فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 21 (بهار و تابستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/03/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • اسماعیل سنگاری*، محسن یعقوبی صفحات 1-16
    در بررسی دوره های مختلف تاریخ ایران، سده های اول تا سوم هجری به دلیل تحولات و دگرگونی های عمیق جامعه ایرانی، حضور گسترده اعراب در سرزمین های ایران شهر، مواجهه دو جهان بینی زردشتی و اسلامی و شیوه های مقاومت و پایداری جامعه نسبت به تسلط اعراب، اهمیت زیادی دارد. در این دوره، دین زردشتی از جایگاه غالب و مسلط گذشته تنزل یافت و دین اسلام با گسترش تدریجی جای آن را گرفت؛ بنابراین، صیانت از وحدت درونی جامعه زردشتی به دغدغه موبدان تبدیل شد که بازتاب آن را در متون آخرالزمانی زردشتی دیده می شود. بر اساس این، پایداری در برابر اعراب، جنبه های سیاسی و خشن ابتدایی خود را کنار گذاشت و در قالب حفظ یکپارچگی دینی و اجتماعی زردشتیان و تمرکز بر موضوع پایان جهان و رستگاری روحانی، به حیات خویش ادامه داد. در این چارچوب، بروز جنبش های ایرانی که عمدتا در سده های دوم و سوم هجری بر ضد دستگاه خلافت رخ دادند و ماهیت غیرزردشتی داشتند، بدعت و چالشی خطرناک برای هویت اجتماعی زردشتیان تلقی شدند و متون آخرالزمانی زردشتی، آنها را نقد و نکوهش کردند. در این پژوهش تلاش شده است با شیوه ای توصیفی تحلیلی و با بهره گیری از شواهد مکتوب برجای مانده تا سده یازدهم میلادی، تحولات جامعه ایرانی در سده های نخستین اسلامی از منظر جهان بینی زردشتی بررسی شوند.
    کلیدواژگان: دین زردشتی، متون آخرالزمانی، دین اسلام، زردشتیان، پایان جهان
  • مستانه کاکایی، حسین کلباسی * صفحات 17-28

    بحث «خدا» و «وجود» در فلسفه مدرسی به هم گره می خورند. در متافیزیک سوآرز، «وجود» معانی مختلف و تقسیمات متفاوتی دارد و بررسی جایگاه «وجود» در خداشناسی سوآرز به بررسی معانی وجود به عنوان موضوع متافیزیک و تقسیمات وجود در خداشناسی نیاز دارد. پرسش ما این است که وجود مدنظر در موضوع متافیزیک سوآرز، چه نسبتی با وجود در بحث خداشناسی او دارد. آیا وجود در متافیزیک (جلد نخست مباحثات) با وجود خدا (بخش دوم مباحثات) نسبتی دارد. در این نوشتار، نسبت وجود در متافیزیک و خداشناسی سوآرز با دو رویکرد فلسفی و کلامی بررسی می شود. ازنظر فلسفی، خدا یکی از مصادیق اتم وجود در متافیزیک است و ازنظر کلامی، خدا «وجود» مطرح شده در جمله سفر خروج (14: 3) است. این مقاله در دو بخش بررسی شده است: در بخش نخست، بحث عام متافیزیکی درباره وجود و در بخش دوم، وجود خداوند و نسبت وجود با خداوند بررسی شده اند.

    کلیدواژگان: وجود، رویکرد فلسفی، رویکرد کلامی، سوآرز، خدا
  • محمدمهدی عموسلطانی، محمد مهدی علی مردی* صفحات 29-44

    در الهیات مسیحی که با الهیات اسلامی بیگانه نیست، راجع به خاستگاه نفس، به طور سنتی سه دیدگاه وجود دارد: «آفرینش گرایی»، «تولدگرایی»، و «تقدم وجودی». «دوگانه انگاری جوهری نوخاسته» دیدگاه چهارمی است که به تازگی با تاثیر از نگاه علمی و تکاملی نوخاسته گرایان مطرح شده است. در این نگاه سیستمی و کل گرایانه، ذهن/نفس از نظام ارگانیک بدن و از طریق فرایندها و تعاملات طبیعی و شبکه ای پیچیده از ارتباطات عصبی تولید شده است، نه اینکه از بیرون بدن قرار داده شده باشد. در این مقاله با توجه به شباهت زیاد «دوگانه انگاری جوهری نوخاسته» و دیدگاه جسمانیه الحدوث صدرا، این دو نظریه درباره خاستگاه و منشا نفس مطالعه می شوند. روش پژوهش، تطبیقی، تحلیلی و استدلالی است. هدف این پژوهش، کشف و طرح نقاط ضعف و قوت هریک از این دو نظریه و رسیدن به دیدگاه متعالی تر دراین باره است. یافته ها: تصور برخی شارحان از جسمانیه الحدوث صدرایی آن است که نفس با ترکیب عناصر و تحقق مزاج و از طریق حرکات اشتدادی و جوهری، از جسم تولید می شود؛ اما توجه دقیق تر به نگاه صدرایی، علاوه از اینکه او را پیشتاز نوخاسته گرایی معرفی می کند، با رفع خلاهای تبیینی این دیدگاه، او را در زمره آفرینش گرایان قرار می دهد. نگاهی که امروزه جامع بین علم، دین و فلسفه است و ازاین رو با نام «آفرینش گرایی نوخاسته صدرایی» در حکم گزینه و نظریه ای بسط پذیر و شایان توجه به فلاسفه دین و متکلمان پیشنهاد می شود.

    کلیدواژگان: نوخاسته گرایی جوهری، دوگانه انگاری، آفرینش گرایی، رابطه نفس و بدن، جسمانیه الحدوث
  • فرشته دارابی، عباس اشرفی* صفحات 45-62

    مراد از مثل در این پژوهش، خلاصه شده داستان در قالب تشبیه است. درحقیقت مثل، نوعی استدلال در خدمت اثبات موضوعی است که عموما ذهنی و عقلی است. مثل، ترسیم خیال است که در وهم حالت تجسد پیدا می کند؛ به گونه ای که شنونده شخصا در معرکه حضور دارد. حوادث را از نزدیک مشاهده می کند. بدون تردید خداوند از پنهانی های روان بشری آگاه و مطلع است؛ به همین دلیل مثل های دینی به مراتب بهتر از دیگر امثال بیان کننده حقایق پنهانی و غیرمادی است. مثل های دینی با ایجاد مشابهت و همگونی میان معانی معقول و اشیای محسوس به معانی تجسم می بخشند تا از رهگذر آن معانی دینی هرچه بیشتر به فهم و ادراک مخاطبان نزدیک تر شوند.این پژوهش از روش کتابخانه ای - اسنادی استفاده شده و با تکیه بر روش کیفی از نوع تحلیل محتوایی - استنباطی در پی آن است تا گامی هر چند اندک برای بسترسازی در زمینه گفتگوی ادیان بردارد؛ به همین دلیل در این پژوهش در وهله نخست موضوعات امثال قرآن کریم و عهد جدید بررسی شده است؛ بدین صورت که بیشترین تعداد امثال در قرآن به مسئله توحید و شرک و در عهد جدید به توصیف ملکوت خداوند اختصاص دارد و از لحاظ اقسام مثل، مثل های قرآنی تنوع بیشتری نسبت به مثل های عهد جدید دارند و به ترتیب در قرآن، رمزی، قیاسی، فردی، تاریخی و توصیفی اند؛ اما در عهد جدید به صورت رمزی، توصیفی، قیاسی و تاریخی اند. مراد قسم مثل فردی است، امثال به فردی، رمزی، قیاسی، تاریخی و...

    کلیدواژگان: امثال، قرآن کریم، عهد جدید، تمثیل، تحلیل محتوا
  • صدیقه ابطحی، مهدی دهباشی*، هادی وکیلی، غلام حسین خدری صفحات 63-78

    حکمت متعالیه براساس مبانی نظری خود، یعنی اصالت وجود، تشکیک در مراتب هستی و حرکت جوهری موجودات، به عالی ترین وجه، انگیزه و هدف خلقت را توجیه کرده که در حدیث قدسی «کنز» آمده است. در مراتب تشکیکی وجود برای نفس ناطقه انسانی نشاتی وجود دارد که با اراده و اختیار این مراتب تکاملی را از مرتبه حس به عالم مثال و از عالم مثال به عالم آخرت طی می کند. مرگ، یکی از این مرحله های وجودی نفس است که از عالم محسوس به عالم مثال سوق پیدا می کند و سپس از عالم میانه (عالم برزخ) به عالم آخرت (عالم کمال) سیر می کند. صدرا در تبیین مرگ، آن را امری وجودی معرفی کرده و ازاین رو به امکان معرفت به آن قائل شده است. اهمیت و ضرورت این پژوهش توجیهی عقلی و آرام بخش بحران هویت و بی معنایی زندگی در جهان معاصر است که حیات معقول بشر را در معرض نومیدی و پوچ گرایی قرار داده است؛ بنابراین در نگرش صدرایی، مرگ بعد ایجابی برای زندگی این جهانی دارد نه بعد سلبی.

    کلیدواژگان: مرگ اندیشی، معنای زندگی، حکمت متعالیه، ملاصدرا
  • ذوالفقار همتی * صفحات 79-94

    بی تردید بحث انسان و ابعاد مختلف وجود او، از موضوعات محوری آرای علامه جعفری محسوب می شود. نظرهای علامه جعفری، از آرای متفکران مسلمان تاثیر گرفته اند؛ آنها معتقدند انسان باید با به کمال رساندن خود، مصداقی از انسان کامل، جانشین و خلیفه خدا روی زمین شود؛ البته نظرهای علامه جعفری به مسایل یادشده محدود نمی شود؛ بلکه بر ابعاد دیگر وجود انسان، همچون بعدهای اجتماعی و روان شناختی نیز تاکید می کند. چنین به نظر می رسد که آشنایی علامه با آرای متفکران غربی در این موضوع تاثیر داشته است. در این میان، فروم ازجمله اندیشمندانی است که علامه جعفری او را واجد تفکر متمایزی می یابد؛ اما وجود چه عناصری در اندیشه فروم موجب این تلقی شده است؟ بررسی آرای علامه و فروم نشان می دهد هر دو با رد تعریف معین برای ماهیت انسان، معتقدند انسان موجودی برخوردار از دو سطح حیات است و نباید خود را در سطح حیات حیوانی محدود سازد؛ بلکه باید با اتکا بر استعدادهای خود، خویشتن را به سطح عالی حیات برساند و به سرشت واقعی خود و تعالی دست یابد؛ البته ممکن است در این سیر، از مسیر خود منحرف و دچار از خودبیگانگی شود. در این مقاله ضمن بررسی آرای دو متفکر، دیدگاه های آنها درباره انسان مقایسه و تحلیل شده اند و نشان داده شد چه عناصری از تفکر اریک فروم در نضج نظریه استاد جعفری درباره تعالی و معنای زندگی او نقش دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: علامه جعفری، اریک فروم، ازخودبیگانگی، تعالی
  • سیدعبدالسلام محمودیان، مرتضی قائمی*، سیدمهدی مسبوق صفحات 95-108

    پژوهش پیش رو با هدف تبیین و تعیین مولفه های معنایی دو واژه «ظلوم» و«جهول» از لابه لای دیدگاه های مختلف مفسران شیعه و سنی و براساس روابط جانشینی و هم نشینی انجام شده است تا تصویر واضح و روشنی از ظلوم و جهول بودن انسان عرضه کند. در این مقاله به روش تحلیلی توصیفی، دیدگاه های شمار درخور توجهی از مفسران دو مذهب ازنظر تطبیقی، بررسی و نشان داده شد بیشتر عالمان اهل سنت معتقدند «ظلوم و جهول» بودن جزو سرشت تمامی انسان هاست و هیچ انسانی از دایره این دو صفت نکوهیده، خارج نیست و در طرف مقابل، بیشتر علمای شیعه معتقدند ظلوم و جهول بودن جزو صفات ذاتی انسان نیست؛ بلکه مختص کسانی است که از جاده هدایت الهی منحرف شده و پرورش نیافته اند.

    کلیدواژگان: معناشناسی، روابط همنشینی و جانشینی، ظلوم و جهول
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  • Esmaeil Sangari *, Mohsen Yaqubi Pages 1-16
    Abstract Early Islamic centuries (1st to 3rd A.H) are significant in every scholarly study of different periods in Iranian history due to their intense transformation and profound developments within the Iranian society and also the encounter of Zoroastrian and Islamic worldviews and different methods of resistance against Arab domination. Zoroastrianism, as a religion, lost its dominant position and was gradually replaced by Islam. Thus, maintaining the integrity of Zoroastrian society became the main concern of the Zoroastrian priests, which can evidently be witnessed in apocalyptic texts of Zoroastrian faith. Accordingly, resistance against Arab invaders lost its initial violence and political fervor and took in a new momentum in the form of maintaining the integrity of Zoroastrian religion and society and concentration on the doomsday and spiritual salvation. Zoroastrian apocalyptic texts contained teachings that tried to adapt different fields of life in Iranian society facing spread of Islam and the Arab domination of Iran. Although the history of these texts returns to oral narratives before Sasanians, but after the transition of Iranian society from oral literature to Sasanian writing literature and the compilation of Zoroastrian texts in Islamic period, the writing of apocalyptic texts also became important. By reviewing these texts, it would be possible to find out important political and social changes of Iranian society in the first Islamic centuries. Within this framework, the rise of non-Zoroastrian Iranian movements during the 2nd and 3rd centuries A.H against the Caliphate were deemed as a dangerous heresy and a serious challenge to Zoroastrian social identity and were vehemently criticized in Zoroastrian apocalyptic texts. In other words, in the condition that there was no hope for Zoroastrian government to be restored, the preservation of the religious integrity of the people became a concern for the Zoroastrian clergy that became an apocalyptic cultural model, which was threatened by political and religious movements such as Behāfarīd, Abu Muslim and Bābak uprisings (that had a sectarian or non-Zoroastrian nature) in addition to the Arabs and the caliphate. Since these texts were written and analyzed at the same time as political events, it can be said that apocalyptic literature has been partly indicative of the reaction of Zoroastrian society to its events. In the other words, the suppression of local sustainability along the lack of belief of society towards the fall of Sasanian provided the necessary grounds for the emergence of apocalyptic literature and its related teachings. These teachings opposed all political and religious actions which were challenging for Zoroastrians in order to preserve their social identity in that difficult and complicated condition. Regardless of the social, political, and religious aspects of the movements, their leaders sought to combine the ideas of ancient religion in order to gain support of different groups of people who were incompatible from religious point of view. But this led to their defeat and the emergence of numerous religious and political sects, which themselves were the heritage of contradictions and enhanced intellectual and cultural tensions. From the point of view of the Zoroastrian apocalyptic texts, these movements were not only in the interest of the national and religious interests of the Zoroastrian community, but also threatened their coherence and integrity. The emergence of such movements, especially in the second and third centuries A.H, showed that despite the emphasis of the Zoroastrian clergy on the refusal of the Zoroastrians to cooperate with them, a wide range of society, hoping to escape Arab domination or to improve its economic conditions and social status accompanied these movements. Regardless of the political results of the movements, which often failed, its harmful consequences in the vulnerability of Zoroastrian community's unity and solidarity should be mentioned. In apocalyptic Zoroastrian texts, the leaders of these movements, such as Abu Muslim and Bābak, were condemned and their uprising was mentioned as apocalyptic catastrophe. On the other hand, the beliefs of the followers of Abu Muslim and Bābak as the promised saviors shows domination of apocalyptic thoughts in Iranian society in that period. On the other words, viewpoint of some Iranians towards Abu Muslim, Bābak and other leaders of movements against caliphate as religious leaders and promised saviors, was influenced by apocalyptic concepts of Zoroastrianism such as expectation and emergence of a savior. This paper aims to study the evolutions in the first Islamic centuries from Zoroastrian world-view in Iranian society, applying written evidence from 11th century (A.D), with descriptive and analytical method.
    Keywords: Zoroastrianism, Apocalyptic texts, Islam, Zoroastrians, Apocalypse
  • Mastaneh Kakaiy, Hossein Kalbasi * Pages 17-28

    The discussion of "God" and "being," in Scholastic philosophy are tied. In metaphysics of Suarez, “being” has different meanings and divisions. And the study of the status of "being" in the theology of Suarez requires an examination of the meanings of being as a subject of metaphysics and the divisions of being in theology. Our question is being that is a subject of metaphysics of Suarez, what has relation to being of his Theology? Is there a relation between being in metaphysics (first volume of Disputations) with God (volume II)? For Suarez the adequate object of metaphysics is being insofar as it is real being;" it deals with not only God and Aristotelian "Separate Substances") which are of themselves immaterial but also with everything else inasmuch as it falls under concepts like being, unity, truth, and goodness, but are common to these and to other things as well. Suarez in second disputation in part of forth, expresses of meaning of being and distinct being in “participle of being” and “nominal being”. What is mean of being? Being, is sometimes taken as a participle of the word ‘am’ and as such it signifies the act of being as exercised and is the same as existing actually. It signifies existence, for if someone says that Adam is, it signifies that he exists. But noun ‘being’ signifies the essence of the thing and is divided into ten genera. Nominal being signifies real essence. Essence (essentia) is being (esse) and it is the source of the acts and attributes that are attributed to something. Real essence is what is defined and the first belongs to the mind, because the first thing belongs to that object. The discussion of the existence of God in the second volume of the twenty- eight twenty-nine disputations is presented in both philosophical and theological terms. In the philosophical discussion, there are six divisions of Being that are: 1. Division of Being into into Infinite and Finite, 2. Division of Being into Being by Itself and Being from Another. 3. The Division of Being into Necessary and Contingent, 4. The Division of Being into Being by Essence and Being by Participation, 5. A Division of Being into Uncreated and Created, 6. A Division of Being into Pure Act and Potential Being. If we want to find derivation between two meanings in metaphysics (participle and nominal). The derivation is the real being. In fact, the "being of participle" does not express everything that is real, hence the "nominal existence" also needs real being. To the collection of the being of participle that is real, and the being of a nominal term that expresses the potential being, together with the real being and the subject of metaphysics. And what is also the derivation of the divisions in the second part of the article is also "real being”; Because in these divisions, one side is God, and the other is the creatures’ contingent. In fact, you can say to Suarez The subject of metaphysics is "real being," but its use in metaphysics, including God. The "real being" has been studied in relation to God with three approaches (metaphysical, theological, mystical). According to which the four ratios of being with God are given, two of which are metaphysical, one is mystical and the other is theological.1. In the first metaphysical approach, God is "self-being" or (ipsum esse) against the concrete being.2. In the mystical approach, God is " above being (supra ens) " in relation to the use of being in particular to the creatures, which are the concrete constituents. 3. In the second metaphysical approach, God is a special being, in the sense of the most complete and infallible being, in relation to the being of a general and abstract being that is common to all creatures and all beings; 4. In the theological sense of the being of the Bible and Exodus, which corresponds to the third most perfect and perfect being. Therefore, in the first metaphysical approach of God, "self-being" lies in the contrary of a particular being. And in another metaphysical approach, God is the "most specific being" that stands in the contrary of an abstract being. In the mystical approach, Following the Platonists, God is "Over being. “in the theological approach God is the "most specific being" that is the same of God in Exodus (3: 14) “I am who am”. The first metaphysical approach relates to a mystical approach and the second metaphysical approach with the theological approach is one. In fact, Suarez is a Christian philosopher who both philosophy and theology that are not ignored.

    Keywords: Being- philosophical approach, theological approach, Suarez-God
  • Mohammad Mahdi Amosoltani, Mohammad Mahdi Alimardi * Pages 29-44

    In the theological discussions of Christianity, which is not alien to the theological issues of Islam, there are three broad views on the soul’s origin: traducianism, creationism and pre-existence view. But today, in philosophy of religion and literature of mind, William Hasker posits an alternative view of origins called emergent substance dualism. Tertullian believed in traducianism that means “souls following the creation of the first pair (i.e. Adam and Eve) successively generate additional souls (i.e. diachronically not synchronically) where souls are parturient or fissile”. “According to traducianism, God creates at least one soul directly and immediately”. Soul is produced by physical parents and with physical body. Some verses of the holy book support this but it is not clear how immaterial soul can be generated through a completely physical process. The view of creationism is that God creates souls directly and immediately in mother's womb. This view was supported by many early fathers of the church and some statements of the holy book. On the pre-existence view God created all human souls prior to the creation of the world in a heavenly state. This view is based on the idea that there is a kind of "store of souls" in the sky where God stores souls and he expects to baby's body in mother' womb be created and then attaches the soul to it. This view has no holy book support. On Hasker’s emergent substance dualism, evolutionary movement, hierarchical system, systematic communications and network interactions of elements lead to emergence of novel soul, a new thing which cannot be attributed to its underlined components and relation of those components. It is the physics that has the power or ability to develop and create soul - regardless of the divine relief and assistance of God. At first glance, emergentism and creationism seem to be alien; but, if causality is put aside in emergentist arguments, it becomes a magical quality. Because without any explanation, higher level features suddenly are occurred and if causation is accepted, this theory has an explanatory gap. In fact, the emergence of higher levels such as thinking from the lower level neurological events needs the existence of effect to be superior than cause. If the effect is more complete, then the effect has given up something that lacks it! And then higher level features have emerged from nothing. Lower level entities can be able to produce system properties, but these properties do not exceed in their existences from the level existence of those entities. assuming this scientific fact that in the course of evolution , creatures become more complex and higher than simpler and lower ones, this problem arises that how these phenomena can be realized without destroying the causality principle that: no effect can be greater than its own cause. Sadra with offering philosophical foundations of principality of the existence, intensifying and substantial movement, analogical gradation and hierarchy of existence gave his theory of soul's corporeal origination. , there are similarities and differences between this approach and Hasker's approach. In the monotheistic and quranic viewpoint of Sadra, everything reflects the existence of god , then the soul apparently emerge from matter but verily God diffuses as it seems that water slake, but God really slakes, or seems that doctor  cures but God really cures. Because the relationship between the creatures and the creator is reflective, like as reflection of the sunlight and moonlight. therefore , if the matter is productive and the creator of the soul , this creation and production in sadra's view is reflective and true agent is God   the creator of the soul .But even in sadra 's view, the body has not reflective agency and creation for soul; Body is merely receptive. Somebodies unfortunately make mistakes that in Sadra's view the producer of soul is body like evolutionism and dualist emergentism of Hasker. Sadra's view about soul origination includes creationism, evolutionism, emergentism and even pre-existence view. It has positive points of creationism, evolutionism, emergentism and even pre-existence without negative points of them.

    Keywords: emergent substance dualism, dualism, creationism, relationship of soul, body, Corporeal origination
  • Fereshteh Darabi, Abbas Ashraf Ashrafi * Pages 45-62

    The Arabic term of "Mathal" used in this study is one of the divisions of Parable. It includes everything by which a similarity between a non-sensible and a sensible meaning is created and consequently a far concept from mind becomes tangible and understandable for man, and thus a way of perceiving is opened by which the understanding of many religious and rational concepts become easy. In fact, it is like a kind of argument to serve the proof of a subject that is generally mental and rational. This research, while using the librarian-documentary method, based on the qualitative method of content-inferential analysis, has managed to take some steps towards establishing a dialogue for religions. In the form of this research, a comparative study, as in the two great books of the Holy Quran and the Gospel of Sharif. In the first place, the topics of the Holy Qur'an and the New Testament are examined. The results of the analysis of this section are as follows.In both books, the two great religions have been chosen to express the principles. And the most important topics that have been raised to guide people are the most important of them is the belief in the Holy Qur'an as monotheism and polytheism, and in the Gospel, as the kingdom of God. And other important issues are ethical issues that the Holy Quran has described as ethical vices that cause the collapse of any society, such as grudge, cruelty and abstention, and in front of the gospel, pride has been expressed in the form. Both books deal with the correct and incorrect patterns for the audience, and the difference in the presentation of the patterns is that they are typical of the Qur'an; that is, the presentation of the real and historical patterns people are familiar with and the news of their personality and their lives in previous books and Through the people of the book, he had come to the people, but in front of the Gospel, he has been portrayed; and the characters in the example are not real and true. In both books, in the form of a parable, he has blamed corrupt religious scholars and likened them to their audience in a manner that is understandable to the public. But along with all these issues, Qur'anic parables can be considered more socially. Parables like charity, hypocrisy and duality of individuals, and the presentation of the correct and incorrect model in society all signify this. But in spite of these, in other examples, he gives birth to the eternal life and that worldly life and societies should not be overbearing. In contrast to evangelical parables, most are aspects of individualism and self-individualization. Parables such as: praying and not guilty, which put people at the heart of society and society, signify this. In this way, the greatest number of proverbs in the Qur'an is devoted to the issue of monotheism and polytheism, and in the New Testament, the description of the kingdom of God. In terms of verses like, the Qur'anic parables are more versatile than the New Testament parables. In Qur'an, it is codified, deductive, individual, historical, and descriptive, but in the New Testament, it is codified, descriptive, deductive, and historical, in the New Testament, such as the person who introduced the pattern, does not exist Finally, for the purpose of examining the length of the likes of the two books, the criteria for measuring them were considered, so that those with the length of sentences between 1 and 5 sentences are considered as short proverbs. In this assessment, the number of Quranic likes from They were short-sighted. To measure the average likelihood, 6 to 10 sentences were included in the index. The number of the Quran's likes after the likes of the shortest time has given them the most benefit. For the purpose of measuring the long promise, the criterion has been taken from 10 sentences that have the smallest number among the Quranic verses, but against the highest number of proverbs of the New Testament. Finally, this analysis and comparison can be concluded that the Holy Quran ultimately uses this form of expression. If he has spoken in the New Testament, and in detail, his likeness. Finally, one can conclude that both books have used the form and manner of reference in their mission as a mission and observer. Numerous topics and concepts, like those of the two books, are topics that are definitely a necessity for people to live better and be happy. The beauty of this form of expression is that it is always colorful and ineffective on it, and on the other hand, because of the interesting nature of this way, these verses are much better in the minds of the people, and are comfortable in conversations and among people as witnesses Examples are used. Of course, this issue is far more tangible and practical in the Qur'anic paradigms, in order to make it smaller and shorter.

    Keywords: Proverbs, the Koran, the New Testament parable, content analysis
  • Sedighe Abtahi, Mahdi Dehbashi *, Gholam Hossein Khadri, Hadi Vakili Pages 63-78

    In this research, we attempt to inquiry Death and the meaning of life in transcendental wisdom. Transcendental wisdom considers as the end of the existence and the essential motion of the beings toward the god. Therefore, the human movement from the material levels of the soul is considerably liable to the life of the beings and the man. Meanwhile, the place of death and the extraction of thinking about death in transcendental wisdom is an existential existence Introduced and able to emerge in the meaning of life. The importance and necessity of this research is due to the crisis of identity and meaninglessness of life in the contemporary world and the applied values ​​of the transcendental divine wisdom regarding the spiritual and physical dimensions of man. The main issue of the research is that the perfectionism that brings about the meaning of life and attention in transcendentalism can be realized in this world or it is only possible in another world and whether it is possible for everyone or only a few can be To the fullest which means the same meaning of life. The result of the research also indicates that with the lack of moving essence, which is the body and soul of man, he and his body life are destroyed. Therefore, his soul reaches the highest stages of immortality and the highest perfection, and meaning death and thought to death is also based on the meaning that he has of life. Death not only does not stop this move, but agrees with this move and provides the necessary facilities in this direction. In the connection between mortality and the meaning of life based on transcendental wisdom, one has to consider the issue of the existence of death. Based on this attitude, Death Thinking is not only thinking about absurdity and not causing the absurdity of human life, but also it is the most meaningful and enduring task of life. Because it makes a person thinking of death or a visionary who is knowing that he will be dead, also try to do austerity in order to achieve voluntary death (to the intellectual world). This process is due to the fact that the soul not only does not suffer mortality in its epistemic movement and in its own motion, but also after transferring to another stage-whether in knowledge or in the worldly life or in his life of the grace and the life of hereafter -obtains a higher degree of existence. The epistemic thinking of passing through the material world to the rational world leads to an insight into this indicator of death, which indicates the short duration of life and its completion in the world. In this way, thoughts of death can support this meaning and the recognition of life. Because if one does not think of death and does not know how to deal with what happens after the world and how it should go, and if he does not know the extent of  his actions' influence in this world on the other world, he will live normally and careless about those affairs during the time he is in the world. And death is for such a person as a waking up, while with the death of thought with the features that Mulla Sadra has expressed, the visually perceptible in this world have also opened their eyes to the states of soul in the ecstasy of the bosom and the hereafter. Mulla Sadra emphasizes here this goal is worth that the man to pursue and to tolerate his hardships throughout his life. The real goal based on the subject of mortal thought cannot be a worldly end, because it cannot be realized in the world of earthly ecstasy, and because of the knowledge that man finds death as an existential, he should seek this purpose in the afterlife ecstasy. (Shirazi, 1392, p. 185). Therefore, these worldly possibilities, because of the fact that they are toward the end of the universe and its soul, are important to human beings and their true value since with the help of them, man can pass through worldly mortal affairs and Leave the remaining items. Knowledge of death is also in harmony with man's will, in that he chooses affairs and creates the existential traits that make it possible for the good people to be created, and this virtue of being is considered to be perfect in its being. In Mulla Sadra's view, this movement on the path of the path, which is the same as the true human being's motion, is irreversible, but some of these are straightforward and some are vague. And those who choose the world on the basis of the knowledge of death and the eternal world of the path, their paths and their movement are accompanied by the physical motion of their people, otherwise they will fall into the rank of demons and abyss. Existential evolution that the soul can achieve through the association of mortality and the meaning of life can be rid of the constraint of the body, which in this ecstasy can lead to a certain existence of limitations-of course up to the degree to which it ascends. This existence can transcend the sensory world and rise to the cosmological and rational universe. Therefore, this disconnection, which is carried out with will, is the willful death, which clarifies the facts and ends the constraint and obscurity of the facts. The connection of this with the meaning of life is that in this case, man is abandoned from ignorance and ignorance, which is due to the limitations of the world of sense and example, and to reach the highest levels of education for a life in the ends of human ends. On the one hand, it gives humankind a qualitative and quantitative life to mankind, and, on the other hand, awakens man from the material and sensual world in this world. So death not only does not stop the motion of nature, but it is in agreement with the motion of nature and is in line with this move and provides the necessary facilities in this direction. As a result, thinking about death through the knowledge of life and the emergence of a true end, which somehow represents the evolution of the existential, the epistemic and ultimate human, should mean the meaning of life based on the ideas of Mulla Sadra.

    Keywords: Thinking about death, Meaning of Life, Transcendental Wisdom, Mulla Sadra
  • Zolfagar Hemmati * Pages 79-94

    Anthropology and the discussion of human being is one of the subjects that always had been in the center of debate. Who is human being? What is his essence? What is his purpose of life? A look at Hadith and Qur’an shows that the human being has the capacity of resemblance to God.  It has been realized in the perfect man who is the manifestation of God’s names and attributes. Although Allame Jafari focuses on mystical aspect of human being, because of various reasons and causes, including being familiar to the Western thinkers, he expand the region of anthropology outside of the mystical boundaries, e.g. psychological and sociological aspects. This paper aimed at showing similarities as well as differences between these two thinkers. Furthermore, we will determine why Erich Fromm was so interesting to Allame Jafari? According to Allame Jafari, human being consists of two different aspect: soul and body, which the first aspect is more important. In soul there is “ego”. While other parts of body work mechanistic, ego is conscious of its actions and other part’s actions. In order to achieve the end of life, he must be guided by means of which he could elevate over the shadow of life.   Utilizing his internal abilities, including intellect conscience, man transcendence of natural ego and achieve his perfection. This stage, which he calls intellectual life, is full of consciousness and will and is leading to the perfection. Instead of traversing the way of perfection, he may be alienated which consists of two kinds: positive alienation and negative alienation. On the other hand, for Erich Fromm, the main problem is the essence of man. According to him, it is very difficult to present a rigid definition of human being. Thus, instead of appealing to the concept of substance, he utilizes internal contradictions of human. The man is some kind of animal but all of his instincts aren’t in harmony of his environment as well as his life. His defections in this filed lead him to learn. His characteristic is consciousness of his past, future and his death. Through this, he overcomes the nature.  While he changes his environment to be a suitable place for human being, he finds a gap between his animal status and his status as a conscious being. He has two choice: downgrade to animal status of his ancestors or training his powers in the way of history in order to achieve growth and transcendence. In fact, history is the road of man’s growth which he build by means of his freewill and freedom until he reaches to his perfection i.e. justice, love and thought. For Fromm, man creates his essence, though he may be alien of his essence because of certain events and submit before external powers. Fromm calls this idolatry. In this situation, man passes his power to external things and instead to himself, he loves another external thing. Review There are certain similarities between them. It seems that the most important influence of Fromm on Allameh is psychological aspects of his thought. For Allameh, the life of man is meaningful only when he elevates from the boundaries of biological life and reaches to transcendence.  Fromm holds such belief. Also, for Allameh, same as Fromm, man has no rigid essence, but he must manifest his potentialities. The idea that human being has no rigid essence has no root in Islamic thought and thus it seems that Allameh has borrowed from Fromm and other Western thinkers. Fromm believes that man must elevate from his natural bundries and utilizing his reason, he must move to perfection and transcendence. His optimistic approach is in accordance with Allameh’s ideas and in disagreement with Fraud’s thought.

    Keywords: Allameh Jafari, Erik Fromm, alienation, the meaning of life, transcendence
  • Seyyed Abd, Salam Mahmoodian, Morteza Ghaemi *, Seyyed Mahdi Masboogh Pages 95-108

    Semantics deals with the scientific study of meaning, and meaning is awareness of the cultural context as well as the relation of a word to another vocabulary  in a text. The present research aims to explain and define the semantic components of the two words "oppression (Ẓalūm)" and "ignorance (Jahūl)" from different views of Shiite and Sunni commentators, based on the syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations, in order to draw a clear picture of the oppression and ignorance of human being. A comparative study of the views of the commentators from the both religious traditions, conducted in a descriptive analytical method, showed that most Sunni scholars believe that the attributes of oppression and ignorance are in the nature and temper of all human beings, and no human being is outside from the circle of oppression and ignorance. On the opposite side, most Shiite scholars believe that oppression and ignorance are not inherent in the human’s attributes, but are particular in those who have deviated from the path of divine guidance and have not been cultivated.

    Keywords: Semantics, syntagmatic, paradigmatic relations, Ẓalūm (oppression), Jahūl (ignorance)