فهرست مطالب

Cardio Vascular and Thoracic Research - Volume:11 Issue:3, 2019
  • Volume:11 Issue:3, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/07/07
  • تعداد عناوین: 14
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  • Mahdi Moshki, Abdoljavad Khajavi, Farveh Vakilian, Shima Minaee, Haydeh Hashemizadeh* Pages 167-175
    Introduction

    Due to the necessity of assessing the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in heart failure (HF) and the increased use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) for making a content comparison of measurement instruments, the present study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the instruments and ICF. To this aim, the disease-specific HRQOL instruments in HF were identified, and then psychometric properties and content comparison of included instruments were conducted by linking to ICF.

    Methods

    Disease-specific HRQOL instruments in HF were identified through a comprehensive and systematic search strategy. Then, the psychometric properties of included instruments were determined, and their contents were analyzed and compared based on the ICF coding system. In addition, each instrument was independently linked to ICF by two researchers based on standardized linking rules, and finally their degree of agreement was assessed by the Cohen’s kappa coefficient.

    Results

    Ten instruments including a total of 247 items and 417 concepts were linked to 124 different ICF categories. Further, 39 (31.5%), 65 (52.5%), 13 (10.4%), and 7 (5.6%) categories were linked to body function, activity and participation, environmental factors, and body structure, respectively. According to the content analysis approach and psychometric properties, the appropriate measurement instruments were Kansas City Cardiomyopathy and Minnesota living with HF questionnaires, respectively.

    Conclusion

    Content comparison provides researchers with valuable information on the instrument heterogeneity and overlapping, which results in selecting the most appropriate measurement instrument based on a specific clinical context.

    Keywords: Quality of Life, Health Status, Heart Failure, Content Analysis, Systematic Review
  • Brent Klinkhammer* Pages 176-181
    Introduction

    Hypertension is common in patients with severe aortic stenosis undertaking transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Renin–angiotensin system (RAS) blockade therapy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) has recently been associated with improved outcomes after surgical aortic valve replacement and TAVR, but it is unknown if these findings apply to a more rural patient population.

    Methods

    A retrospective cohort study of 169 patients with at least 1 year of post-TAVR follow-up at a single predominantly rural US center was performed to determine if RAS blockade after TAVR affects short- and long-term outcomes. Seventy-one patients were on an ACEI or ARB at the time of TAVR and at 1 year post-TAVR follow-up. Fisher’s exact test was used for categorical data and t-test/ANOVA was used to determine the statistical significance of continuous variables.

    Results

    In a well-matched cohort, RAS blockade therapy post-TAVR was associated with significantly improved overall survival at 2 years (95% vs. 79%, P = 0.042). RAS blockade was also associated with a trend towards decreased heart failure exacerbations in the first year after TAVR, which was statistically significant in the 30 days to 6 months timeframe after TAVR (8% vs. 21%, P = 0.032).

    Conclusion

    In a rural patient population, RAS blockade after TAVR is associated with improved overall survival and a trend towards decreased heart failure exacerbations. This study builds upon previous studies and suggests that TAVR should be considered a compelling indication for these agents.

    Keywords: Antihypertensive Agents, TAVR, ARB, ACE inhibitor
  • Tufan Çınar*, Yavuz Karabağ, Cengiz Burak, Veysel Ozan Tanık, Mahmut Yesin, Metin Çağdaş, İbrahim Rencüzoğulları Pages 182-188
    Introduction

    The present study aimed to evaluate the potential utility of thrombosis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) risk index (TRI) for the prediction of stent thrombosis (ST) in ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients who were treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI).

    Methods

    This retrospective study was related to the clinical data of 1275 consecutive STEMI patients who underwent pPCI from January 2013 to January 2018. The TRI was calculated for each patient, and the following equation was used; TRI = heart rate x [age/10]2/systolic blood pressure. For the definition of ST, the criteria as proposed by the Academic Research Consortium were applied.

    Results

    The incidence of ST was 3.2% (n=42 patients) in the study. The median value of the TRI was significantly elevated in patients with ST compared to those without ST (22 [17-32] vs. 16 [11-21], P<0.001, respectively). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, the TRI was an independent predictor of ST (odds ratio [OR]: 1.061; 95% CI: 1.038-1.085; P<0.001). In a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the optimal value of the TRI for the prediction of ST was 25.8 with a sensitivity of 45.2% and a specificity of 86.4%.

    Conclusion

    The present study finding has demonstrated that the TRI may be an independent predictor of ST in STEMI patients who were treated with pPCI. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in the literature in which the TRI and its relationship with ST was evaluated in STEMI patients treated with pPCI.

    Keywords: TIMI Risk Index, ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction, Stent Thrombosis, Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
  • Shutan Liao, Dongsheng Li, Zheng Hui, Craig S McLachlan, Yang Zhang* Pages 189-195
    Introduction

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) specific drug therapy using bosentan has significantly improved quality of life and survival, although PAH is still an incurable disease. Recent studies suggest metformin may have additional treatment benefits in PAH. We therefore investigated in vitro pulmonary artery reactivity after combination therapy of bosentan and metformin in PAH patients as compared with bosentan monotherapy in a prospective, randomized study.

    Methods

    Adult patients with PAH associated with congenital heart defects (PAH-CHD) were randomised to receive bosentan (initially at 62.5 mg twice daily for 4 weeks and then 125 mg twice daily) for 3 months with or without the combination treatment of metformin (500 mg twice daily). Vessel reactivity of isolated pulmonary arteries was examined using a wire myograph.

    Results

    Phenylephrine (PE)-induced contractions of arteries in patients received combination therapy were significantly attenuated at concentrations of 3 × 10-7 M, 10-6 M and 3 × 10-6 M, compared to those received bosentan monotherapy. After denudation, PE-induced contractions at concentrations of 3 × 10-6 M and 10-5 M were significantly decreased in the combination therapy group. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor compound C abrogated the inhibitory effects of metformin on PE-induced contractility. AMPK and eNOS phosphorylation in the pulmonary arteries of patients treated with combination therapy was increased compared to monotherapy (P < 0.05).

    Conclusion

    Adding metformin to bosentan therapy in patients with PAH-CHD decreased in vitro pulmonary artery contraction induced by PE, which is possibly related to increased AMPK phosphorylation.

    Keywords: Bosentan, Metformin, Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, Congenital Heart Defect, Vessel Reactivity
  • Elnaz Faramarzi, Mohammadhossein Somi, Alireza Ostadrahimi, Saaed Dastgiri, Mousa Ghayour, Mohammad Asgari, Sarvin Sanaie* Pages 196-202
    Introduction

    Nowadays, prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing in the world. There are inconsistence findings about the relationship between food insecurity and MetS. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the association between food insecurity and MetS in North West of Iran.

    Methods

    The anthropometric measurements, food insecurity, dietary intake, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose (FBS), serum triglyceride and HDL levels of 151 subjects who had participated in Azar cohort study were evaluated. Food security was assessed by Household Food Security Scale (HFIAS) (six-item short questionnaire) and dietary intake (using 24- hour recall questionnaire) of participants. MetS was defined according to National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III report (ATPIII) criteria.

    Results

    On the basis of HFIAS and energy, 7.3% and 11.9% of participants were food insecure and hunger, respectively. We observed no significant differences in mean body weight, BMI, waist circumference and FBS between food insecure and secure groups. Moreover, obesity (41.7% vs 30.2%) and MetS (45.5% vs 30%) were more prevalent in the food insecure group but the differences were not significant.

    Conclusion

    The most percent of participants in food insecure were obese and had MetS. However, we could not find significant differences between food insecure and food secure groups. Therefore, for achieving more clear results, further studies with large sample size are needed.

    Keywords: Food Security, Hunger, Metabolic Syndrome, Food Insecurity
  • Seyed Hassan Eftekhar, Somayeh Pourhoseini, Maryam Movahedi, Shohre Hooshmand, MohammadAli Ostovan, Pooyan Dehghani*, Nikan Ostovan Pages 203-208
    Introduction

    Myocardial bridge (MB) is a congenital anomaly in which a segment of a coronary artery is surrounded by myocardium. In our study, we want to use conventional coronary angiography (CCA) to describe morphologic characteristics of MB (unidentified or identified) in the patients with documented evidence of MB in coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA).

    Methods

    The present study was designed as cross-sectional and was conducted on 47 patients with documented evidence of MB in CCTA, who were referred to Nemazee and Faghihi hospitals for performing coronary angiography during a one year period. We compared the morphologic characteristics of tunneled segments, which were missed at CCA (unidentified), and the tunneled segments which were identified with CCA.

    Results

    In sum, MB was found in 16 (34%) patients at CCA (identified), and it was not found in 31 (66%) patients (unidentified) based on compression sign. No significant correlation was found between the percentage of systolic compression and the length and depth of the tunneled segment in identified group (r=0.73, P = 0.18; r=1.09, P = 0.15; respectively). Degree of atherosclerotic plaque formation (diameter stenosis, percentage) (mean, 0.25 (25%) ±0.29; range, 0-0.98) of the tunneled segments in unidentified group was significantly more than the same degree (mean, 0.07 (7%) ±0.13; range, 0-0.41) of the identified group (P = 0.03). The measurement of the trapezoid area under the tunneled segment with this formula [(MB length+ intramyocardial segment) ×depth/2] had significant relation with systolic compression (r=0.304, P = 0.03) and defined the cut-off value of 250 mm2 as the value of significant difference in detecting myocardial bridging with CCA.

    Conclusion

    Our results showed that in most of identified MBs in CCA the tunneled segment area was equal and more than 250 mm2. In addition, the degree of atherosclerotic plaque of the tunneled segments at CCA was significantly more in unidentified group.

    Keywords: Myocardial bridge, CT Angiography, Coronary Angiography
  • Mehdi Toluey, Samad Ghaffari, Arezou Tajlil, Babak Nasiri*, Ali Rostami Pages 209-215
    Introduction

    Smoking, which is a major modifiable risk factor for coronary artery diseases, affects cardiovascular system with different mechanisms. We designed this study to investigate the association of smoking with location of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), and short-term outcomes during hospitalization.

    Methods

    In 1017 consecutive patients with anterior/inferior STEMI, comprehensive demographic, biochemical data, as well as clinical complications and mortality rate, were recorded. Patients were allocated into two groups based on smoking status and compared regarding the location of myocardial infarction, the emergence of clinical complications and in-hospital mortality in univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis.

    Results

    Among 1017 patients, 300 patients (29.5%) were smoker and 717 patients (70.5 %) were non-smoker. Smokers were significantly younger and had lower prevalence of diabetes, hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Inferior myocardial infarction was considerably more common in smokers than in non-smokers (45.7% vs. 36%, P = 0.001). Heart failure was developed more commonly in non-smokers (33.9% vs. 20%, P = 0.001). In-hospital mortality was significantly lower in smokers (6.7% vs. 17.3%, P = 0.001). After adjustment for confounding variables, smoking was independently associated with inferior myocardial infarction and lower heart failure [odds ratio: 1.44 (1.06-1.96), P = 0.01 and odds ratio: 0.61 (0.40-0.92), P = 0.02, respectively]. However, in-hospital mortality was not associated with smoking after adjustment for other factors [odds ratio: 0.69 (0.36-1.31), P = 0.2].

    Conclusion

    Smoking is independently associated with inferior myocardial infarction. Although smokers had lower incidence of heart failure, in-hospital mortality was not different after adjustment for other factors.

    Keywords: Acute Myocardial Infarction, Tobacco Smoking, In-Hospital Mortality, Inferior Myocardial Infarction
  • Soudeh Jafari, Elnaz Daneshzad, Neil R. Brett, Nick Bellissimo, Leila Azadbakht* Pages 216-223
    Introduction

    This study aimed to determine the association of low-carbohydrate-diet score with overweight, obesity and cardiovascular risk factors among Iranian women.

    Methods

    In healthy Iranian women 20-50 years, demographics, anthropometrics, physical activity, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, blood lipids, and dietary intake (using a validated food frequency questionnaire) were assessed. Participants were divided into deciles of macronutrient intakes. Women in the lowest decile of carbohydrate intake received a score of 9 and women in the highest decile received a score of 0. For protein and fat intakes, women in the lowest decile received a score of 0 for that macronutrient and those in the highest decile received the score of 9. Macronutrient scores were summed to create the low-carbohydrate diet score and women were grouped into tertiles based on these scores. Continuous and qualitative variables were compared among the low-carbohydrate-diet score by one-way ANOVA and chi-square test, respectively. Logistic regression was used to determine the association of low-carbohydrate-diet score and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Results

    A total of 209 women were included in the study. Socioeconomic status significantly increased from tertile 1 to 3 of the low-carbohydrate diet score (P = 0.02). Total dietary glycemic index (GI) significantly differed among tertiles (tertile 1 GI: 63.1 ±0.50, tertile 2 GI: 61.9 ± 0.5, tertile 3 GI: 59.5 ± 0.5; P < 0.001). The odds ratios for overweight, obesity and cardiovascular risk factors were not significantly different among the tertiles of low-carbohydrate diet score.

    Conclusion

    In Iranian women, diets lower in carbohydrate and higher in protein and fat were not associated with overweight, obesity and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Keywords: Low-Carbohydrate Diet, Overweight, Obesity, Cardiovascular Disease, Women
  • Vladimir Starodubtsev*, Andrey Karpenko, Evgeniy Lenko, Pavel Ignatenko Pages 224-229
    Introduction

    The objective is to evaluate the frequency of primary obstruction events (PrO) during one-year follow-up after performing excisional atherectomy with the SilverHawk/TurboHawk atherectomy device (S/TH) or remote superficial femoral artery endarterectomy (RSFAE) in patients with the chronic superficial femoral artery occlusive disease (СSFAOD).

    Methods

    We included all randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and not-RCTs concerning the treatment of patients with СSFAOD after S/TH and RSFAE without duration.

    Results

    Twenty-nine items (1990-2017) were discovered; 27 articles on the levels of evidence were included in qualitative synthesis; 9 studies (meta-analysis) were included in quantitative synthesis. The results of 2762 patients’ treatment were summed up in our analysis (1422 patients S/TH; 1340 patients RSFAE). All included reports were at low risk of bias. According to the criterion "frequency of PrO" during one-year follow-up, the pooled Hazard Ratios indicate significant favours of S/TH if compared it with RSFAE (HR= 0.66 (0.57 to 0.76, P < 0.00001), I2 = 9%).

    Conclusion

    Our study showed that S/TH with the SpiderFX device (distal embolic protection) are safe and effective treatment option for short lesion (<15 cm) in patients with СSFAOD. The usage of S/TH methods significantly reduced number of PrO if compared it with RSFAE. In long-segment lesion (>15 cm) in patients with СSFAOD, RSFAE may be considered better than an endovascular procedure. But still it is necessary to conduct well-planned randomized studies to determine effectiveness and safety of the compared methods (S/TH and RSFAE) in patients with long-segment lesion (>15 cm).

    Keywords: Excisional Atherectomy, Endovascular Procedure, Superficial Femoral Artery, Remote Endarterectomy, Chronic Occlusive Disease
  • Roghayeh Pourkia, Mahsa Panahi, Zahra Emkanjoo, Mozhgan Parsaee, Maryam Shojaeifard, Babak Sattartabar, Yousef Rezaei, Niloufar Samiei Pages 230-236
    Introduction

    Cardioembolic events are accompanied by left atrial appendage (LAA) in patients suffering from atrial fibrillation (AF); therefore, the LAA closure is implemented as a preventive strategy. The detection of LAA morphologies and function is a paramount step before establishing the LAA closure. Herein, we sought to determine the morphologic features of the LAA in an Iranian population using echocardiographic evaluation.

    Methods

    Seventy-two near-normal heart patients were investigated by conducting a cross-sectional study. All patients were examined using the 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (2D- and 3D-TEE) method. The anatomical features and functions of LAA were examined. All images were stored and analyzed offline.

    Results

    The patients’ mean age was 39 ± 15.5 year and 33 (45.8%) were female. The most frequent shape of LAA was wind sock. More LAA lobes was observed in patients with AF compared to those with NSR. In comparison with AF group, the NSR had higher LAA flow velocity (P < 0.01). The paroxysmal AF had greater LAA flow velocity and LAA ejection fraction in comparison with the chronic AF (39 ± 19 vs. 75 ± 22, P < 0.01; and 49±4 vs. 72±14, P < 0.003; respectively). The paroxysmal AF had smaller systolic LAA orifice area in comparison with the chronic AF (P < 0.02).

    Conclusion

    The morphologic features of LAA in Iranian population were within the range of other studies and LAA length and orifice diameters in 2D- and 3D-TEE were consistent. In addition, AF influenced the morphologies and functions of LAA compared to sinus rhythm.

    Keywords: Left Atrial Appendage, Transthoracic Echocardiography, Transesophageal Echocardiography, 3-Dimensional Echocardiography, Atrial Fibrillation
  • Manije Darooghegi, Nazli Namazi, Bagher Larijani, Nick Bellissimo, Leila Azadbakht* Pages 237-243
    Introduction

    Limited studies are available regarding the relationship between Food Quality Score (FQS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate the association of FQS with CVD risk factors in women.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was carried out among 368 women aged 20-50 years who randomly selected from health centers across Tehran, Iran. Dietary intake was collected using a reliable and validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FQS includes vegetables, fruits, whole grains, yogurt, nuts and legumes, coffee, refined grains, desserts and ice cream, sugar-sweetened beverages, red meats, fried food consumed outside the home, processed meats, potato and potato chips. Standard methods were used to assess blood pressure, biochemical and anthropometric measures. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between FQS and CVD risk factors.

    Results

    Participant mean age and body mass index (BMI) were 30.7 ± 6.9 years and 24.3 ± 4.0 kg/m2, respectively. After taking potential confounders into account, FQS had no significant association with risk of overweight and obesity [Odds ratio (OR): 1.1, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68, 1.8; P = 0.683], diabetes (OR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.22, 1.74; P = 0.374), metabolic syndrome (OR: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.10, 1.32; P = 0.127), hypercholesterolemia (OR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.29, 1.01; P= 0.051), or hypertriglyceridemia (OR: 1.63, 95% CI: 0.71, 3.70; P = 0.244).

    Conclusion

    The results showed that FQS was not significantly associated with CVD risk factors among women. Prospective cohort studies are warranted to confirm our findings.

    Keywords: Food Quality Score, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Obesity, Diabetes, Dyslipidemia
  • Masoud Nazemiyeh, Amirhossein Dorraji, Masoud Nouri, Akbar Sharifi* Pages 244-247
    Introduction

    Pleural effusion (PE) is a common manifestation of pulmonary and non–pulmonary diseases, and the first step for diagnosing the etiology is analysis of pleural fluid. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology of PE in a tertiary referral hospital in the North-West of Iran.

    Methods

    All patients with PE who referred to the department of pulmonary diseases in tertiary centre of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences between 2015 and 2016 were enrolled. Complete enumeration method used for selection of patients. Required information including clinical findings, PE location, fluid appearance, and biochemical characteristics were recorded using a checklist and analyzed via appropriate statistical methods.

    Results

    A total of 223 patients were included in this study. Congestive heart failure (CHF) was the most common cause of PE (n=67), followed by pulmonary thromboembolism and malignant diseases. PE fluid in all patients with CHF was transudative.

    Conclusion

    According to the findings of this study, CHF was the most prevalent cause of PE.

    Keywords: Pleural Effusion, Heart Failure, Exudates, Transudates, Tuberculosis
  • Rupesh Kumar*, Javid Raja, Ganesh Kumar Munirathinam, Anand Kumar Mishra, Rana Sandeep Singh, Shyam Kumar Singh Pages 248-250

    Traumatic aortic transection is a life threatening emergency where there is a near-complete tear through all the layers of the aorta due to trauma. This condition is most often lethal and requires immediate medical attention. Symptoms of an aortic rupture may include severe chest pain, back pain, abdominal pain and signs of external chest injury. Treatment should be prompt in hemodynamically unstable patient in the form of endovascular or open surgical technique. We present a twenty nine year old male with aortic transection following motor vehicle accident where an interposition tube graft was placed after trimming the lacerated segments of the aorta under cardiopulmonary bypass. The patient is doing well with two years of follow up at our institution.

    Keywords: Aorta, Aortic Transection, Aortic Rupture
  • Marzieh Nikparvar, Sayed Mohammadbagher Asgari, Hossein Farshidi* Pages 251-253

    A 19 year old man was admitted to emergency department (ED) because of motorcycle to motorcycle accident. In ED he was evaluated as a multiple trauma patient and after overnight observation, was discharged with stable vital signs (VS) next morning. Twenty four hours later, he developed chest pain and dyspnea, and was admitted to ED for the second time. This time he was evaluated as a chest trauma patient and chest X ray and CT scanning were performed. According to cardiology consult, an electrocardiogram was recorded and extensive anterolateral ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) was confirmed. Coronary angiography revealed total thrombotic occlusion of left anterior descending artery (LAD) from ostium. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was performed and LAD stented successfully. After 10 days of ICU admission, he was discharged with an ejection fraction (EF) of 35%.

    Keywords: Myocardial Infarction, Blunt Chest Trauma, Percutaneous Coronary Intervention