فهرست مطالب

مدیریت مدرسه - سال هفتم شماره 3 (پاییز 1398)
  • سال هفتم شماره 3 (پاییز 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/07/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 15
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  • تاثیر رهبری اصیل بر آمادگی برای تغییر سازمانی با نقش میانجی سرمایه روان شناختی
    مهناز خاکپور، زهرا حاجی انزهایی*، فریده اشرف گنجویی صفحات 80-100
    هدف این پژوهش بررسی تاثیر رهبری اصیل بر آمادگی برای تغییر سازمانی با متغیر میانجی سرمایه روان شناختی بود. جامعه آماری این تحقیق شامل همه مدیران مدارس ورزش استان تهران به تعداد 200 نفر بود که با استفاده از "روش ترکیبی جدول کرجسی مورگان و مدل معادلات ساختاری" ، 187 نفر به شیوه انتخاب تصادفی ساده به عنوان نمونه آماری انتخاب شدند. برای جمع آوری داده ها از پرسش نامه های رهبری اصیل والومبا و همکاران (2006)، آمادگی برای تغییر سازمانی هالت و همکاران (2007) و سرمایه روان شناختی لوتانز (2007) استفاده شد. اعتبار درونی پرسش نامه ها توسط ضریب آلفای کرونباخ به ترتیب 95/0،82/0 و 86/0 به دست آمد. داده های تحقیق با رویکرد مدل یابی معادلات ساختاری و با نرم افزار پی ال اس تحلیل شد. نتایج نشان داد که اثر رهبری اصیل بر سرمایه روان شناختی و آمادگی برای تغییر سازمانی، همچنین اثر سرمایه روان شناختی بر آمادگی برای تغییر سازمانی، مثبت و معنی دار بود. اثر میانجی سرمایه روان شناختی در رابطه رهبری اصیل با آمادگی برای تغییر سازمانی، معنی دار بود. با توجه به نتایج، در صورت وجود رهبری اصیل در سازمان ها و به ویژه سازمان های آموزشی و ارتقاء سرمایه روان شناختی می توانیم شاهد میزان بالاتری از آمادگی کارکنان برای تغییر سازمانی باشیم. لذا، ارائه رفتارهای رهبری اصیل از سوی مدیران و توسعه سرمایه روان شناختی برای افزایش آمادگی کارکنان برای پذیرش تغییرات سازمانی پیشنهاد می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: رهبری اصیل، سرمایه روان شناختی، آمادگی برای تغییر، مدیران مدارس ورزش، معادلات ساختاری
  • مطالعه اکتشافی ابعاد رهبری برنامه درسی از دیدگاه مدیران مدارس ابتدایی
    شهربانو حسنی*، علی حسینی خواه، مسعود گرامی پور، غلامرضا حاجی حسین نژاد صفحات 120-140
    پژوهش حاضر با هدف تبیین پدیدارنگارانه ابعاد رهبری برنامه درسی در مدارس ابتدایی، از دیدگاه مدیران آن مدارس انجام شده است؛ پدیدارنگاری نوعی پژوهش کیفی است که بر اساس تجارب زیسته دیگران به وارسی و واکاوی پدیده ها می پردازد. مشارکت کنندگان در پژوهش، 15 نفر از مدیران مدارس ابتدایی استان البرز می‏باشندکه به صورت هدفمند مبتنی بر معیار به جهت این که بهترین اطلاع رسان برای این پژوهش بودند، انتخاب شدند. در این مطالعه، با توجه به هدف تحقیق، نوع و ماهیت سوالات پژوهش، از ابزار مصاحبه (مصاحبه عمیق و نیمه ساختار یافته) استفاده شده است. کلیه مصاحبه‎هاپس از معرفی اهداف پژوهش به مصاحبه شوندگان، ضبط و بلافاصله تایپ شدتا بازخوردهای لازم برای مصاحبه های بعدی واشباع داده‏ها فراهم شود. برای تحلیل داده‎ها از رویکرد توصیفی- تحلیلی با استفاده از کدگذاری در دو سطح باز و محوری استفاده شده است. در این پژوهش 4 سوال اصلی و چند سوال فرعی در جریان مصاحبه جهت تعمیق اطلاعات و اشباع داده ها مطرح شد. جهت کدگذاری مصاحبه ها از نرم افزار ATLAS.ti 7 استفاده شد. علاوه بر کدگذاری، از بازنگری توسط اساتید فن نیز استفاده شد. در مجموع 362 کد استخراج شد که پس از حذف کدهای مشابه به 52 کد در 13 مولفه، 6 مقوله و در نهایت 3 بعد اصلی (معلم، مدیر و محیط یادگیری) دسته بندی شدند. نتایج حاکی از این است که اجرای با کیفیت ابعاد و مولفه های استخراج شده در این پژوهش موجب اثربخشی آموزشی و پرورشی و بهره وری فرآیند یاددهی_ یادگیری می شود. کلیدواژه ها: رهبری برنامه درسی؛ دوره ابتدایی؛ مدیران مدارس؛ پدیدارنگاری.
    کلیدواژگان: رهبری برنامه درسی، دوره ابتدایی، &quot، مدیران مدارس&quot، پدیدارنگاری
  • تدوین و ارائه فرا ترکیب شاخص های کنش های یاریگرانه و سینرژی نوآورانه در بین دانشگران مدرسه
    علی اکبر دولتی*، سیدعلی سیادت، هادی دهقانی صفحات 140-150
    پژوهش حاضر با هدف تدوین و ارائه فرا ترکیب شاخص های کنش های یاریگرانه و سینرژی نوآورانه در بین دانشگران مدارس استان فارس انجام گردید. نوع پژوهش کاربردی و روش آن آمیخته اکتشافی بود که در بخش کیفی پژوهش، با 8 نفر از مدیران، مصاحبه عمیق و 28 مورد مصاحبه نیمه هدایت شده با معلمان و معاونان که به شیوه هدفمند - گلوله برفی انتخاب شده بودند، انجام شد. نتایج حاصل از تحلیل محتوای مصاحبه ها و مطالعه عمیق مبانی نظری، در قالب پرسش نامه ای محقق ساخته تنظیم گردید. روایی محتوایی بر اساس نظر خبرگان و صاحبنظران در این حوزه تایید و پایایی آن از طریق آلفای کرونباخ 0/91 مناسب گزارش شد. در بخش کمی، پرسش نامه پژوهش توسط 377نفر از مدیران، معلمان و معاونان که به روش نمونه گیری طبقه ای انتخاب شده بودند، تکمیل شد و در بخش کیفی از تکنیک تحلیل محتوا و در بخش کمی از آزمون تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی، تحلیل عاملی تاییدی و آزمون فریدمن استفاده گردید. یافته های این پژوهش نشان داد؛ مشارکت افراد در تصمیم گیری، فرصت ارائه نظرات و توجه به ایده ، فراهم نمودن منابع و پشتیبانی از ایده ها، ایجاد انگیزه در فعالیت جمعی و ارائه ایده های جدید، فراهم نمودن خود ارزیابی فردی و گروهی، پذیرش پیشنهادات و توجه به نوآوری توسط مدیران از جمله شاخص های مهم کنش های یاریگرانه و سینرژی نواورانه می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: کنش های یاریگرایانه، سینرژی نوآورانه، دانشگران، مدرسه
  • پیوند نظریه و عمل در مدیریت آموزشی: کاوشی در تعامل مدیران مدارس با اساتید دانشگاه
    کتایون میدانی پور*، عباس عباس پور، علی خورسندی طاسکوه، صمد برزوئیان صفحات 140-160
    پژوهش حاضر به منظور شناسایی زمینه های همکاری و تعامل آموزشی بین مدارس متوسطه و دانشکده های روان شناسی و علوم تربیتی شهر تهران و با استفاده از روش کیفی داده بنیاد انجام گرفته است. جامعه آماری پژوهش شامل کلیه دست اندرکاران و صاحبنطران دانشگاهی و آموزش و پرورش می باشد که در ارتباط با موضوع تعامل آموزشی بین مدارس و دانشگاه ها، به نوعی دارای سابقه اجرایی و یا علمی هستند. از میان جامعه آماری، 26 نفر از طریق نمونه گیری هدفمند تا رسیدن به اشباع نظری انتخاب شده اند. داده ها با استفاده از مصاحبه های نیمه ساختاریافته جمع آوری شده است. به منظور تجزیه و تحلیل داده های حاصل از مصاحبه، از کدگذاری استفاده شده است. برای بررسی روایی و پایایی پژوهش، از تایید مصاحبه شوندگان برای کنترل روایی پژوهش بهره گرفته شده است و در ارتباط با پایایی نیز، توافق یا همخوانی بین دو کدگذار در کدگذاری چهار مصاحبه، محاسبه گردیده است. ضریب توافق به دست آمده، 85/0 بوده که حاکی از توافق و همخوانی بالا و نیز ضریب پایایی مناسب می باشد. یافته های پژوهش نشان داد که مدارس متوسطه و دانشکده های روان شناسی و علوم تربیتی شهر تهران می توانند در سه زمینه کلی پشتیبانی از دانش آموزان، آماده سازی دانش آموزان برای دانشگاه، و حمایت و پشتیبانی از معلمان و کارکنان مدرسه و 31 زمینه جزئی با یکدیگر همکاری و تعامل آموزشی داشته باشند.
    کلیدواژگان: پیوند نظریه و عمل، مدیریت آموزشی، تعامل و همکاری، مدیران مدارس، استادان دانشگاه
  • شناسایی و تدوین ملاک های انتصاب مدیران آموزشی
    مسعود فروتن، سعید رجائی پور*، سیدعلی سیادت، احمدرضا نصراصفهانی صفحات 150-160
    این پژوهش با هدف شناسایی و تدوین ملاک های انتصاب مدیران و معاونان نواحی و مناطق آموزش و پرورش ، با روش کیفی از نوع اکتشافی انجام شد . با تعداد چهارده نفر با شیوه زنجیره ای متخصصان (گلوله برفی) از بین صاحبنظران و مدیران ارشد سازمان آموزش و پرورش تا رسیدن به اشباع نظری مصاحبه شد. داده ها با استفاده از مصاحبه نیمه ساختار یافته گردآوری شد.روایی مصاحبه ها بوسیله پرسش از همکار و بررسی توسط متخصصین تایید شد و پایایی کد گذاری های انجام شده نیز با استفاده از دو شاخص ثبات و تکرار پذیری بررسی شد . از نرم افزار MAXQDA و تکنیک تحلیل محتوای استقرایی برای تحلیل داده ها استفاده شد . نتایج نشان داد که ملاک های انتصاب مدیران و معاونان نواحی و مناطق را می توان به سه دسته فردی (شخصی - شخصیتی) ، مدیریتی (فنی- انسانی - ادراکی - رهبری) ، سازمانی (آئین نامه ها و قوانین ، فرایند انتصاب) دسته بندی کرد . برای شایسته گزینی در مدیریت آموزش و پرورش باید با استفاده از خرد جمعی ، سیاسی عمل نکردن و جلوگیری از دخالت های نهادهای بیرون سازمان،زمینه را برای شایسته ترین افراد جهت تصدی مدیریت نواحی و مناطق آموزش و پرورش فراهم آورد .
    کلیدواژگان: انتصاب مدیران، مدیران نواحی آموزش و پرورش، شایستگی های مدیران، مهارت های مدیریتی
  • ارتباط رهبری تحول آفرین مدیران مدارس با عملکرد معلمان: تبیین نقش تعدیل کننده انگیزه خدمت عمومی
    محمد منتظری*، نسرین پورحسینعلی صفحات 160-170
    اجرای سند تحول بنیادین در آموزش و پرورش نیازمند بکارگیری سبک رهبری تحول آفرین در راستای ارتقای عملکرد کارکنان این سازمان و به طور خاص عملکرد معلمان در مدارس می باشد. تحقیق حاضر به منظور بررسی تاثیر رهبری تحول آفرین بر عملکرد شغلی با نقش تعدیل کننده انگیزه خدمت عمومی در معلمان مقطع متوسطه دوم شهر سیرجان انجام شده است. روش تحقیق توصیفی و از شاخه همبستگی بوده و جامعه آماری این تحقیق عبارت است از معلمان مقطع متوسطه دوم شهرستان سیرجان که تعداد آنها در سال تحصیلی 1395- 1396 به 726 نفر بالغ می گردد. با استفاده از جدول مورگان، حجم نمونه 251 نفر به دست آمد که با روش طبقه ای تصادفی انتخاب شدند. جهت گردآوری داده ها از تحقیق سه پرسشنامه استاندارد سبک رهبری تحول آفرین باس و آولیو(2000)، عملکرد شغلی پاترسون(1992) و انگیزه خدمت عمومی آلونزو و لوییس(2001) استفاده شد. پایایی پرسشنامه ها با استفاده از ضریب آلفای کرونباخ و پایایی ترکیبی مورد تایید قرار گرفت. برای تعیین روایی نیز از روایی همگرا و واگرا استفاده و روایی پرسشنامه ها تایید گردید. به منظور تجزیه وتحلیل داده ها از مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری و نرم-افزار Amos استفاده گردید. نتایج تجزیه وتحلیل داده ها نشان داد که انگیزه خدمت عمومی تاثیر رهبری تحول آفرین بر عملکرد شغلی معلمان را تعدیل می کند. در عین حال رهبری تحول آفرین بر عملکرد شغلی، انگیزه خدمت عمومی بر عملکرد شغلی و همچنین رهبری تحول آفرین بر انگیزه خدمت عمومی معلمان تاثیر مثبت و معناداری دارند.
    کلیدواژگان: سبک رهبری، رهبری تحول آفرین، عملکرد شغلی، انگیزه خدمت عمومی
  • شناسایی ابعاد و مولفه های رفتاری رهبران آموزشی بینش مند در مدارس ابتدایی؛ پژوهشی پدیدارشناسانه
    زهرا همت یار*، بیژن عبدالهی، عبدالرحیم نوه ابراهیم، حسن رضا زین آبادی صفحات 170-180
    هدف این پژوهش، شناسایی ابعاد و نشانگان رفتاری رهبران آموزشی بینش مند در مدارس ابتدایی، به منظور بومی سازی و توسعه مبانی نظری، با استفاده از رویکرد تحلیل کیفی پدیدارشناسی می باشد.. در این پژوهش، به منظور احصای تجارب، 14 نفر از مدیران موفق مدارس ابتدایی شهر مشهد با روش نمونه گیری هدفمند تا رسیدن به اشباع مقوله انتخاب شدند. پژوهشگر با هدف غنی سازی نتایج، از نظرات 9 نفر از خبرگان و اعضاء هیات علمی دانشگاه ها در رشته مدیریت آموزشی نیز که با همین روش نمونه گیری انتخاب شده اند بهره گرفته است. در مجموع نمونه آماری 23 می باشد. سپس داده ها با استفاده از مصاحبه های نیمه ساختاریافته و عمیق گردآوری، و با استفاده از ترکیب رویکرد هفت مرحله ای کلایزی و کدگذاری باز، محوری و انتخابی مورد تحلیل قرار گرفت. با تحلیل محتوای مصاحبه های صورت گرفته، و انجام مقایسه و تطبیق داده ها، 184 شاخص به دست آمد که با حذف موارد تکراری و ادغام شاخص های همجنس و مشابه، این تعداد به 58 نشانگر کاهش یافت که در نهایت در قالب 22 زیر مقوله و 6 مقوله اصلی جمع بندی گردید. یافته-های پژوهش نشان داد ابعاد و مولفه های رفتاری رهبران آموزشی بینش مند در مدارس ابتدایی، ابعاد شخصیتی، ارزشی، دانش حرفه ای، تفکر استراتژیک، شناختی و مهارت مدیریت روابط می-باشند. نتایج حاکی از آن است که رهبران آموزشی بینش مند از رویکردهای تقریبا مشابهی که ناظر به اهداف بلندمدت می باشد برخوردارند. بنابراین با به کارگیری فرایندهای گزینشی صحیح و اعمال استراتژی های توانمندسازی مناسب، می توان مدیریت روتین کنونی مدارس را به سمت رهبری بینش مند هدایت کرد.
    کلیدواژگان: &quot، رهبری آموزشی بینش مند&quot، &quot، ویژگی های شخصیتی&quot، &quot، ارزشی&quot، &quot، دانش حرفه ای&quot، &quot، تفکر استراتژیک&quot
  • رابطه جو اخلاقی، عدالت سازمانی درک شده و درگیری شغلی با نقش میانجی اخلاق حرفه ای معلمان مدارس
    بهبود یاریقلی*، غلامرضا گلمحمدنژاد بهرامی، مهدی فضلی صفحات 180-190
    هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی رابطه جو اخلاقی و عدالت سازمانی ادرک شده و درگیری شغلی معلمان با نقش میانجی اخلاق حرفه ای است. روش تحقیق، از نوع توصیفی- همبستگی مبتنی بر معادلات ساختاری می باشد. تمامی معلمان دوره اول متوسطه شهر تبریز به تعداد 1692 جامعه آماری تحقیق بودند و روش نمونه گیری به صورت خوشه ایانجام شد و حجم نمونه با استفاده از فرمول کوکران محاسبه گردید و 320 نفر پرسشنامه را تکمیل کردند. برای جمع آوری داده ها از پرسشنامه های عدالت سازمانی مورمن و نیهوف(2001)، جو اخلاقی فریچ(2000)، درگیری شغلی کانونگو(1982) ، اخلاق حرفه ای بیتمن و شل(2004) استفاده شد و روایی ابزارها با استفاده از تحلیل عاملی تاییدی بررسی شد که همه آن ها برازش خوبی داشتند. نتایج نشان می دهد جو اخلاقی، عدالت سازمانی ادراک شده، درگیری شغلی و اخلاق حرفه ای با یکدیگر رابطه دارند. همچنین اخلاق حرفه ای مابین درگیری شغلی و مراقبت و توجه، ابزاری و کارایی مداری از مولفه های جو اخلاقی و عدالت توزیعی و تعاملی از ابعاد عدالت سازمانی ادراک شده نقش میانجی دارد و معلمان و مدیران ارشد عرصه تعلیم و تربیت می توانند با لحاظ اخلاقیات و ایجاد فضای آرام و توزیع عادلانه مزایا و تجدید نظر در رویه های توزیع موجبات دلبستگی و درگیری شغلی معلمان را فراهم آورند.
    کلیدواژگان: جو اخلاقی، عدالت سازمانی ادرک شده، درگیری شغلی، اخلاق حرفه ای، معلمان
  • بررسی تاثیر فضای اخلاقی مدارس بر تعلق خاطر سازمانی معلمان
    محسن عارف نژاد*، مریم موید صفحات 190-200
    منابع انسانی در دنیای امروز بهترین مزیت رقابتی هر سازمان تلقی می شود و انسان بیش از هر زمان دیگر، در نظریه سازمان اهمیت یافته است. هدف از انجام این پژوهش بررسی تاثیر فضای اخلاقی بر تعلق خاطر شغلی معلمان است. روش پژوهش در این مطالعه توصیفی از نوع کاربردی بوده و جامعه موردمطالعه 450 نفر از معلمان مقطع متوسطه دوم ناحیه یک خرم آباد در سال تحصیلی 95-96 بود که با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری در دسترس و بر اساس جدول مورگان تعداد 210 نفر از آنان انتخاب گردید. ابزار جمع آوری اطلاعات شامل پرسشنامه جو اخلاقی ویکتور و کالن (1987) با 26 سوال و پرسشنامه تعلق خاطر شاوفلی و همکاران (2003) دارای 17 سوال با مقیاس پنج درجه ای لیکرت بود. ضریب پایایی پرسشنامه های جو اخلاقی و تعلق خاطر به ترتیب 841/0 و 846/0 بدست آمده است. در این پژوهش برای بررسی فرضیه ها و آزمون مدل، از مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری با کمک نرم افزار PLS استفاده شد. یافته های حاصل از پژوهش نشان داد که فضای اخلاقی سازمان (ابزاری، توجه، استقلال، قوانین و مقررات سازمانی، قوانین و ضوابط اخلاقی حرفه ای) بر تعلق خاطر شغلی معلمان تاثیرگذار است. بر اساس یافته های پژوهش مدیران می توانند با مدیریت فضای اخلاقی مدارس، بر رفتارهای افراد سازمان اثر گذاشته و سبب افزایش تعلق خاطر شغلی معلمان شوند.
    کلیدواژگان: اخلاق، فضای اخلاقی سازمان، تعلق خاطر معلمان، مدل فضای اخلاقی ویکتور و کالن
  • بررسی تاثیر کیفیت زندگی کاری بربهزیستی روانشناختی با میانجیگری مشاوره مدیریتی
    سعید فرحبخش*، مسلم قبادیان، کبری یوسفوند صفحات 260-280
    هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی تاثیر کیفیت زندگی کاری بر بهزیستی روانشناختی مدیران مدارس شهر خرم آباد با میانجیگری مشاوره مدیریتی بود. روش پژوهش، توصیفی از نوع همبستگی است. جامعه آماری این پژوهش، شامل کلیه مدیران مدارس شهر خرم آباد در سال تحصیلی 97-96که تعداد آنها 347 نفر بود، با توجه به نوع پژوهش و تعداد متغیرهای مورد مطالعه از جامعه مورد مطالعه منطبق با جدول برآورد نمونه کرجسی و مورگان تعداد 181 نفر از مدیران مدارس) ابتدایی 76 نفر، متوسطه اول 37 نفر و متوسطه دوم 68 نفر(شهر خرم آباد به شیوه نمونه گیری تصادفی طبقه ای انتخاب شدند. ابزار سنجش در این تحقیق عبارت است از الف(پرسشنامه بهزیستی روانشناختی ریف)ریف،(1995 مشتمل بر 54 گویه که پایایی این پرسش نامه α = ./ 82محاسبه شده است ب(پرسشنامه کیفیت زندگی کاری) والتون،(1973 مشتمل بر 32 گویه است و پایایی این پرسش نامه α = ./ 91 گزارش شده است ج(پرسش نامه مشاوره مدیریتی محقق ساخته مشتمل بر 29 گویه که روایی آن از طریق روایی محتوی تایید و همچنین پایایی آن با استفاده از ضریب آلفای کرونباخ ./95محاسبه شد. داده های به دست آمده با استفاده از آزمون ضریب همبستگی پیرسون و رگرسیون سلسله مراتبی مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت.
    کلیدواژگان: بهزیستی روانشناختی، مشاوره مدیریتی، کیفیت زندگی کار، مدارس
  • ارزیابی وضعیت صلاحیت های حرفه ای معلمان "از دیدگاه مدیران" ابتدایی استان مرکزی
    سید محمد میرکمالی، فاطمه نارنجی ثانی*، سمیه اسدی صفحات 280-300
    چکیده روش پژوهش حاضر توصیفی بوده که به صورت پیمایشی انجام شده است. جامعه آماری شامل مدیران مدارس دولتی ابتدایی استان مرکزی بود. حجم نمونه طبق جدول جرسی و مورگان 103 نفر برآورد شد که با روش نمونه گیری تصادفی طبقه ای با انتساب نسبی انتخاب شدند. به منظور گردآوری داده ها پرسشنامه محقق ساخته صلاحیت های حرفه ای معلمان استفاده شد. روایی صوری پرسشنامه توسط تعدادی از پاسخ دهندگان و روایی محتوایی پس از بررسی چهار تن از اساتید متخصص حوزه صلاحیت های حرفه ای مورد تایید قرار گرفت. پایایی پرسشنامه از طریق ضریب آلفای کرونباخ 98/0 محاسبه شد. تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها با استفاده از آمار توصیفی و استنباطی شامل آزمون دوجمله ای و فریدمن صورت گرفت. نتایج نشان داد وضعیت موجود صلاحیت های حرفه ای معلمان در تمام مولفه ها بالاتر از حد متوسط است. توزیع نمرات بر روی پیوستار صلاحیت های حرفه ای نشان داد 96% از معلمان در طیف دارای صلاحیت و 04% از معلمان در طیف فاقد صلاحیت قرار می گیرند. نتایج رتبه بندی ابعاد صلاحیت های حرفه ای معلمان نشان داد بعد اخلاق حرفه ای، بعد شخصی، بعد بین فردی و بعد تخصصی از لحاظ اولویت بندی به ترتیب در رتبه اول تا چهارم قرار دارند. کلید واژگان: ارزیابی وضعیت، صلاحیت های حرفه ای، معلمان فاقد صلاحیت، معلمان ابتدایی، استان مرکزی. کلید واژگان: ارزیابی وضعیت، صلاحیت های حرفه ای، معلمان فاقد صلاحیت، معلمان ابتدایی، استان مرکزی.
    کلیدواژگان: ارزیابی وضعیت، صلاحیت های حرفه ای، معلمان فاقد صلاحیت، معلمان ابتدایی، استان مرکزی
  • ارائه مدلی برای توسعه ی مدارس طبیعت در ایران: نظریه داده بنیاد
    فرزانه سلیمانی، نادر سلیمانی*، اختر جمالی، رضا شعبان نژاد خاص صفحات 300-320
    این پژوهش با هدف ارائه مدلی برای توسعه‏ی مدارس طبیعت در ایران انجام گردید. پژوهش حاضر از نظر هدف "کاربردی" و از نظر نوع داده‏ها، "کیفی" و از نظر شیوه اجرا "نظریه داده بنیاد " (نسخه سیستماتیک) می باشد. داده‏های این پژوهش حاصل مصاحبه‏ی نیمه ساختار یافته با 15 تن از مدیران و تسهیل گران مدارس طبیعت و مطالعه اسناد و آثار مکتوب و غیر مکتوب 2 تن از مطلعین و متخصصین موضوعی بوده که به شیوه نمونه گیری نظری و هدفمند انتخاب شده اند. داده‏های حاصل از مصاحبه در 3 مرحله‏ی کدگذاری باز، محوری و انتخابی تحلیل شده است. یافته های پژوهش ابتدا در 78 مقوله عمده و سپس در 23 مقوله اصلی تقسیم و سپس در شش مولفه مدل پارادایمی پیشنهادی Strauss & Corbin جای گرفته اند. پدیده اصلی "تعیین جایگاه حقوقی و قانونی"به عنوان محور توسعه مدارس طبیعت در ایران است. برخی از مولفه و مقوله ها عبارتند از موجبات علی که شامل: "بستر فرهنگی و اجتماعی"، "تغییر نگاه جامعه و سیاست گذاران نسبت به کودکان "هستند و شرایط زمینه‏ای: "مبانی دینی و فرهنگی"، "نظام اداری مانع آفرین" همچنین عوامل مداخله ای شامل: "امکانات و منابع مالی"، " زیرساخت ها و فضای فیزیکی"؛ راهبردها: "تحقیق و توسعه"، "همراهی رسانه ها"، و پیامدها شامل : "پیامد فردی"، "پیامد های اجتماعی و اقتصادی" می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: مدل، توسعه، مدرسه طبیعت، آموزش در فضای باز، نظریه داده بنیاد
  • اعتباریابی مقیاس جهان بینی رهبری مدیران مدارس دولتی
    جعفر ترک زاده*، زهرا نجفی صفحات 300-320
    هدف کلی از انجام این پژوهش، اعتباریابی مقیاس جهان بینی رهبری مدیران در مدارس دولتی بود. این مقیاس فرم خلاصه شده جهان بینی رهبری ترک زاده و جعفری (1391) و مشتمل بر 30 گویه با طیف لیکرت است که براساس چارچوب جهان بینی رهبری وکسلر(2006)، توسعه یافته و شامل چهار زیرمقیاس جهان بینی رهبری کارآفرینی، شبکه ای، اجتماعی و تنظیمی می باشد. هریک از این چهار نوع جهان بینی رهبری نیز خود دارای ابعاد نوع عقلانیت، خلاقیت، الگوهای زمان، تغییر، اصول اخلاقی و سبک رهبری می باشند. جامعه آماری پژوهش شامل کلیه معلمان مدارس ابتدایی و متوسطه دولتی شیراز بود که با روش نمونه گیری تصادفی- طبقه ای (بر حسب دوره تحصیلی) و براساس فرمول کوکران تعداد 369 نفر انتخاب گردیدند. به منظور سنجش روایی پرسشنامه از دو روش تحلیل گویه و تحلیل عامل تاییدی مرتبه اول و دوم و جهت سنجش پایایی آن نیز از روش آلفای کرونباخ استفاده شد. نتایج تحلیل گویه حاکی از همبستگی معنادار هر یک از زیر مقیاس ها با نوع جهان بینی رهبری مربوطه بود. نتیجه تحلیل عامل تاییدی مرتبه اول و دوم نیز نشان داد که هر یک از زیرمقیاس ها از روایی بالایی برای تبیین نوع جهان بینی رهبری مربوطه برخوردار می باشند. همچنین براساس مقادیر آلفای کرونباخ، پایایی مقیاس و زیر مقیاس های مربوطه، مطلوب ارزیابی شده است. در مجموع نتایج حاصل، قابلیت کاربرد مقیاس تدوین شده را برای پژوهش های میدانی در زمینه موضوع خود نمایان ساخت.
    کلیدواژگان: جهان بینی، رهبری، مدارس دولتی، اعتباریابی
  • نقش تعدیل کنندگی جو یادگیری در تاثیر کیفیت زندگی در مدرسه بر خود کار آمدی دانش آموزان
    یحیی معروفی*، محمدحسن محمدی صفحات 316-340
    هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی نقش تعدیل کنندگی جو یادگیری در تاثیر کیفیت زندگی در مدرسه بر خود کارآمدی دانش-آموزان بود. روش پژوهش برحسب هدف از نوع کاربردی و براساس شیوه اجرا، توصیفی از نوع همبستگی بود. جامعه آماری پژوهش شامل 22025 دانش آموز دوره ابتدایی دوم نواحی یک و دو آموزش و پرورش همدان در سالتحصیلی96-95 بود که با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری تصادفی طبقه ای نسبی، نمونه ای به حجم 384 نفر(188 دختر و 196 پسر) با استفاده از جدول کرجسی و مورگان انتخاب شد. ابزار های گردآوری اطلاعات شامل سه پرسشنامه ی کیفیت زندگی در مدرسه، جو یادگیری و خودکارآمدی تحصیلی بود. داده های جمع آوری شده بر اساس شاخص های آمار توصیفی وآزمون های استنباطی کولموگروف_ اسمیرنوف، همبستگی پیرسون و تحلیل مسیر مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت. یافته های پژوهش نشان داد بین متغیرهای کیفیت زندگی در مدرسه با خودکارآمدی، کیفیت زندگی در مدرسه با جویادگیری و خودکارآمدی با جو یادگیری همبستگی مثبت و معنادار در سطح (01/0≤ p) وجود دارد. همچنین یافته های حاصل از ضرایب تحلیل مسیر حاکی از آن است تاثیرکیفیت زندگی بر خودکارآمدی، جویادگیری بر خودکارآمدی و کیفیت زندگی برجویادگیری مثبت و مستقیم است. بعلاوه، کیفیت زندگی در مدرسه بر خودکارآمدی تاثیر غیر مستقیم نیزدارد و جو یادگیری در رابطه بین کیفیت زندگی و خودکارآمدی، نقش تعدیل کنندگی دارد. پیشنهاد شد، مدارس از طریق طراحی تجربیات آموزشی لذت بخش، بازخورد مناسب و حمایت گرانه، علاوه بر تامین کیفیت زندگی در مدرسه، به تقویت باورهای دانش آموزان از توانایی خود و ایجاد جو یادگیری اثربخش به عنوان مهم ترین شاخص های اثربخشی مدارس بپردازند.
    کلیدواژگان: &quot، کیفیت زندگی در مدرسه&quot، &quot، جو یادگیری&quot، &quot، خودکارآمدی&quot، &quot، دانش آموزان&quot، &quot، دوره ابتدایی دوم &quot
  • مطالعه تطبیقی نهادهای مسئول و نظام ارزیابی شایستگی های حرفه ای مدیران مدارس کشورهای ایران، مالزی و امریکا: درس هایی برای نظام آموزشی ایران
    زهرا مستکملی، محمدرضا آهنچیان*، رضوان حسینقلی زاده صفحات 340-360
    پژوهش حاضر با هدف مطالعه نهادهای مسئول و نظام ارزیابی شایستگی های حرفه ای مدیران مدارس ایران، مالزی و ایالت کالیفرنیا امریکا به منظور فراهم شدن زمینه نقد و مسئله گشایی از برنامه های توسعه شایستگی های حرفه ای مدیران در ایران با بهره گیری از تجارب و آموزه های کشور مالزی و ایالت کالیفرنیا که در حوزه مطالعات و اصلاحات مدیریت آموزشی پیشرو می باشند به انجام رسید. روشی که در این پژوهش مورد استفاده قرار گرفت، روش جرج. زی. اف. بردی در مطالعات آموزش و پرورش تطبیقی مشتمل بر مراحل توصیف، تفسیر، هم جواری و مقایسه بود. برای جمع آوری اطلاعات و داده ها از شیوه مطالعه منابع کتابخانه ای شامل اسناد، گزارش ها، مطالعات تطبیقی انجام گرفته پیرامون موضوع استفاده شد. یافته های پژوهش نشان داد ایده ها و انگاره های نابی در حوزه موضوع مورد پژوهش در کشور مالزی و ایالت کالیفرنیا وجود دارد که می تواند در اصلاح و بهبود نظام توسعه شایستگی های حرفه ای مدیران مدارس در ایران راه گشا باشد. بر اساس یافته ها بازنگری در وظایف و کارکردهای نهادهای متولی توصیف، توسعه و ارزیابی شایستگی های حرفه ای مدیران مدارس و هم چنین نظام ارزیابی شایستگی های حرفه ای مدیران مدارس در کشور به عنوان امر ضروری مشخص شد. در پایان بر مبنای آموزه های برگرفته از این مطالعه پیشنهادهایی جهت اصلاح و یادگیری خط مشی های مربوطه در ایران ارائه گردید.
    کلیدواژگان: شایستگی های حرفه ای، مدیر مدرسه، مطالعه تطبیقی، مالزی، امریکا
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  • Influence Authentic Leadership on Readiness for Organizational Change with Mediating Role of Psychological Capital
    Mahnaz Khakpour, Zahra Hajeanzahaie *, Farideh Ashraf Ganjoui Pages 80-100
    The organizational change for many employees is a stressful experience, because the change may be uncertain and affect the feelings and abilities of employees. The readiness for change has individual and organizational levels. The individual's level of readiness for change means the extent to which people are emotionally and cognitively inclined to accept a specific plan to disturb the willfulness of the present situation. The preparation for organizational change involves proportionality, management support, change efficiency, and personal gain. Successful organizational change depends on the ability of leaders to recognize the need for change and planning to realize it, so that management, along with the workforce, moves with unity and integrity toward achieving predetermined goals. Therefore, the role of leaders for all companies and organizations to achieve the benefits and achievements of staff readiness for organizational change has been taken into consideration, which emphasizes the development of strengths, virtues and perceptions consistent with intrinsic values. The authentic leaders are those who are self-aware and aware of their thoughts and behaviors, and are sure, hopeful, optimistic, and flexible and have a very moral character. Based on the definition of Walumbwa and the associates, the authentic leadership is characterized as a pattern of leadership behavior that extends both positive psychological capabilities and a positive moral atmosphere. They reinforce self-awareness, internal moral outlook, balanced information processing and transparency in the relationship between leader and follower. Workers led by authentic leaders have a high psychological capital. This psychological source encourages them to be more creative. The psychological capital shows the behavioral features of the original leaders as a positive concept and gives them distinctive moral hypotheses. Focusing on understanding and describing happiness in an organization, strengthening positive psychological capacities, leads executives to better manage their employees. The psychological capital leads to positive emotions in the organization's employees, which are the readiness for change in the direction of organizational growth and development. Considering the above description and the role of school administrators and educators in providing educational services and improving planning in education, the necessity of this research is revealed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of authentic leadership on the readiness for organizational change with the mediating role of psychological capital. The statistical population of this research includes 200 people adopted from all principals of sport schools of Tehran Province. Using Combined Krejcy-Morgan table and Structural Equation Modeling, 187 subjects were selected by simple random sampling method. Authentic Leadership Walumbwa et al. (2006), Readiness for Organizational Change for Halt et al. (2007) and Luthanz Psychological Capital (2007) Questionnaires were used for collecting data. The internal consistency of the questionnaires was 0.95, 0.82 and 0.86 by Cronbach's alpha test, respectively. The research data were analyzed by using PLS software and structural equation modeling approach. The results showed that the effect of authentic leadership on psychological capital and readiness for organizational change as well as the effect of psychological capital on the readiness for organizational change is positive and significant. The mediating role of psychological capital is influential in the relationship of authentic leadership with readiness for organizational change. According to the results, if there is authentic leadership in organizations and especially educational organizations and the promotion of psychological capital, we can see a higher degree of employee readiness for organizational change. Therefore presentation of authentic leadership behaviors by managers and development of psychological capital is proposed to increase the readiness of employees to accept organizational changes. Based on the results of this research, it has been suggested that ethical indicators of managers should be considered to respond to the challenges of organizations and employees to provide the main leadership behaviors and the development of mental capital in order to increase the readiness of employees to accept organizational changes. Managers who have high leadership morale have a positive attitude towards themselves and employee behavior and consider this rule, which is always a principle of integrity, in relation to employees, when choosing to prioritize. Managers will also strive to gain a genuine recognition of themselves, their employees and their needs and the organization they are working in as they are aware of the surrounding environment, which is always improving our readiness to face up to the challenges ahead. The managers try to identify the emotions and feelings of employees. This identification requires the closest of managers to the staff and the establishment of transparent relationships. Managers adhere to the principles and values they express, not in speech but in practice. In fact, what they expect from employees' behavior, by creating strong moral environments, is effective in improving their relationships with employees. Finally, it is suggested that in future studies, all principals of sport schools of the whole country should be selected as a statistical society. As with other researches, the present study was subject to limitations. In this research, we tried to collect the data of the study in a short time period. Also, this research is based on a quantitative approach and due to the limited quantitative methods such as the existence of closed questions and the limitation of the persons to answer the questions asked. Also, the possibility of unrealistic responses by participants, due to inaccurate understanding of questions, can undermine the results. Of course, I tried to reduce this chance by explaining this and devoting enough time to answer the questions. This research in the Education Organization examined the effect of genuine leadership on the readiness for organizational change of employees with the mediating variable of psychological capital; therefore, the specific characteristics of the organization may limit the external validity of the findings and should be cautious about the generalization of the results to other organizations. If this research is carried out in manufacturing, research or private or nongovernmental organizations, it may produce different results. Neither the present scheme nor the use of structural equation modeling proves the causality. According to Anderson and Greenberg, although the use of the structural equation modeling approach provides the ability to generate causal inferences, it is necessary to take caution in this regard.
    Keywords: Authentic Leadership, Psychological Capital, Readiness for Change, Principals of sport schools, Structural equation
  • A Phenomenographic Reflectionon the Components of Curriculum Implementation in Elementary Schools from viewpoint of School Principals
    Shahrbanoo Hasani *, Ali Hoseinikhah, Masoud Gramipour, Gholamreza Haji Hossein Nejad Pages 120-140
    The study aimed to explain the phenomenographic aspects of program implementation in elementary schools from the perspective of school principals. Therefore, the method of this research was phenomenography. Participants were 15 school leaders who had been selected purposefullyand from available samples.The main tool of this study was the un-structured and semi-structured interviews. All interviews were recorded and immediately typed to provide feedback for subsequent interviews and data saturation. After interviewing the interviewees, the process of data collecting continued until saturation reached. The average duration of each interview was about 50 minutes. To analyze the data, a descriptive-analytic approach was used using coding at open and axial levels. In this research, four main questions and several sub-questions were raised to deepen the process of gathering information. To encode the interviews, ATLAS.ti 7 software was used. A total of 362 codes were extracted, after eliminating the similar codes, 52 codes were finalized and been classified into 13 components, 6 categories and finally 3 main dimensions of teachers, Principals and learning environment. The results indicate that curriculum implementation by looking at these indentified dimensions and categories will impact on enhancing learning and teaching process and so will help to improve the quality of school. Keywords: Curriculum Implementation; Elementary Schools; School Principals, Phenomenography.
    Keywords: Curriculum leadership, Elementary Schools, School Principals, Phenomenography
  • Compilation and presentation of cross-indicators of innovative and synergistic actions among school
    Aliakbar Dolati *, Seyydali Siadat, Hadi Dehgani Pages 140-150
    This study aimed at development and presentation entall – structure typical action cooperation and innovation synergy in scholarship school at fars province. It was an applied research and its method was exploratory mixed methods. In the qualitative section of the study, in – depth interview was conducted with 8 managers and semi structured interview was conducted with 28 teachers and assistant who were selected through purposeful and snowball sampling method. As a result of the content analysis of interview data and in – depth study of theoretical foundation, a researcher made questionnaire was devised. In the quantitative section of the study, the research questionnaire was completed by 377 managers, assistant and teachers who were selected using stratified sampling method. To analyze the qualitative data, the content analysis technique and to analyze the quantitative data, the Chi Square Test, factor analysis and Fridman Test were used. The results showed that, the important identifying the cooperation at action and innovation synergy :people partnership in decisional, presentation Time thought and attention to idea, resource and patronage of idea, motivation at creation in collective activity and idea presentation new, obtain self – assessment individual and group, purposive admission and attention to innovate by managers.
    Keywords: action cooperation, innovation synergy, school, scholarship
  • Linking Theory and Practice in Educational Management: Exploring School Principals' Interaction with University Professors
    Katayoon Meidanipour *, Abbas Abbaspour, Ali Khorsandi Taskoh, Samad Borzooian Pages 140-160
    The present study was conducted to identify the areas of cooperation and educational interaction between high schools and the faculties of Psychology and Education in Tehran using the qualitative data base method. The statistical population of the study consists of all academic and educational stakeholders who have some kind of executive or scientific background on the subject of educational interaction between schools and universities. From the statistical population, 26 individuals were selected through purposive sampling to reach theoretical saturation. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. Coding was used to analyze the interview data. In order to check the validity and reliability of the research, the interviewers' approval was used to control the validity of the research. The coefficient of agreement was 0.85 indicating high agreement and good reliability coefficient. The research findings showed that high schools and faculties of psychology and education in Tehran can collaborate and interact in three general areas: student support, student preparation for university, and support and support for teachers and school staff and 31 minor areas The present study was conducted to identify the areas of cooperation and educational interaction between high schools and the faculties of Psychology and Education in Tehran using the qualitative data base method. The statistical population of the study consists of all academic and educational stakeholders who have some kind of executive or scientific background on the subject of educational interaction between schools and universities. From the statistical population, 26 individuals were selected through purposive sampling to reach theoretical saturation. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. Coding was used to analyze the interview data. In order to check the validity and reliability of the research, the interviewers' approval was used to control the validity of the research. The coefficient of agreement was 0.85 indicating high agreement and good reliability coefficient. The research findings showed that high schools and faculties of psychology and education in Tehran can collaborate and interact in three general areas: student support, student preparation for university, and support and support for teachers and school staff and 31 minor areas The present study was conducted to identify the areas of cooperation and educational interaction between high schools and the faculties of Psychology and Education in Tehran using the qualitative data base method. The statistical population of the study consists of all academic and educational stakeholders who have some kind of executive or scientific background on the subject of educational interaction between schools and universities. From the statistical population, 26 individuals were selected through purposive sampling to reach theoretical saturation. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. Coding was used to analyze the interview data. In order to check the validity and reliability of the research, the interviewers' approval was used to control the validity of the research. The coefficient of agreement was 0.85 indicating high agreement and good reliability coefficient. The research findings showed that high schools and faculties of psychology and education in Tehran can collaborate and interact in three general areas: student support, student preparation for university, and support and support for teachers and school staff and 31 minor areas The present study was conducted to identify the areas of cooperation and educational interaction between high schools and the faculties of Psychology and Education in Tehran using the qualitative data base method. The statistical population of the study consists of all academic and educational stakeholders who have some kind of executive or scientific background on the subject of educational interaction between schools and universities. From the statistical population, 26 individuals were selected through purposive sampling to reach theoretical saturation. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. Coding was used to analyze the interview data. In order to check the validity and reliability of the research, the interviewers' approval was used to control the validity of the research. The coefficient of agreement was 0.85 indicating high agreement and good reliability coefficient. The research findings showed that high schools and faculties of psychology and education in Tehran can collaborate and interact in three general areas: student support, student preparation for university, and support and support for teachers and school staff and 31 minor areas The present study was conducted to identify the areas of cooperation and educational interaction between high schools and the faculties of Psychology and Education in Tehran using the qualitative data base method. The statistical population of the study consists of all academic and educational stakeholders who have some kind of executive or scientific background on the subject of educational interaction between schools and universities. From the statistical population, 26 individuals were selected through purposive sampling to reach theoretical saturation. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. Coding was used to analyze the interview data. In order to check the validity and reliability of the research, the interviewers' approval was used to control the validity of the research. The coefficient of agreement was 0.85 indicating high agreement and good reliability coefficient. The research findings showed that high schools and faculties of psychology and education in Tehran can collaborate and interact in three general areas: student support, student preparation for university, and support and support for teachers and school staff and 31 minor areas The present study was conducted to identify the areas of cooperation and educational interaction between high schools and the faculties of Psychology and Education in Tehran using the qualitative data base method. The statistical population of the study consists of all academic and educational stakeholders who have some kind of executive or scientific background on the subject of educational interaction between schools and universities. From the statistical population, 26 individuals were selected through purposive sampling to reach theoretical saturation. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. Coding was used to analyze the interview data. In order to check the validity and reliability of the research, the interviewers' approval was used to control the validity of the research. The coefficient of agreement was 0.85 indicating high agreement and good reliability coefficient. The research findings showed that high schools and faculties of psychology and education in Tehran can collaborate and interact in three general areas: student support, student preparation for university, and support and support for teachers and school staff and 31 minor areas
    Keywords: Theory, Practice Link, Collaboration, School Principals, University Professors
  • Identification and Development of Criteria for the Appointment Schools Superintendents.
    Masood Forootan, Saied Rajaipour *, Seyydali Siadat, Ahmadreza Nasr Esfahani Pages 150-160
    This study aimed to identify and develop criteria for the appointment of heads and deputy-heads of school districts and regions, through an exploratory qualitative research method. Using chain-referral sampling (snowball sampling), a total of 14 experts were selected and interviewed from among a range of senior executives and experts in the field of Education Administration until theoretical saturation was reached. The data were collected via structured and in-depth interviews. The validity of interviews was verified by peer-review and expert judgment, and the reliability of the encodings was also evaluated using stability and repeatability indicators. The MAXQDA software and the inductive content analysis technique were utilized for data analysis. The results revealed that the criteria for the appointment of heads and deputy-heads in school districts and regions can be classified into three categories: individual (personal, personality), managerial (technical, human, perceptual, leadership) and organizational (by-laws and regulations, appointment process). In order to ensure competency-based recruitment in the high level-management of education departments, it is necessary to use the collective wisdom, avoid politicizing, and prevent the interference from outside the organization, in order to pave the way for the best and most qualified and competent people to be appointed in the managerial positions of education departments in different school districts and regions.
    Keywords: Appointment criteria, school district heads, Managerial competencies, Management skills
  • The relationship between transformational leadership of schools managers and teachers' job performance: explaining the moderating role of public service motivation
    Mohammad Montazeri *, Nasrin Pourhoseinali Pages 160-170
    Implementing the Fundamental Reform Document of Education (FRDE) requires using transformational leadership style towards promoting employees performance and especially teachers' performance. This research aimed to examine the effect of transformational leadership on job performance with the moderating role of public service motivation in secondary schools teachers. The methodology is descriptive and correlative and statistical population is teachers of secondary schools in Sirjan city to number of 726 that by using Morgan table, 251 teachers were selected through stratified random method. For gathering data used 3 standard questionnaires including Bass and Avolio(2000) for transformational leadership, Paterson(1992) for job performance, and Alonso and Lewis(2001) for public service motivation. To ensure of questionnaires reliability was used Cronbach's Alpha coefficient and composite reliability (CR) index and their reliability was confirmed. Also for ensuring about questionnaires validity was used convergent and divergent validity and average variance extracted (AVE) index and confirmative factor analysis. For analyzing data, were used structural equation modelling by Amos software. The results showed that public service motivation moderates the effect of transformational leadership on teachers' job performance. Also the positive effect of transformational leadership on job performance, the positive effect of transformational leadership on public service motivation, and the positive effect of public service motivation on job performance are significant.
    Keywords: leadership style, transformational leadership, job performance, public service motivation
  • Identifying dimensions and behavioral symptoms of visionary educational leaders in elementary schools: Qualitative and phenomenological inquiry
    ZAHRA HEMMATYAR *, Bijan Abdollahi, Abdorrahim Navehebrahim, Hasan Reza Zaynabadi Pages 170-180
    The main purpose of this research was identifying visionary Leadership Dimensions and behavioral symptoms of visionary educational leaders in elementary schools, in order to localize and develop its theoretical foundations, using a qualitative phenomenological analysis approach. So In order to get experience, 14 successful and prominent managers of primary schools in Mashhad were selected through purposeful sampling to achieve saturation of the category. The researcher also with the goal of enriching the results, benefited of the views of 9 faculty members and experts in the field of educational management selected by this sampling method. In total, the statistical sample is 23. The data was collected by using semi-structured and in-depth interviews and were analyzed using a combination of seven-step cluster approach and open, axial and selective coding. By analyzing the content of the interviews, and considering the literature and history of research, and the comparison and matching of data, 184 indicators were obtained that with the elimination of duplicates and the integration of homosexual and similar indicators, This number fell to 58 markers, which eventually summed up in the form of 22 sub categories and 6 main categories. Findings of the research showed that dimensions and behavioral components of visionary educational leaders in elementary Schools are as follows : Personality, value, Professional knowledge, strategic thinking, epistemological features, and relationship management Skills
    Keywords: &quot, educational visionary leadership&quot, &quot, Personality&quot, &quot, value&quot, &quot, Professional knowledge&quot, &quot, Strategic thinking&quot
  • The Relationship between perceived Ethical Climate, Organizational Justice and Job Involvement with the Mediation Role of Professional Ethics of Schools Teachers
    Behboud Yarigholi *, Golam Reza Golmohammadnejad Bahrami, Mahdi Fazli Pages 180-190
    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between ethical climate, perceived organizational justice and teachers’ job involvement with the mediation role of professional ethics. The research method is descriptive-correlation based on Structural Equation Modeling. All teachers of the secondery School of Tabriz, (1692) were the population of the study. Cluster sampling was performed. 320 people completed the questionnaire. To collect the data, questionnaires of organizational justice, Niehoff (2001), ethical climate, Fritsch (2000), job involvement, Kanungu (1982), professional ethics Shell and Bateman (2004) were used. Validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis, and all of them have good fit. The results show that ethical climate, perceived organizational justice, job involvement and professional ethics are related. Also professional ethics has a mediation role between job involvement and some dimensions of ethical climate and organizational justice. Teachers and senior managers of educational arena, with morals and creating of calm climate and fair distribution of the benefits and reconsideration of distribution procedures would provide teachers job involvement. Results showed that teachers and senior managers in the field of education can provide a moral and calm climate, and fair distribution of benefits and a revision of distribution practices, which will cause teachers' engagement and engagement
    Keywords: Ethical Climate, Organizational Justice, Professional Ethics, Job Involvement, teachers
  • Investigating the Effect of Schools' Ethical Space on Organizational affiliation teachers
    Mohsen Arefnezahd *, Maryam Moaeyd Pages 190-200
    Nowadays, human resources are considered to be the best competitive privilege of any organization in the world, and, thus, humans are gaining unprecedented significance in the organizational theory. Human resources can be a serious obstacle to the organization. Similarly, they can help organizations compete. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ethical environment on teachers' job accountability. An applied descriptive type of method was used. The participants of this study were 450 senior-high school teachers in Khorramabad, in the academic year of 2017-2018. 210 of them were selected randomly, using available sampling and Morgan Table. The data collection instruments were Victor and Cullen's (1987) Questionnaires with 26 questions, and Shawfli et al.’s (2003) Questionnaire containing 17 questions with Five-Likert Scale, with reliability coefficients of 0.841 and 0.846 respectively. Moreover, in this study, PLS software was used to test the hypotheses as well as the model. The findings showed that the organizational ethical environment (instrumental, attention, independence, organizational rules and regulations, professional rules and ethical codes) affects teachers' job affiliation. According to the research findings, school principals can affect the organizational behavior of the employees and increase their job affiliation by managing the ethical climate of the school.
    Keywords: ethical, The ethical atmosphere of the organization, Employee Affiliation, Victor, Cullan&#039, s moral atmosphere model
  • the effect on the quality of work life on psychological well-being with mediating of managerial consulting in school principals
    Saeed Farahbakhsh *, Moslem Ghobadiyan, Kobra Usofvand Pages 260-280
    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of quality of work life on the psychological well-being of school principals in Khorramabad city by mediation of management counseling. The research method is descriptive correlational. The statistical population of this study included all school principals in Khorramabad city in the academic year of 96-97, which number was 347, Regarding the type of research and the number of variables studied, the population under study, according to the sample of Karjetsi and Morgan sample tables, was 181 school principals (elementary school: 76, first high school, 37, and 68 secondary school) in Khorramabad city by sampling method. Stratified randomized ones were selected. Measurement tools in this research are: a) Reef Psychological Well-Being Questionnaire (1995) consisting of 54 items that the reliability of this questionnaire is α = ./82. B) The Quality of Work Life Questionnaire (Walton, 1973) consisting of 32 items And the reliability of this questionnaire is α =./ 91. C) A researcher-made management consulting questionnaire consisting of 29 items whose validity was confirmed by the content validity and also its reliability was calculated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient of ./ 95. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and hierarchical regression. The total number of participants in the study was 181, of which %45.3 were male and% 54/7 were female. The mean age of the subjects was 11.44 and 48.4 ± SD respectively. In terms of education, %6 had a diploma, 6% had a college degree, %72. 4 had undergraduate degrees,% 24.9 had graduated and %1.7 Carrying a doctoral degree,% 48.6 of respondents were in district one and %51.4 in district two,% 42 of respondents were in the primary school,% 20.4 in the first grade and 37.6 in junior high school, and the average management experience Among the samples, 10/88 years were estimated. The assumption of normalization is a prominent indicator before applying parametric tests such as coefficient Pearson Correlation, Path Analysis and Regression Analysis by Kolmogorov - Smirnov Test α =. / 05 To make .Therefore, because the significance level obtained for all variables is higher than α =. / 05, all variables are normal. The results showed that there is a significant relationship between all dimensions of the quality of work life variable with the dimensions of the psychological well-being variable. Also, between the variables themselves are the quality of working life. And the psychological well-being variable had a positive and significant relationship of ./69. There is evidence that the higher the quality of work life, the higher the psychological well-being of individuals. Also, based on the correlation coefficients obtained in the correlation matrix, there was a significant relationship between the dimensions of the management consulting variable and the dimensions of the psychological well-being variable.Morever there is a variable between management consultancy and More over psychological well-being variable has a positive and significant relationship with the amount of ./52 that indicates that Management consulting has a direct, positive and significant relationship with psychological well-being of individuals. Based on the obtained results, each of the components of the quality of working life,i.e. fair payment, safe working conditions, capacity development, Social integration, security and continuous growth, the overall atmosphere of life, legal regulation in the organization and social affiliation have an effect (./24), (./21), (./15), (./18), (./18.), (./13), (12/0) and (./20) on the quality of work life of individuals. Also, the components of psychological well-being, namely self-acceptance, positive relationships, autonomy, environmental domination, purposeful life, and individual growth, respectively, have an effect on (./19), (./19), (./20) (./16), (./22) and (./17), and the variable components of managerial counseling, namely, educational program, human resources, learners' affairs, school and community relations, administrative and financial affairs, and equipment and facilities respectively The effect is on the rate (./31), (./42), (./30), (./17), (./23), and (./10). The results also showed that standard t values for the impact of quality work life components such as fair pay, safe working conditions, capacity development, social integrity, sustainability and continuity, overall living space, legal regulation in organization and social dependence on this variable were respectively equal to (57/7), (46/5), (30/2), (33/2), (42/5), (18/7), (19/3) and. (36/3 ) And the standard t values for psychological well-being components, namely self-acceptance, positive relationships, autonomy, environmental domination, purposeful life, and individual growth are respectively (7.9), (7.6), (9.7), (6.3), (9.4) and (8.6), and the standard t values for variable components of management counseling, namely, educational program, human resources, learners' affairs, school and community relations, administrative affairs and financial equipment and facilities were respectively (14/1), (15/9), (11/6), (6/34), (8/46) and (4/62) respectively. Based on the obtained results, the coefficient of influence obtained on the quality of working life on the psychological well - being (./69) at the alpha level is α =. / 01 and with the standard t standard (12.7) is significant (sig & lt ; / 01). Therefore, with %99 confidence, it can be said that the quality of work life of individuals has a direct effect on their psychological well-being. Also, the coefficient of effect of the quality of work life on managerial counseling (./51) is significant at α =. / 05 level with the standard t standard (7.9) (sig & lt; / ./ 01). Therefore, with %99 confidence, we can say that the quality of work life has a direct and significant effect on managerial counseling. In addition, the effect of managerial counseling on psychological well-being is equal to (./52) at the alpha level of α =. / 01 and with the standard t standard (8.2) is significant (sig & lt; / 01). Therefore, with% 99confidence, it can be said that management consulting has a direct direct effect on managerial counseling. Investigating the indirect effect of quality of work life on psychosocial bias with the role of mediation. Management advice The results of the multiplication of the effect of quality of work life on managerial counseling (./51) in the coefficient of management counseling on psychological well-being (./52) is 26.5 Which is a significant coefficient and the effect of quality of working life on psychological well-being Equal to (./67) increase to (./27). Hence, the role of mediation in managerial counseling in relationships and its impact on the quality of work life and psychological well-being is confirmed. Considering these results, it is recommended This importaint point in to account.
    Keywords: psychological well-being, management counseling, quality of work life , school
  • Assessment of the Teachers Professional competency in Markazi Province
    Seyed Mohammad Mirkamali, Fatemeh Narenji Thani *, Somaee Asadi Pages 280-300
    The purpose of this study was to assess the professional competencies of elementary teachers in Markazi province.Based on the purpose of the application and the method of data collection, it was a descriptive survey.The statistical population was the principals of elementary public schools of Markazi province who were selected by stratified random sampling method with the proper selection of 103 principals.A researcher-made questionnaire was used for data collection. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by the professors. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated to test the reliability of the questionnaire and it was 0.981.Binomial and Friedman tests were used for data analysis. However, the results showed that the status of teachers in all components of professional competence was above average. Distribution of scores on the continuum of professional competencies showed that 52% of teachers are fully qualified, 26% are qualified and 18% are relatively qualified. Of the teachers with a mean of 3.5 and below, 03% were at relatively disqualified level, 01% at completely disqualified, and 002% at completely disqualified. The purpose of this study was to assess the professional competencies of elementary teachers in Markazi province.Based on the purpose of the application and the method of data collection, it was a descriptive survey.The statistical population was the principals of elementary public schools of Markazi province who were selected by stratified random sampling method with the proper selection of 103 principals.A researcher-made questionnaire was used for data collection. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by the professors. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated to test the reliability of the questionnaire and it was 0.981.Binomial and Friedman tests were used for data analysis. However, the results showed that the status of teachers in all components of professional competence was above average. Distribution of scores on the continuum of professional competencies showed that 52% of teachers are fully qualified, 26% are qualified and 18% are relatively qualified. Of the teachers with a mean of 3.5 and below, 03% were at relatively disqualified level, 01% at completely disqualified, and 002% at completely disqualified The purpose of this study was to assess the professional competencies of elementary teachers in Markazi province.Based on the purpose of the application and the method of data collection, it was a descriptive survey.The statistical population was the principals of elementary public schools of Markazi province who were selected by stratified random sampling method with the proper selection of 103 principals.A researcher-made questionnaire was used for data collection. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by the professors. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated to test the reliability of the questionnaire and it was 0.981.Binomial and Friedman tests were used for data analysis. However, the results showed that the status of teachers in all components of professional competence was above average. Distribution of scores on the continuum of professional competencies showed that 52% of teachers are fully qualified, 26% are qualified and 18% are relatively qualified. Of the teachers with a mean of 3.5 and below, 03% were at relatively disqualified level, 01% at completely disqualified, and 002% at completely disqualified The purpose of this study was to assess the professional competencies of elementary teachers in Markazi province.Based on the purpose of the application and the method of data collection, it was a descriptive survey.The statistical population was the principals of elementary public schools of Markazi province who were selected by stratified random sampling method with the proper selection of 103 principals.A researcher-made questionnaire was used for data collection. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by the professors. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated to test the reliability of the questionnaire and it was 0.981.Binomial and Friedman tests were used for data analysis. However, the results showed that the status of teachers in all components of professional competence was above average. Distribution of scores on the continuum of professional competencies showed that 52% of teachers are fully qualified, 26% are qualified and 18% are relatively qualified. Of the teachers with a mean of 3.5 and below, 03% were at relatively disqualified level, 01% at completely disqualified, and 002% at completely disqualified The purpose of this study was to assess the professional competencies of elementary teachers in Markazi province.Based on the purpose of the application and the method of data collection, it was a descriptive survey.The statistical population was the principals of elementary public schools of Markazi province who were selected by stratified random sampling method with the proper selection of 103 principals.A researcher-made questionnaire was used for data collection. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by the professors. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated to test the reliability of the questionnaire and it was 0.981.Binomial and Friedman tests were used for data analysis. However, the results showed that the status of teachers in all components of professional competence was above average. Distribution of scores on the continuum of professional competencies showed that 52% of teachers are fully qualified, 26% are qualified and 18% are relatively qualified. Of the teachers with a mean of 3.5 and below, 03% were at relatively disqualified level, 01% at completely disqualified, and 002% at completely disqualified The purpose of this study was to assess the professional competencies of elementary teachers in Markazi province.Based on the purpose of the application and the method of data collection, it was a descriptive survey.The statistical population was the principals of elementary public schools of Markazi province who were selected by stratified random sampling method with the proper selection of 103 principals.A researcher-made questionnaire was used for data collection. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by the professors. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated to test the reliability of the questionnaire and it was 0.981.Binomial and Friedman tests were used for data analysis. However, the results showed that the status of teachers in all components of professional competence was above average. Distribution of scores on the continuum of professional competencies showed that 52% of teachers are fully qualified, 26% are qualified and 18% are relatively qualified. Of the teachers with a mean of 3.5 and below, 03% were at relatively disqualified level, 01% at completely disqualified, and 002% at completely disqualified
    Keywords: Status Assessment, Professional Qualifications, Qualified Teachers, Elementary Teachers, Markazi Province
  • A Model Representation with Grounded Theory approach for Nature Schools Development in Iran
    Farzaneh Soleimani, Nader Soleimani *, Akhtar Jamali, Reza Shabannejad Khas Pages 300-320
    Abstract This study aimed to provide a model representation with Grounded Theory approach for Nature Schools Development in Iran.The present research is applied in terms of "purpose" and in terms of the data type, "qualitative" and in terms of the "Grounded Theory"(systematic version) implementation. The data of this study were the result of semi-structured interview with the participation of 15 administrator and facilitator of nature schools and study document of 2 specialists on the subject who are selected through theoretical and purposeful sampling. Interview data were analyzed in three stages of open, axial and selective coding. The result confirmed the reliability index and reliability between the two coders. The study findings were first categorized in 78 major categories and then in 23 main categories and then in six components of the proposed paradigm model, proposed by Strauss and Corbin. The central phenomenon of "determining legal place" is the core of the development of nature schools in Iran. The other components and categories include Causal conditions: "cultural and social context”, “changing society's point of view and policy makers towards children", " Belief and common sense ", " Knowing the importance of nature experience at early ages ", "understanding necessity of Preservation environmental protection "," Education ministry supportive policies "; Context conditions include:" religious and cultural foundations "," administrative barrier system "and" life style and urbanization and Intervening factors include: "financial Facilities and funds," "Material and spiritual support of the people," "Infrastructure and physical space," " Human Resources Empowerment "; Action/interaction strategies includes: " Expansion and discovery mechanism ", " Cooperation of media"," Promotion the sense of nature school "," Learning out of experiences "and" Professional requirement of facilitators"," active societies of the child's sphere "," setting standards of safety and health "and the component of the consequence: " Individual Consequences ", and " Social & economic Consequences ". Frequent outdoor experiences and contact with nature strengthen children’s empathic relationship to nature, and are essential for a later connection with and care for the environment. Despite this fact, children in urban environments are frequently kept apart from nature and isolated from the dangers of the outside world: traffic, violence, strangers, rain and cold. There is a decline in outdoor games, in-and out-of-school, and urban spaces rarely have green areas where children can freely experience direct contact with nature. Materials and methods The recent study in the prospect of data type is called quality and the way of operation is named systematic. The founder in this project has used Strauss and Corbin patterns. The tool in which this project is done is semi-organized interview till the elements and symbols totally discovered. Mots the questions are toward organized and followed the trend the discovery was looking for. The founder followed coral quizzes. Participants were selected among Administrator, facilitators and the experts who were master on nature school subject. Because the sampling criterion in this study is rather than the number of individuals and groups nature is the subject and situation in which research is conducted. Theoretical sampling is the process of data collection for generation of theory whereby the researcher jointing collect next and where to find them, in order to develop the theory as it emerges. The process of data collection is controlled by the emerging theory, whether substance or formal. Results The general aim of this project is presenting a model in nature schools and is following 6 main goals: 1. Identification Central phenomenon of nature schools development in Iran 2. Identification causal conditions of nature schools development in Iran 3. Identification expansion context of nature schools development in Iran 4. Identification intervening factors recognition of nature schools development in Iran 5. Identification action/interaction strategies of nature schools development in Iran 6. Possible consequences of nature schools development in Iran. This study has not been linear and is in the process of data analysis and repetitions. Therefore, the overall process has been comprehensive and gradual. The data were being gathered after each stage and recorded consequently and in the way of data analysis a lot of comparisons were made. Furthermore, 3 coding systems were chosen and the frequency in which participants took part in were gradually questioned relatively. These three types open, axial, and selective. Out of 15 interviews and 2 documents revisions, there was 546 data. This data was coded in 78 categories in level one and in conclusion these definitions were summarized in 23 categories. These categories were coded in paradigm, comprehensive, and background and consequences. In the first stage or to better say, open coding, the data of such this analysis were categorized. Such this act gather the data distractions and make them more meaningful. In fact, the researcher has considered 3 elements for total calculations. Discussion In regard with the first aim that we were discussing, the exact role of such these schools in society was found and discussed legally. This aim is achieved because all the elements contributed to the way that they were grown up with. It is needless to say that the growth and expansion in such these schools can only happen if all the organizations cooperate in a sensible way. It is needed to be mentioned that the growth in children must be done from their childhood and if not so they will not learn the exact requirement of a standard life and some negative consequences will be the result. In the recent findings which were done in the year 2013 and opening almost 78 nature schools in Iran. Openers haven’t got any positive results to receive the legal permissions and it caused that after about a year of work or two, they regret their first decision and receive closure letter to renew their contract. As it was discussed in the first pages, in Denmark, a new course of study was made from the first years of 1980 and set the nature schools subject as the priority and learning from nature in open space was named as one of their subjects. In addition in Germany the principals accepted with the idea and now we can see that more and more people now in Iran are getting more interested in this way and subject due to some positive feedbacks they have received.
    Keywords: Model, nature school, outdoor Education, development, Grounded Theory
  • Validation Leadership Worldview Scale for Public Schools Principals
    Jafar Torkzadeh *, Zahra Najafi Pages 300-320
    The main purpose of this study was to validate leadership worldview scale for public schools principals. This scale is a short form of leadership worldview scale (Torkzadeh and Jafari, 2012) and consists of 30 items with a Likert spectrum which is developed in accordance with the Wexler Leadership worldview framework (2006), and includes four subscales: entrepreneurial, network, social and regulatory leadership worldview. Furthermore, each of these four types of leadership worldviews has dimensions including the type of rationality, creativity, patterns of time, change, ethics and leadership style. The statistical population included all primary and secondary school teachers in Shiraz which 369 people were selected by random-stratified sampling method and Cochran’s formula. In order to measure the validity of the questionnaire, two methods of cluster analysis and the first order and second order confirmatory factor analysis were used and Cronbach's alpha method was used to measure its reliability. The results of the item analysis indicated that each subscale had a significant correlation with the type of leadership worldview. The result of the first and second order confirmatory factor showed that each subscale had a high degree of validity for explaining the type of leadership worldview. Also, based on the Cronbach's alpha, the reliability of the scale and the corresponding subscales is desirable. Overall, results approved the applicability of the present scale in the subject area. The main purpose of this study was to validate leadership worldview scale for public schools principals. This scale is a short form of leadership worldview scale (Torkzadeh and Jafari, 2012) and consists of 30 items with a Likert spectrum which is developed in accordance with the Wexler Leadership worldview framework (2006), and includes four subscales: entrepreneurial, network, social and regulatory leadership worldview. Furthermore, each of these four types of leadership worldviews has dimensions including the type of rationality, creativity, patterns of time, change, ethics and leadership style. The statistical population included all primary and secondary school teachers in Shiraz which 369 people were selected by random-stratified sampling method and Cochran’s formula. In order to measure the validity of the questionnaire, two methods of cluster analysis and the first order and second order confirmatory factor analysis were used and Cronbach's alpha method was used to measure its reliability. The results of the item analysis indicated that each subscale had a significant correlation with the type of leadership worldview. The result of the first and second order confirmatory factor showed that each subscale had a high degree of validity for explaining the type of leadership worldview. Also, based on the Cronbach's alpha, the reliability of the scale and the corresponding subscales is desirable. Overall, results approved the applicability of the present scale in the subject area. The main purpose of this study was to validate leadership worldview scale for public schools principals. This scale is a short form of leadership worldview scale (Torkzadeh and Jafari, 2012) and consists of 30 items with a Likert spectrum which is developed in accordance with the Wexler Leadership worldview framework (2006), and includes four subscales: entrepreneurial, network, social and regulatory leadership worldview. Furthermore, each of these four types of leadership worldviews has dimensions including the type of rationality, creativity, patterns of time, change, ethics and leadership style. The statistical population included all primary and secondary school teachers in Shiraz which 369 people were selected by random-stratified sampling method and Cochran’s formula. In order to measure the validity of the questionnaire, two methods of cluster analysis and the first order and second order confirmatory factor analysis were used and Cronbach's alpha method was used to measure its reliability. The results of the item analysis indicated that each subscale had a significant correlation with the type of leadership worldview. The result of the first and second order confirmatory factor showed that each subscale had a high degree of validity for explaining the type of leadership worldview. Also, based on the Cronbach's alpha, the reliability of the scale and the corresponding subscales is desirable. Overall, results approved the applicability of the present scale in the subject area. The main purpose of this study was to validate leadership worldview scale for public schools principals. This scale is a short form of leadership worldview scale (Torkzadeh and Jafari, 2012) and consists of 30 items with a Likert spectrum which is developed in accordance with the Wexler Leadership worldview framework (2006), and includes four subscales: entrepreneurial, network, social and regulatory leadership worldview. Furthermore, each of these four types of leadership worldviews has dimensions including the type of rationality, creativity, patterns of time, change, ethics and leadership style. The statistical population included all primary and secondary school teachers in Shiraz which 369 people were selected by random-stratified sampling method and Cochran’s formula. In order to measure the validity of the questionnaire, two methods of cluster analysis and the first order and second order confirmatory factor analysis were used and Cronbach's alpha method was used to measure its reliability. The results of the item analysis indicated that each subscale had a significant correlation with the type of leadership worldview. The result of the first and second order confirmatory factor showed that each subscale had a high degree of validity for explaining the type of leadership worldview. Also, based on the Cronbach's alpha, the reliability of the scale and the corresponding subscales is desirable. Overall, results approved the applicability of the present scale in the subject area. The main purpose of this study was to validate leadership worldview scale for public schools principals. This scale is a short form of leadership worldview scale (Torkzadeh and Jafari, 2012) and consists of 30 items with a Likert spectrum which is developed in accordance with the Wexler Leadership worldview framework (2006), and includes four subscales: entrepreneurial, network, social and regulatory leadership worldview. Furthermore, each of these four types of leadership worldviews has dimensions including the type of rationality, creativity, patterns of time, change, ethics and leadership style. The statistical population included all primary and secondary school teachers in Shiraz which 369 people were selected by random-stratified sampling method and Cochran’s formula. In order to measure the validity of the questionnaire, two methods of cluster analysis and the first order and second order confirmatory factor analysis were used and Cronbach's alpha method was used to measure its reliability.
    Keywords: Worldview, Leadership, Public Schools, Validation
  • The moderating role of learning climate on the impact of quality of school life on student self-efficacy
    Yahya Maroofi *, Mohammad Hasn Mohammadi Pages 316-340
    The aim of this study was to investigate the learning climate moderating role on the quality of school life impact on student's self-efficacy. Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, describing negative and positive features of life. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines the quality of life as "The individual’s perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals. Similar to the other environments and social systems, schools describe as terms of the quality of life which they offer students. The quality of school life (QSL) has been widely investigated and drawn attention to its influence on students' achievement as a critical aspect of schooling. Finally, it can be said that the quality of life in a school combines the positive and negative experiences of emotions associated with different aspects of school life and its consequences. Schools are often described by the quality of their affective and social environments. The QSL refers to students’ personal and experiential general well-being at school which reflect students’ level of satisfaction toward their daily school life. The quality of school life is a multi-faceted concept which goes beyond the transmission of knowledge or the development of learning skills to include structure, teaching, curricula, affective, and social environments. Williams & Batten, (1981) provided three components of QSL: 1) Positive affect which reflects students' general satisfaction with school as a whole; 2) Negative affect which captures students' negative reactions towards school such as feelings of alienation, loneliness, and depression; 3) Satisfaction which consists of curriculum-related and social development factors as two specific dimensions of school. Mok & Flynn, (1997) suggests seven distinct factors to identify QSL as Satisfaction with school; Alienation from school; Relationships with teachers; Students' sense of achievement; Relevance of school; Sense of identity and; Self-esteem and status. One of the most significant motivational factors affecting schooling process is self-efficacy. It is a motivational construct and a key component of social cognitive theory. It refers to individuals’ beliefs in their abilities to perform a task successfully. Self-efficacy is defined as the judgments of people concerning their capacity to perform and organize actions required to attain a predefined performance. It has received ample attention in educational research. It has been shown to predict students' academic achievement across academic areas and levels, college major and career choices (Brown & Lent, 2006), and it is associated with key motivation constructs such as causal attributions, self- concept, optimism, achievement goal orientation, academic help-seeking, anxiety, and value(Usher & Pajares, 2008:751). Another motivational construct which contributes to the student's successful learning and performance is school climate. Freiberg and Stein (1999) described school climate as the heart and soul of a school. It is about that essence of a school that leads a child, a teacher, an administrator, a staff member to love the school and to looks forward to being there each school day (Freiberg & Stein,1999:12). School climate is about that quality of a school that helps each individual feel personal worth, dignity, and importance, while simultaneously helping create a sense of belonging to something beyond ourselves. According to social learning theory and field theory, is the meaningful environment, or the psychological situation, which is the best predictor of a person’s actions (Rotter, 1954). School climate can not only facilitate the student's learning process but also can be a major obstacle to their learning and achievement. The process of globalization and sophisticated technology development are one of the main challenges of the 21st century. Universities and schools to meet these challenges must be able to educate the new generation with high, flexible and creative capabilities. Therefore their performance should serve beyond conventional scientific functions. Thus, one of the most important tasks for school is to create an environment that ensured the wholesome quality of schooling. Variables such as the quality of school life, school & classroom climate, and student's self-efficacy are among the most important. Methodology Data collection tools consisted Anderson & Bourke (2000) Quality of School Life questionnaire, Williams & Deci (1996) learning Climate questionnaire, and Sherer et al (1982) Self-Efficacy Scale. Quality of School Life questionnaire: The revised form of the Anderson & Brock (2000) Quality of School Life questionnaire (QSLQ) was translated into Persian by Soltani Shal et al (2012), and was normalized between Iranian students. This scale consists of 39 items and five subscales: Opportunity; Adventure and achievement; General Satisfaction;Negative Affect and Social Integration; that calculates both the overall and subscales scores separately. Self-Efficacy Scale: The Sherer et al (1982) self-efficacy scale has two subscales: general self-efficacy (17 items) and social self-efficacy (6 items); that in this study we use general subscales. For that subscale, a sum is calculated by adding the responses to the individual items. Learning Climate Questionnaire (LCQ): Williams & Deci (1996) and Standage, Duda, & Ntoumanis (2005) develop the original and ultimate version of this scale, respectively. This scale (20 item) was translated into Persian by Abdol-Nejad et al (2004), and measures how well participants perceive their needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness as being met through program participation. Autonomy refers to the ability to make choices and acting in accordance with one’s sense of self. Competence refers to feeling a sense of mastery within one’s environment and experiencing opportunities to display skills. Relatedness refers to a sense of belonging both with other individuals and with one’s community. Data Analysis :The collected data were analyzed based on descriptive indicators such as frequency, mean and percent, Pearson correlation, confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis.
    Findings
    The findings of the study showed that there are a positive and significant correlation between the quality of school life with self-efficacy, quality of school life with learning climate and self-efficacy with the learning climate at the level (p≤0.01). Also, the findings from path analysis coefficients indicate that were positive and direct effect of quality school life on self-efficacy, the learning climate on self-efficacy and quality of school life. In addition, the quality of school life has an indirect effect on self-efficacy and the learning climate in the relationship between that has a moderating role.
    Keywords: &quot, quality of school life&quot, &quot, learning climate&quot, &quot, self-efficacy&quot, &quot, students&quot
  • Comparative study of responsible institutions and evaluation system of professional competencies of school principals in Iran, Malaysia, and the United States: lessons for the educational system of Iran
    Zahra Mostakmeli, Mohammad Reza Ahanchian *, Rezvan Hosseingholizadeh Pages 340-360
    The present study was conducted to investigate comparatively the committed institutions and evaluation systems for school principals’ professional competencies in Iran, Malaysia, and the United States, providing a context where Iranian relevant authorities can find some more reliant solutions to improve the principals’ professional competencies development programs. . The research method was based on Bereday’s method in comparative education studies included the stages of description, interpretation, proximity, and comparison. Data was collected from library-relied resources including documents, reports, and published studies. The results showed that there are some ideas and lessons in the field of research in Malaysia and the state of California which would be used to improve the system of professional competencies of school principals in Iran. Based on the findings, there are duties and functions which are taken place by the overseas’ institutions for describing, developing, and evaluating the programs for principals’ professional competencies. Finally some suggestions were made for reforming and learning the relevant policies in Iran. The present study was conducted to investigate comparatively the committed institutions and evaluation systems for school principals’ professional competencies in Iran, Malaysia, and the United States, providing a context where Iranian relevant authorities can find some more reliant solutions to improve the principals’ professional competencies development programs. . The research method was based on Bereday’s method in comparative education studies included the stages of description, interpretation, proximity, and comparison. Data was collected from library-relied resources including documents, reports, and published studies. The results showed that there are some ideas and lessons in the field of research in Malaysia and the state of California which would be used to improve the system of professional competencies of school principals in Iran. Based on the findings, there are duties and functions which are taken place by the overseas’ institutions for describing, developing, and evaluating the programs for principals’ professional competencies. Finally some suggestions were made for reforming and learning the relevant policies in Iran. The present study was conducted to investigate comparatively the committed institutions and evaluation systems for school principals’ professional competencies in Iran, Malaysia, and the United States, providing a context where Iranian relevant authorities can find some more reliant solutions to improve the principals’ professional competencies development programs. . The research method was based on Bereday’s method in comparative education studies included the stages of description, interpretation, proximity, and comparison. Data was collected from library-relied resources including documents, reports, and published studies. The results showed that there are some ideas and lessons in the field of research in Malaysia and the state of California which would be used to improve the system of professional competencies of school principals in Iran. Based on the findings, there are duties and functions which are taken place by the overseas’ institutions for describing, developing, and evaluating the programs for principals’ professional competencies. Finally some suggestions were made for reforming and learning the relevant policies in Iran. The present study was conducted to investigate comparatively the committed institutions and evaluation systems for school principals’ professional competencies in Iran, Malaysia, and the United States, providing a context where Iranian relevant authorities can find some more reliant solutions to improve the principals’ professional competencies development programs. . The research method was based on Bereday’s method in comparative education studies included the stages of description, interpretation, proximity, and comparison. Data was collected from library-relied resources including documents, reports, and published studies. The results showed that there are some ideas and lessons in the field of research in Malaysia and the state of California which would be used to improve the system of professional competencies of school principals in Iran. Based on the findings, there are duties and functions which are taken place by the overseas’ institutions for describing, developing, and evaluating the programs for principals’ professional competencies. Finally some suggestions were made for reforming and learning the relevant policies in Iran. The present study was conducted to investigate comparatively the committed institutions and evaluation systems for school principals’ professional competencies in Iran, Malaysia, and the United States, providing a context where Iranian relevant authorities can find some more reliant solutions to improve the principals’ professional competencies development programs. . The research method was based on Bereday’s method in comparative education studies included the stages of description, interpretation, proximity, and comparison. Data was collected from library-relied resources including documents, reports, and published studies. The results showed that there are some ideas and lessons in the field of research in Malaysia and the state of California which would be used to improve the system of professional competencies of school principals in Iran. Based on the findings, there are duties and functions which are taken place by the overseas’ institutions for describing, developing, and evaluating the programs for principals’ professional competencies. Finally some suggestions were made for reforming and learning the relevant policies in Iran. The present study was conducted to investigate comparatively the committed institutions and evaluation systems for school principals’ professional competencies in Iran, Malaysia, and the United States, providing a context where Iranian relevant authorities can find some more reliant solutions to improve the principals’ professional competencies development programs. . The research method was based on Bereday’s method in comparative education studies included the stages of description, interpretation, proximity, and comparison. Data was collected from library-relied resources including documents, reports, and published studies. The results showed that there are some ideas and lessons in the field of research in Malaysia and the state of California which would be used to improve the system of professional competencies of school principals in Iran. Based on the findings, there are duties and functions which are taken place by the overseas’ institutions for describing, developing, and evaluating the programs for principals’ professional competencies. Finally some suggestions were made for reforming and learning the relevant policies in Iran. The present study was conducted to investigate comparatively the committed institutions and evaluation systems for school principals’ professional competencies in Iran, Malaysia, and the United States, providing a context where Iranian relevant authorities can
    Keywords: professional competencies, principal, comparative study, Malaysia, USA