
    Introduction

    The role of trace minerals in animal production is an area of strong interest for producers, feed manufactures, veterinarians and scientists. Zn (Zn) is one of the most important elements that has been recognized as a essential catalytic factor for more than 300 enzymes enzyme. Zinc also has an essential role in metabolism of nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. The National Research Council (1985 and 2007) recommended about 30 mg/kg zinc for ewes and growing lambs. However, the soil status and zinc concentration in native plants are also affected. In many regions of Iran, the Zn content of soil and plants is commonly low (less than 0.8 mg/kg). As a result, health and performance of animals reared on mainly homegrown roughage and grains may be affected as a consequence of nutritional deficiency. Recently, the use of organic sources of mineral supplements (complexes, chelates and proteinates) has increased. However, the results of organic and inorganic sources in ruminants are contradictory. Furthermore, few studies have investigated the effect of zinc on lipid parameters in ruminants. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the effect of supplementation of 30 mg/kg Zn from the three organic sources and conventional inorganic source on performance, hematological parameters and mineral profile of Mehraban growing lambs.

    Materials and Methods

     Thirty male lambs with 4-5 months of age and 30.8±2.8 kg average in weight randomly allotted to 5 groups. Treatments were: 1) Basal diet without zinc supplement (containing 19.72 mg/kg DM zinc); 2) Basal diet+30 mg/kg DM zinc as zinc methionine; 3) Basal diet +30 mg/kg DM zinc as zinc proteinate; 4) Basal diet +30 mg/kg DM zinc as zinc glycinate, and 5) Basal diet +30 mg/kg DM zinc as zinc sulfate. This trial lasted for 70 days. The dry matter intake, daily gain and feed conversion ratio were determined. Blood samples were taken on days 0, 35 and 70 before the morning meal. Chemical composition of experimental samples including (crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and dry matter) and blood parameters including (hematological, mineral and lipid profiles) were measured according to standard methods. This experiment was analyzed in a completely randomized design.

    Results and Discussion

    Average daily gain and dry matter intake for all groups fed the supplement were significantly higher than control group and feed conversion ratio also improved (p

    Keywords: Lamb, Zinc glycinate, Zinc methionine, Zinc proteinate, Zinc sulfate
  • Jamal Seyf* Pages 165-178
    Introduction

    [1] Probiotic supplements improve livestock growth, increase in intake of feed, improve digestion and absorption of nutrients and health conditions. Feeding butyrate in combination with milk and starter prior to weaning of calves may enhance rumen development, body weight, health status and growth performance. The butyrate supplement used in this study is monoglyceride butyrate and during digestion of ruminal fat, first glycerol is separated from the glyceride composition, and then the isolated bacteria are exposed to digestion and absorption of butyric acid. Butyric acid is one of the absorbed volatile fatty acids and metabolism of the rumen wall, the final product of which is metabolized by the rumen stem cell epithelial cells, a beta-hydroxy butyrate compound. The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of butyrate monoglyceride and probiotic additives on growth performance, some blood parameters and digestibility of nutrients in Holstein suckling calves.

    Materials and Methods

     For this experiment, 24 newborn Holstein calves with an average age of 6 days, and about 36±2 kg weight, with 4 treatments and 6 replications were performed in a completely randomized factorial design (2×2). The treatments included: 1) base rations (starter and whole milk) 2) base ration + daily 2 grams of probiotic (Protexin) mixed with milk 3) base rations + daily ration 5 grams of  butyrate monoglyceride mixed with starter 4) base ration + 2 grams of periobiotic mixed in milk + 5 grams of monoglyceride butyrate mixed with starter. During the experiment, functional traits such as daily gain, daily intake and feed conversion were determined. Calves were weighed individually on days 30 and 65. In order to measure apparent digestibility at the end of the course, the feces were collected for 5 consecutive days. The collected samples were dried in an oven at 65 ° C for 48 hours. During the 30th and 65th days of the experiment, blood samples were taken from the vein before the morning meal. Blood samples were transferred to the laboratory for centrifugation (at 3500 rpm) for 15 minutes. The serum samples were stored at -20 ° C until measured. Blood glucose, urea, cholesterol, triglyceride, albumin, total protein and beta-hydroxy butyric acid were measured using laboratory kits (Pars Test, Iran) and using the CS-400 auto-analyzer. Data were analyzed using MIXED and SAS software.

    Results and Discussion

    The results showed that final weight was not affected by probiotic and probiotic and butyrate monoglyceride interacting (P>0.05). But it was affected by the butyrate monoglyceride (P<0.05). Daily feed intake was not affected by experimental treatments (P>0.05). Daily weight gain was not affected by probiotic and probiotic and butyrate monoglyceride interactions (P>0.05). But it was affected by the butyrate monoglyceride (P<0.05). Feed conversion ratio was not affected by treatments during the whole period (P>0.05). But in the first month it was affected by the probiotic (P<0.05). The results of this study showed that the concentration of beta-hydroxy butyric blood was not affected by the probiotic factor (P<0.05), while the butyrate supplementation factor was effective in increasing the concentration of beta-hydroxy-butyric (P<0.05). Also, there was a tendency for the probabiotic and monoglyceride butyrate interactions to be meaningful (P<0.055). The level of beta-hydroxybutyric acid indicates rumen development and the beginning of the metabolism of the final products of fermentation by rumen epithelium The results showed that digestion of calves was not affected by experimental diets (P>0.05). The interaction factor of probiotic and butyrate monoglyceride had a significant effect on blood glucose concentration (P<0.05). Also, beta-hydroxy butyric acid is affected by butyrate supplementation (P<0.05). However, experimental treatments of butyrate and probiotic (Protexin) had no effect on cholesterol, triglyceride, albumin, and total protein (P>0.05).

    Conclusion

    The probiotic (Protexin) and the interaction factor of probiotic and butyrate monoglyceride did not affect daily intake, daily gain, final body weight of calves and feed conversion ratio, while the addition of butyrate monoglyceride in the diet affected the weight gain and calving weight of the calves daily. Nutrient utilization and digestibility of dairy calves was not affected by experimental diets. Beta-hydroxy-butyric acid was also affected by butyrate supplementation. However, experimental treatments of butyrate and probiotic (Protexin) had no effect on cholesterol, triglyceride, albumin, and total protein. In general, supplementation of the diet of infected calves with butyrate monoglycerides can have beneficial effects on the performance and development of rumen in infant calves. In general it can be concluded that butyrate monoglyceride as supplementation of the diet (milk replacer or starter diet) may enhance rumen development in Holstein suckling calves.
     

  • Abbasali Naserian* Pages 179-193
    Introduction

    Urea is a small organic compound that is very rich in N (44.96% N) and is used to supply degradable intake protein (DIP) for ruminants. Urea is broken down to ammonia in the rumen under the action of urease bacteria. Using urea over other sources of DIP is cheaper according to per N basis than any other feedstuffs. However, urea is used rather inefficiently by ruminants compared with other sources that contain true protein, and this is due to the fact that the rate of urea degradation in the rumen is more rapid than the rate of utilization of the resulting ammonia by rumen bacteria. One strategy for improving the utilization of urea by ruminants is reducing the degradation rate of urea. A number of slow release urea products were developed for this purpose. Coated urea is a urea product design to reduce the rate of ruminal degradation of urea. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of coated urea on N metabolism and determine this Effect in ruminant feed.

    Materials and Methods

     to characterize the ruminal behavior of coated urea three experimental studies were designed. Two in vitro studies were designed to determine NH3-N release and gas production difference in treatments. NH3-N release of each Optigen and coated urea was tested in sex liquid phase included: distilled water, TCA (Ph = 6.2), buffer solution, buffered rumen fluid, Free cell rumen fluid (centrifugation at 7000 rpm), Free cell buffered rumen fluid. Each of the two N-sources was isonitrogenous (equivalent 20mg urea) and added to a 100-ml glass syringe. Then 30 ml of solution (consisting distilled water, TCA, buffer solution, buffered rumen fluid, free cell rumen fluid or free cell buffered rumen fluid) was pipetted into each syringe followed by incubated in a water bath at 39°C. Three syringes for each treatment diet were incubated for 0, 30 min and 2, 4 and 6 h time points. The syringes were taken out and Residual solid parts were taken for determination of NH3-N release using the Kjeldahl N methods (AOAC, 2005). The gas production of each N-Sources (four N-Sources in triplicate) was tested in 4 different feed mixtures (straw + 3% N-Sources, barley flour + 3% N-Sources, barley flour + molasses as additives + 3% N-Sources, a dairy ration formulated to + 3% N-Sources). The in vivo experiment was conducted using sixteen dairy Sannen goats with an average body weight of 38.85 kg, 73 days of lactation and 1979g milk production. The experimental design was a completely randomized design. The experiment consisted of 21-day periods each consisting of 14 days adaptation and 7 days of sampling. The experimental rations were: 1) control (canola), 2) urea (urea % 0.5), 3) Optigen (Optigen %0.55), 4) coated urea (% 0.7 coated urea).

    Results and Discussion

    Based on these results, urea is often degraded rapidly in the rumen by the action of urease and the resulting ammonia supply may exceed the capacity of rumen bacteria to assimilate it into amino acids. This rapid release of ammonia may result in inefficient N utilization in the rumen. Therefore coated urea improves ammonia assimilation in the rumen. The cumulative gas production (96 hours) influenced by diet and N-source treatments, which was higher in formulated TMR diets for the dairy cow and least gas production in wheat straw. The result indicated that Optigen (90.82) and then coated urea (90.81) were the highest gas producer in the formulated TMR diets for the dairy cow and the canola meal (69.04) and urea (69.43) had the least gas production in wheat straw (P<0.05). The results showed that treatments had no significant effect on milk compositions, rumen fermentation and synthesis of microbial protein (p> 0.05). The impact on the most blood metabolites except BUN, Cholesterol and ALT were also no significant (p> 0.05). As a result, no significant differences observed between coated urea with control (canola) treatments.

    Conclusion

    it was concluded that little difference was observed in gas production results between coated urea and Optigen treatments with control (canola). And therefore to reducing feed costs and increasing the efficiency of the rumen microorganism, we can use NPN sources as a replacement for part of dietary protein.

    Keywords: Coated urea, Non-protein nitrogen, Optigen, urea
  • Mohsen Afsharmanesh Pages 195-206
    Introduction1

    In recent years, the advances made in the field of genetics, food, breeding, and marketing in the poultry industry have led to the use of modern methods and devices to achieve the highest production with the lowest cost in the industry. So today, food additives are used in the poultry industry to achieve high production with the lowest cost. Medicinal plants contain substances called active ingredient or active ingredients are made and stored and have physiological effects are on the body of a living creature leave. Medicinal plants due to certain compounds can affect the production and improving digestive and finally affect the bird feed digestibility. This plant contains active ingredients: Capsaicin and is capsanthin. Some antimicrobial compounds extracted from plants including: Terpiner, Betapinen, alfapinen, Linaleolandterpineol.

    Materials and method I

    n this study 160 day-old male (Ross 308) broiler chicks in a completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 4 replicates per treatment, were used from age 1 to 42 days. In each
    experimental unit 10 chicks were reared in the same environmental conditions. Experimental diets (treatments) were as consisted of 1) basal diet without additives (control), 2) control diet containing 0.04 percent Flavophospholipol, 3) control diet containing 0.1% of red pepper powder, 4) control diet containing 0.3% of red pepper powder, diets were fed in two periods. Body weight and feed intake were measured weekly and daily mortality was recorded and then these data were used to calculate the performance parameters of body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio. To study the structure of the ileum villus tissue sample of the target tissue as much as 4 cm from the beginning of the ileum supply and after unloading
    the contents and washing was kept in 10% formalin paraffin wax technique for producing histological slides were thin.

    Results and discussion

    The results showed that weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion were not affected by treatments. The addition of red pepper powder did not have a significant effect on the body
    weight of broiler chicks, consuming more than one percent of the red pepper extract had no effect on weight gain, possibly due to an increase in the intake of red pepper fruit in broiler chickens. Capsaicin stimulates fat metabolism from stored tissue and also activates both liver enzymes G6PD and lipoprotein lipase and thus does not affect weight gain. Adding capsaicin 0.2% does not affect feed intake. It has also been reported that no difference was found in the consumption of broiler chickens fed with Pune, Cinnamon and Pepper extract with five grams of Lamiaceae plants. Medicinal plants, as part of active substances, are very mischievous or may have a nasty taste, and in the diet may cause the animal to refuse eating and reduce feed intake. Adding
    capsaicin 0.2% does not affect feed intake (13). It has also been reported that no difference was found in the consumption of broiler chickens fed with Pune, Cinnamon and Pepper extract with five grams of Lamiaceae plants. Based on these results, feeding with 0.1% red pepper powder increased the lactobacillus population as compared to the control and antibiotic group (P <0.05). Also, the total amount of the formulas in the treatment fed with 0.1% red pepper and antibiotic was decreased in comparison with the control (P <0.05). Red pepper powder, due to capsaicin, reduces the pH of the diet and thus increases the bacteria producing lactic acid and reduces the total bacterial form. A mixture of capsaicin, cinnamaldehyde and caracole
    reduced the number of pericardial cholera and pericardial cholestridium in the intestinal tract. Vegetative herbicides reduced the number of asherikhakli e coli and Clostridium perfringens in the intestines of broiler chicks. Also, a mixture of herbal essential oils can reduce colonies of clostridium performs in the intestine and feces of broiler chicks. Lactobacilli is produced by the production of lactic acid as an antimicrobial that eliminates the external membrane of gram-negative bacteria, and, by decreasing the intestinal pH, inhibits the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Antibacterial activity of medicinal plants is directly related to the concentration and composition of the active ingredients. These compounds reduce the thickness of the intestinal epithelium, modify the microbial population and reduce the pathogenic microorganisms of the poultry function Improve The results of this study showed that feeding with red pepper powder increased the length of upper ileum compared to the control group (P <0.05). Upper ileum increased in chicken fed 0.1% red pepper in comparison with the control and antibiotic groups (P <0.05). Crypt depth was not affected by experimental treatments. In the case of herbs, there are various reports of increasing, no change, as well as a decrease in the length and depth of the intestines of broilers during the use of medicinal plants.

    Conclusion

    In the present study, the use of red pepper powder increased the useful bacteria (lactobacilli) and reduced the harmful ones (total polymorphisms). It also increased the length and width of the intestines of broiler chickens, although it did not have a significant effect on yield. Therefore, red pepper can be thought of as a suitable alternative to flavophospholipol antibiotics by reducing the overall bacterial form and increasing the intestinal parenchyma

    Keywords: antibiotics, intestinal morphology, microbial population, red pepper
  • Reza Behmaram* Pages 207-221
    Introduction

    Moghani sheep breed with 2.5 million numbers is one the most important meat breeds among fatty tail sheep. The main center for keeping this breed is Moghan plain, but there is in the regions like Meshkin Shahr, Sarab, Ardabil and the other provinces. Inbreeding also impairs growth, production, health, reproduction and survival of inbred animals. A complete pedigree is also necessary for an accurate evaluation of inbreeding and other important population parameters. This research was done for pedigree analysis, estimation of inbreeding coefficient and investigation of its effect on growth traits by regarding to importance of growth traits in economic benefit of sheep farming.

    Materials and Methods

     Information of pedigree and growth traits (birth weight, weaning weight, 6 months weight, 9 months weight and 1 yearling weight) of available animals at breeding station of Moghani sheep were used for calculating of inbreeding and survey of its effects on growth traits of Moghani sheep. In this study, 16058 records of birth weight, 2145 weaning weight records, 2028 6 months weight records, 1319 records of 9 months weight and 1232 1 yearling weight records that were collected in 30 years (between 1987 to 2016) were used. For data preparation and editing and estimation of inbreeding coefficient Excel, Fox Pro and CFC soft wares were used respectively. For inbreeding effect analysis on related traits Wombat software and Restricted maximum likelihood method by using 12 animal models and considering of inbreeding in model as a covariate was used. The most appropriate model according to Akaike Criterion was selected. The statistical analysis of data was done by using of Duncan means test and GLM procedure of SAS 9.2 software.

    Results and Discussion

     In this research 48.30 % of animals have known sire and dam. The number of records of studied growth traits with age increasing had downward trend that may cause to
    elimination of some lambs or not registering of data in higher ages. For all of the traits, most of the animals had zero inbreeding coefficient, so that 83.31 % of population had zero inbreeding
    coefficient. 13.50 % of all population that is equivalent with 80.89 % of inbred population had inbreeding coefficient less than 5 %. In studied population, only 3.19 % of all population that is equivalent by 19.11 % of inbred population had inbreeding coefficient more than 5 %. Generation interval in four pathway including sire-son, sire-daughter, dam-son and dam-daughter was
    calculated 3.15 ± 0.053, 3.26 ± 0.093, 3.46 ± 0.015 and 3.57 ± 0.036 years respectively. Average generation interval of dam-progeny (3.51 ± 0.007 years) rather than sire-progeny (3.21 ± 0.064
    years) was more. The shorter generation interval in sire-progeny pathway may be related to difference in replacement age of males and females. In other words, sooner replacement of males in
    studied herd might be one of reasons for shorter generation interval in sire-progeny pathway. The average generation interval was estimated 3.36 ± 0.069 years. In all of traits, the non inbreds had more average compare with inbreeds. In this study, male lambs in all traits had more average compare with female lambs that showed effects of sex on growth traits of Moghani lambs. The
    traits average of single lambs was more than twin lambs that may be related to more utilization of these lambs of maternal abilities. The results showed that 16.69 % of all population were inbred.
    The average of total population inbreeding coefficient was estimated 0.58 % that was in reported results range for this breed in other researches. The average inbreeding coefficient in inbred
    population and the highest inbreeding amount in herd was 3.47 and 44.67 % respectively. By evaluation of studied population form current generation to primary generation, decreasing trend in animals’ number was observed that may be related to a greater number of animals with known parents in current generation. The effective number of population was estimated 177.37. With
    reducing of effective number in population, the amount of inbreeding will increase. The increasing amount of inbreeding was 0.047 % in each year that was not significant. The inbreeding trend in studied years was positive and ascending with low swings. Average equivalent complete generations as a scale of pedigree completeness estimated 1.60. The low amount of equivalent
    complete generations can be related to incomplete and low depth of pedigree. The low effective number of population resulted in decreasing of genetic variation. Inbreeding depression for 1 % inbreeding for birth weight, weaning weight, 6 months weight, 9 months weight and 1 yearling weight were estimated 5.94, 19.03, 20.23, 35.26 and 38.74 gram that except 6 months weight and 1 yearling weight had not significant effect on the other traits. Having not a significant effect of inbreeding on birth weight, weaning weight and 9 months weight may cause to low level of inbreeding in herd and the low existence of dominance at controller genets of these traits. Regarding to the little effect of inbreeding depression on studied traits that is an optimal subject, it can be suggested by being low rate of inbreeding in this population, this trend persist in future years.

    Conclusion

    By regarding the significant effect of inbreeding on some growth traits and for
    prevention of undesirable effects of inbreeding, it can be recommended an ongoing supervision be
    done on related parameters to genetic variation at this population to Reduce the genetic diversity
    caused by increased inbreeding.

    Keywords: Equivalent complete generation, Growth traits, Inbreeding, Mating, Moghani sheep
  • Reza Seyedsharifi* Pages 223-232
    Introduction

    Due to having historical value and climatic diverse, Iran has unique horse breeds. Unfortunately, due to the lack of attention and control of the import of foreign breeds into this rich
    genetic source, huge damage has been created. Therefore, many horse breeds in the country got crossbred and their racial purity reduced. Knowing the genetic structure of native breeds will play an important role in their safeguarding and ensuring of their survival. Indigenous breeds, due to their unique characteristics, are considered as part of the genetic resources of the country, and their genetic structure will help them to protect and develop eugenic programs.

    Materials and Methods

     This study was conducted on 136 horses including Taleshi (25 samples), Caspian (49 samples) and Arabic (62 samples) breeds from their breeding areas. Taleshi horse samples was captured from local stock in the Guilan province, Caspian samples was captured from horse riding clubs around Tehran and Guilan provinces, and Arabian samples was captured from horse riding clubs around the provinces of Tehran, Khuzestan and Alborz. They were unrelated and selected randomly. The race recognition of horses was based on books published by the Federation of Equestrian and their phenotypic characteristics. After determining of the concentration and uniformity of the concentration of extracted DNA, all individuals under study were conducted for 12 microsatellite markers recommended by the Animal Genetic Association (ISAG) to determine the genotype in order to estimate the parameters such as heterozygosity, inbreeding, Hardy and Weinberg equilibrium, and so on and find an appropriate strategy to maintain these valuable breeds. The number of observed alleles (na), and effective (ne), observed heterozygosity (Ho) and the Expectation case (He), Shannon index (I), inbreeding coefficient (ISF), genetic distance, genetic similarity, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and phylogeny tree between races were calculated using POPGENE 1.31 software.

    Results and Discussion

     All of the used markers were multi-shaped and the ASB17 markers with 12 alleles and HMS6 produced the highest and lowest number of alleles with 6 alleles, respectively.
    The highest and lowest expected heterozygosity were calculated in VHL20 (0.78) and ASB23 (0.62) markers, and the average Shannon index for all sites was 1.72. Hardy Weinberg balance
    analysis by Chi square test showed that except ASB2 and HMS3 markers in Taleshi breed, ASB17 and HTG4 markers in the Caspian breed and ASB17 markers in the Arabic breed, all markers had a significant deviation from Hardy and Weinberg equilibrium (P <0.05). The highest observed heterozygosity was related to AHT5 marker (0.81) and the lowest observed heterozygote was related to ASB17 and HTG4 markers (0.68). The Shannon index, like the observed heterozygosity, shows the amount of genetic diversity, and because the maximum value is equal to Ln (n), it is useful to express the genetic diversity of multi-formed sites. The highest and lowest values of Shannon index were 1.96 and 1.46, respectively, for VHL20 and HTG4 markers. Given the fact that the VHL20 marker showed the highest and the HTG4 marker showed the least effective allele, so the calculated values for the Shannon index are justified. Phylogeny diagram showed that Caspian and Taleshi horses were placed in one branch and Arab horses in separate branch.

    Conclusion

    Breeds with fewer populations are more at risk for genetic changes and extinction. Reducing of the genetic diversity of indigenous populations will result in the loss of many useful
    genes, especially those that are compatible with different environments and resistant to regional diseases. Undoubtedly, it is very important to pay attention to the genetic diversity of small-sized
    population of breeds such as Taleshi and Caspian. The results of this study showed that due to the low number of Caspian and Taleshi horses, genetic diversity is still at a high level, so it would be hoped that by adopting the principled measures, we would prevent their extinction in the long duration.

    Keywords: Genetic diversity, Microsatellite markers, phylogeny tree, Taleshi, Caspian, Arabianhorse
  • Ali Javadmanesh* Pages 233-245
    Introduction

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA molecules that are found in plants, animals and some viruses and play important role in regulation of transcription (3). Recently, importance of miRNA roles in biology of living organisms has been discovered, thus miRNAs identification became more important (1). Experimental detection of miRNAs can be obtained using different miRNA profiling methods, such as quantitative real-time PCR, microarray, and high-throughput RNA sequencing technologies. Since the identification and verification of miRNA by laboratory
    methods is time-consuming and costly (4), for improving miRNA identification and lowering costs, it is more reasonable that miRNA loci predicted by reliable bioinformatic approaches then experimental methods used for confirmation. This may decrease false positive results. Recently, several hundreds of miRNAs reported in variety of species including human and mouse, as well as domestic animals such as cattle, pig, chicken and goat, however there are relatively less information about sheep miRNAs. In this study, we developed a method for prediction and in silico
    validation of miRNAs located on ovine chromosome twenty.

    Materials and Methods

     In this study, an ab initio approach was used. The sequence of ovine chromosome 20 was used as input for EMBOSS and Sequence-Structure Motif Base: Pre-miRNA Prediction Webservers applications, then all predicted stem and loop structures were entered into mfold software. Pre-miRNA features for them were calculated and sequences that had these features were selected. Since the probability of miRNA presence in the coding region is very low, miRNAs that were predicted in the coding regions were removed. To confirm the prediction of miRNAs, selected sequences were homology searched within all registered miRNAs in miRBase. In order to evaluate the in silico expression of miRNAs, predicted miRNAs were BLASTed against expression data from Sequence Read Archive (SRA) of ovine muscle tissue (Accession: PRJNA223213), liver tissue (Accession: GSM1366318) and mixture of tissues including heart, kidney, brain, liver, ovary, lung, skin, and adipose (Accession: GSE56643). In order to evaluate the accuracy of this method, a positive control region including a cluster of validated miRNAs from ovine chromosome 18 were analyzed by the same method and sensitivity and selectivity of this method were calculated based on this region from chromosome 18.

    Results and Discussion

    After prediction by softwares and investigation of pre-miRNAs features by mfold, 400 stem and loop structures that had pre-miRNA features were chosen. Fifty miRNAs from those miRNAs contained conserved mature miRNAs sequence and 350 of them were recognized as novel miRNAs based on registered miRNAs in the mirBase. None of the novel miRNAs were located in the coding regions. In silico validation of these novel miRNAs in SRA data was indicated that 81 miRNAs are expressed in different ovine tissues including 33 in muscle and 10 in liver.
    Results on the positive control data showed that 40 miRNAs were predicted which majority of them (36 miRNAs) were already validated by experiments. This indicates a high reliability for this method. With putting in sensitivity and selectivity formulas, both of two factors were calculated and it was observed that the sensitivity and selectivity values for our method were 67% and 90%, respectively. Fewer studies accomplished in detection of ovine miRNAs in compare to other farm animals. In previous studies to identify miRNAs in ovine species, mostly laboratory-based or comparative methods were used. This was the first study that used SRA database to check miRNA expression in RNAseq data in order to decrease the discovery of false positive results. Comparing this method with others including CID-miRNA (19), miRPara (20), VMir (6) and miRNAFold (18) methods, we may conclude that this method’s sensitivity is less than
    CID-miRNA, miRPara, miRNAFold and srnaloop. Although selectivity for this method is higher than all above methods because the false positive in this method is less than other method. This method showed high selectivity and low FP that due to improved prediction method for identify miRNAs.

    Conclusion

    In the current study, predicted ovine miRNAs were validated by an in silico method using SRA database that resulted in a higher reliability than other ab initio approaches. Although this method is not very fast and fully automated. With running this method on ovine chromosome 20, 81 novel miRNA were predicted which were expressed in different tissues of sheep. This method could be applied on other ovine chromosomes as well as other mammalian species, although future validation by experimental approaches is required.

    Keywords: Ab initio, Bioinformatics, miRNA, Sheep
  • Mostafa Mohaghegh* Pages 247-257
    Introduction

    Litter size is an important economic trait in sheep breeding which is influenced by genetics and environment factors. Application of phenotypic data in traditional breeding programs is a time
    consuming process. Thus, marker assisted selection (MAS) play an important role for genetic improvement of reproduction efficiency. Since, there has been great interest in the identification of major genes that influence fecundity traits in sheep. Three of these fecundities identified genes are bone morphogenetic protein receptor type IB (BMPRIB) or Activin Like Kinase 6, known as FecB located on chromosome 6; growth differentiation factor (GDF9), known as FecG located on chromosome 5 and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15), known as FecX located on the X chromosome. The BMP15) is expressed in oocytes where encodes for a mature peptide of 125 amino acids that stimulate the proliferation rate of the granulose cells and thus it seems to be essential in folliculogenesis. Some mutations in BMP15 gene are reported to increase fertility rate. Six different point mutations i.e. FecXI and FecXH in the Inverdale and Hanna breeds,
    respectively, FecXL in the Lacaune, FecXG and FecXB in the Cam-bridge and Beclare breeds, respectively and the FecXR in Raza Aragoneza breed have been identified in BMP15 gene. In this study, the FecXB, FecXH and FecXI mutations at the BMP15 gene were investigated by PCR–RFLP in Lac Ghashghaei and Bahmaei sheep breeds. The FecXB (G to T nucleotide change) was detected using DdeI; the wild-type strand was cleaved. FecXH (C to T nucleotide change) was detected using SpeI, the mutation-type strand was cleaved and FecXI (T to A nucleotide change) was detected using XbaI; the mutation-type strand was cleaved.

    Materials and Methods

     Blood samples were taken from 92 ewes according to data on litter size at the last lambing (Lac Ghashghaei: 24 single and 24 double lambing, Bahmaei: 22 single and 22 double lambing).
    The animals of the Lac Ghashghaei and Bahmaei breeds originate from two farms in Gachsaran and Dehdasht, respectively. Then, genomic DNA was isolated from whole blood using the DNA Extraction Kit according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Required parts of BMP15 gene were amplified using specific primers (fragment of 204 bp from FecXI, fragment of 235 bp of FecXH and fragment of 153 bp of FecXB) through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The PCR products of amplified fragments were digested by XbaI, SpeI and DdeI restriction enzymes and visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis, separately.

    Results and Discussion

     Sheep breeding is the major activity in the Kohkiloueh and Boyerahmad province of Iran and is very important in the rural economy of this region. Although litter size is an important trait that
    affects the profitability of sheep production, but the litter size of almost all sheep breeds of this province is low. In this study, PCR-RFLP method was used to identify three mutations (FecXI, FecXH and FecXB) of BMP15 gene in Lac Ghashghaei and Bahmaei ewes. As expected, the size of PCR production for FecXI, FecXH and FecXB loci were 204, 235 and 153 bp, respectively. After digestion of amplified fragments with specific restriction enzyme, the three earlier mentioned mutation sites were not detected in Lac Ghashghaei and Bahmaei sheep and only the wild-type genotype (++) was observed in both breeds for each mutation of BMP15 gene. In more detail, restriction digestion of amplified fragments for FecXB locus resulted DNA
    fragments with 31 and 122 bp. The wild type of this locus has one restriction site and this means that FecXB mutation was not detected in two breeds of this study and animal are homozygous for wild type allele of this locus. The resulted PCR products were digested with SpeI and DdeI restriction enzymes for FecXH, FecXI loci revealed DNA fragments with 235 and 204 bp, respectively. The mutant allele of FecXH, FecXI loci has one restriction site and enzyme digestion will be resulted in 2 DNA fragments while the wild type allele with no restriction site, resulted in one DNA fragments with the size. It means all 92 Lac Ghashghaei and Bahmaei ewes sampled were homozygous wild allele (++) for FecXH, FecXI loci.

    Conclusion

    The obtained results of this study indicated that there was an absence of three BMP15 mutations (FecXB, FecXH and FecXI) among the Lac Qashqai and Bahmaei sheep breeds sampled in the Kohkiloueh and Boyerahmad province, it seems genetic factor responsible for litter size is not related to reported mutated alleles of BMP15 gene and therefore other prolificacy related genes should be investigated in these breeds using a larger sample size.

    Keywords: BMP15 Gene, Fecundity, Polymorphism, Sheep
  • Masoud Didarkhah* Pages 259-272
    Introduction

    In ruminant animals, the microbial population of the digestive tract can be controlled by several factors such as growth promoters, probiotics, periobacters, enzymes, essential oils, oligosaccharides and plant additives. Before weaning, dairy calves are susceptible to many pathogens and nutritional problems. For several years antibiotics have been used to overcome these
    problems also to obtain economic benefits in terms of improved calves performance and reduced medication costs. However, the use of antibiotics in animal husbandry is in question because of antibiotic resistance of microorganisms. Research shows an association between the use of subtherapeutic dose of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistance organisms. Probiotics are live microbial feed supplements which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its microbial balance. Most of probiotic studies that were reported in the literatures used single or two strains probitics rather that multi strains bacteria, Prebiotics are non-digestible carbohydrates which are not metabolized in the small intestine and fermented in large intestine. reported that dietary chitosan oligosaccharides supplementation was effective in increasing the ileal digestibilities of nutrients and feed efficiency in broilers. Also reported that broilers fed diet supplemented with oligochitosan prebiotic had higher serum IgG, IgM and IgA concentration compared with broiler fed control diet. Dietary supplementation with Chinese herbal ultra-fine 3 powder as a prebiotic enhances cellular and humoral immunity in early weaned piglets. In this study, the effect of adding supplements to milk on functional parameters, blood metabolites, microbial population and inactivation of immunoglobulins to calves were investigated.

    Materials and methods

    Sixteen newly-born Holstein male calves were used in four completely randomized treatments for 60 days.Treatments included: 1- control group (no additive milk) 2- probiotic group (milk + 2 gr probiotic) 3- prebiotic group (milk + 4 gr perbiotic) 4- synbiotic group (milk + 2 gr probiotic and 4 gr perbiotic). Calves were weighed at 3, 30 and 63 days of age after feeding the milk at the morning meal, and the feed intake was measured and recorded daily from  taken from the feces for microbial culture. Blood samples were taken at nine o'clock in the morning (two hours after the morning meal) on weekdays. To measure the concentration of metabolites, plasma samples were melting at room temperature to determine the serum levels of serum cholesterol, glucose, albumin, triglyceride and total protein plasma from a biosorbent kit and an autoanalyzer (model A15, France) with two replications measured. IgG concentrations were measured by  immunoturbidimetry method using the COBAS INTEGRA kit at a wavelength of 800- 400 nm on the fourth day of the course, the total activity was measured for 24 hours by direct observation (28 and 51). The duration of rumination and eating was considered as the duration of maturation, and the activity of rumination and eating every five minutes was recorded for 24 hours. The duration of rumination and eating from the product of the number of each observation was obtained at intervals of five minutes.

    Results and discussion

     In calves fed with a diet containing probiotic supplementThe lowest feed intake and the best feed conversion ratio were observed in all periods compared to other treatments.Glucose and Triglyceride, total cholesterol concentration, total plasma protein and plasma aliquin concentrations were not affected by probiotic and peri-biotic supplements in diets and no significant  differences were found between diets. Probiotic supplementation significantly reduced the concentration of triglycerides in the blood plasma of calves fed with supplement supplements (P <0.05). The highest concentration of triglyceride was in the control group, with a significant difference (P <0.05) with other groups. The lowest concentration of betahydroxybutyrate was in the control group, with a significant difference (P <0.05) with other groups. In the calf Fed with probioticThe total amount of bacteria increased slightly after feeding, but there was no significant difference between different age groups in the complementary recipient groups. The highest IgG levels were in the group that consumed probiotics and there was a significant difference between the control group and the synbiotic group (P <0.05), but it was only numerically higher than the prebiotic group and this trend All ages 3, 7 and 30 continued.

    Conclusion

    In general, the results showed that supplementation with probiotic additive could improve the livestock's economic indices

    Keywords: Additive supplement, Calves, Immunoglobulins, Microbial population, Rminants