فهرست مطالب

جلوه هنر - شماره 23 (تابستان 1398)
  • شماره 23 (تابستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/06/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
|
  • الهه پنجه باشی*، ناهید یحیایی انزهایی صفحات 7-20
    معماری و تزیینات بنا، از جمله هنرهای مهم در عهد صفوی بوده است. هنرمندان و معماران، آثار بسیار نفیسی را در این دوره بر جای گذاشته اند که همه به دستور پادشاهی هنردوست به اجرا درآمده است. کاخ «عالی قاپو» - که یکی از بناهای مهم این دوره می باشد- در غرب میدان نقش جهان اصفهان، واقع و دارای تزیینات و گچ بری های بسیار چشم گیری است که در طبقه ششم، اتاق صوت آن به اوج خود می رسد. عمارت عالی قاپو، همواره مورد توجه هنرمندان بوده و تاریخ نویسان بسیاری، از هنرهای به کار رفته در این کاخ، یاد کرده اند. در این پژوهش، نقش و علت ساخت گچ بری های موجود در اتاق صوت، به طور جامع مطالعه شده است، چیزی که در پژوهش های دیگر در لابه لای تالیفات، به صورت پراکنده به آن، اشاره کرده اند. پرسش های اصلی این پژوهش، عبارتند از: 1) علت اصلی ساخت این گچ بری ها در دیواره و سقف اتاق صوت چه بوده است؟ 2) این گچ بری ها دارای چه ویژگی و نقوشی هستند؟ روش این پژوهش، تاریخی-تحلیلی است و با استفاده از مطالب کتاب خانه ای و اسنادی جمع آوری شده است. با بررسی و تحلیل نقوش تنگ بری و همین طور مصالح و شیوه کارکرد آن ها، این نتیجه گرفته می شود: گچ بری های اتاق صوت برگرفته از فرم های ظروفی، مانند تنگ، جام و صراحی است و نقوش به کار رفته در این اتاق، الهام گرفته از  موتیف های گیاهی و حیوانی می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: صفوی، معماری، عالی قاپو، اتاق صوت، گچ بری، تنگ بری
  • احسان زارعی فارسانی*، مریم قاسمی صفحات 21-42
    دغدغه بازنمایی دقیق عناصر جهان پیرامون، در یک اثر نقاشانه تحت لوای تبحر تکنیکی هنرمند، گاهی تعامل میان این عناصر را برای حصول کلیتی مطلوب پس می زند؛ نتیجه آن که، تکیه صرف بر بازآفرینی دقیق عناصر صحنه و عدم پرداختن به اصول طراحی در اثر، برای نیل به تهییج احساس مخاطب، وافی به مقصود نخواهد بود. هنرمند با کاربست تمهیدات بصری لازم، حلول حس صحنه در جسم و جان نظاره گر را ممکن می سازد و به مدد تدابیر لازم، حس مضمون را منتقل می نماید. نمود اصول انتظام بصری و تمهیدات هنرمندانه در نگارگری ایرانی بالاخص مکاتب هرات و تبریز، نمایانگر آگاهی هنرمند ایرانی از اصول طرح بوده است و مطالعه بصری آثار ارزشمند هنر نگارگری ایرانی، گواه قابل رویتی از کاربست اصول طراحی در این حوزه است. لیکن، در نگارگری ایرانی برخلاف نقاشی در غرب، چنان تمهیدات بصری، تدابیر لازم هنرمندانه و ساختار کلی در آن نخست، مرئی نیست. مساله این که هنرمند نگارگر در مصور نمودن مضامین چندگانه، چه تمهیدات و ترفندهای هنری را برگزیده و کدام ساختار را متناسب با محتوای اثر تشخیص داده است؟ در این پژوهش که به روش توصیفی- تحلیلی انجام شده است، سعی بر آن است تمهیدات لازم، در جایگاه تدابیری هنرمندانه، قراردادی، نهادینه و اصیل از زاویه آفرینش حس مضمون در حوزه نگارگری ایرانی، مورد بحث قرار گیرد.
    کلیدواژگان: حس مضمون، تدابیر هنرمندانه، ترکیب بندی، نگارگری ایرانی، سازماندهی تصویر
  • طاهره سلیمی*، حسن عزیزی صفحات 43-52
    طرح و نقش گلفرنگ، یکی از نقوش پر کاربرد در حوزه هنر های سنتی، و طراحی قالی است. نقوش موسوم به گل رز یا گل و مرغ، از هنر غرب نشات گرفته است و اکثر پژوهشگران، این نقش را از نقوش فرنگی می دانند. نقش گلفرنگ از دوره صفویه با رواج فرنگی سازی وارد هنر ایران شده و عصر قاجار، دوره اوج آن بوده است. این نقش از همان ابتدا، در تمام زمینه های هنری مثل نقاشی و کتاب آرایی، کاشی کاری و گچ بری ورود پیدا می کند؛ ولی هنر قالی، آخرین حوزه ای است که تحت تاثیر فرنگی سازی قرار می گیرد. شاید دلیل این امر، استمرار و پایداری سنت ها در زمینه طراحی و بافت فرش باشد. دوره قاجار، نقش گلفرنگ در طراحی فرش کاشان وارد می شود؛ و در ابتدا، به صورت تلفیقی با نقوش سنتی مورد استفاده قرار می گیرد. در دوره پهلوی اول، تنوع گلفرنگ ها بیش تر شده و اصول طبیعت گرایی(ناتورالیسم) نیز در طراحی آن، رعایت می شود؛ در عصر قاجار، حوزه قالی بافی کاشان بیش تر تحت تاثیر هنر غرب بوده است؛ زیرا تاثیرات فرنگی مآبی در کاشان، بیش تر است و به همین دلیل، نقش گلفرنگ در کاشان، زودتر وارد طراحی قالی شد. طرح و نقش گلفرنگ، یکی از طرح های نوزده گانه در تقسیم بندی طرح و نقش قالی ایران می باشد؛ هدف از این پژوهش، بررسی طرح و نقش گلفرنگ در خانه های تاریخی و قالی شهر کاشان، به شیوه تطبیقی، و بررسی شباهت ها و تفاوت های آن ها است. طرح گلفرنگ در کاشان بیش تر مورد استفاده واقع شده است؛ وجود منابع کثیری، مانند خانه ها و بنا های تاریخی، از جمله خانه بروجردی ها، خانه طباطبایی ها و... که هر کدام مملو از نقوش فرنگی و انواع  گلفرنگ ها هستند، از دلایل مهم تنوع گلفرنگ ها در این شهر است. در واقع، وجود نقوش گلفرنگ در خانه ها و ابنیه های تاریخی، باعث انعکاس این طرح ها در قالی های آن زمان شد؛ در این میان، نقش نقاشان زبردست کاشانی را نباید نادیده گرفت که البته، در هر کدام از دوره های تاریخی قاجار، پهلوی اول و پهلوی دوم دستخوش تغییراتی شدند که مورد بررسی قرار دادیم. اهدافی که در این پژوهش، مورد بررسی قرار گرفته اند: 1. بررسی نقش های فرنگی مآبی(گلفرنگ)در قالی های کاشان؛ 2. بررسی عوامل تاثیر گذار بر طرح گلفرنگ در قالی های کاشان؛ 3. بررسی دلایل اجتماعی و فرهنگی شکل گیری طرح گلفرنگ(فرنگی مآبی) در تزیینات معماری کاشان.
    کلیدواژگان: فرنگی مآبی(گلفرنگ ها)، تزیینات معماری، خانه های تاریخی کاشان، قالی کاشان
  • فاطمه شیرعلی یان* صفحات 53-66

    استان خراسان جنوبی و سیستان و بلوچستان در شرق و جنوب شرقی ایران قرار دارند. تزیینات در این دو منطقه، شکل های بسیار متنوعی دارد. بارزترین آن ها را می توان از نقش مایه های به کار رفته در دست بافته ها مشاهده کرد. عوامل مختلف طبیعی، فرهنگی و تاریخی باعث شکل گیری رنگ و فرم در تزیینات این دو منطقه شده است. هنرمندان این دو منطقه در تزیینات آثار خود خصوصیات و کیفیت های بصری را رعایت کرده اند. تلاش نگارنده در این پژوهش، بررسی نقش مایه های تکرارشونده در هنر دست بافته های دو منطقه است. هدف این مقاله، مطالعه تحلیلی و مقایسه تطبیقی بر مبنای جمع آوری اطلاعات و مطالعات کتابخانه ای نقش مایه های تکرارشونده است. حال پرسش های قابل طرح، بدین قرار است: 1. چه شباهت هایی میان نقوش به کار رفته در دست بافته ها، از دوران باستان تا عصر حاضر، در دو هر منطقه وجود دارد؟ 2. چه شباهت هایی میان نقوش به کار رفته در دست بافته ها و الهام گیری از محیط زندگی آن هاست؟ سعی بر آن بوده، تا نقش مایه هایی را انتخاب کنیم که نه تنها هم ریشه در فرهنگ و باور مردمان این دو منطقه است، بلکه بیش ترین قرابت را در بین نقش مایه های تکرارشونده داشته باشد. در این تحقیق، نقش مایه های متعدد براساس ساختار و شباهت ظاهری در بین نقوش هندسی، حیوانی، گیاهی، مورد تحلیل قرار خواهند گرفت. نقش مایه های موردبحث، عبارتند از: مثلث، مربع، لوزی، مثبت و منفی، پله دار، موجی، خمیده، جناغی، ضربدر، کنگره، شاخ، قوچک، بز و درخت زندگی.

    کلیدواژگان: واژگان کلیدی: هنر ایران، دست بافته های خراسان جنوبی، دست بافته های سیستان و بلوچستان، نقش مایه تکرارشونده
  • فاطمه کاتب، آمنه مافی تبار* صفحات 67-80
    در عمده مطالعات پارچه های دست بافت ایرانی از منظر طرح و نقش، ترکیب ظاهری پارچه های ادوار مختلف به صورت مضمونی و با گروه بندی انسانی، جانوری، گیاهی، هندسی و انواع دیگر نظیر آن، بررسی شده است. بازخورد نهایی این روش، معمولا به جهت عدم قطعیت، در دایره توصیف محدود می ماند؛ چرا که با فقدان ثبات لازم برای یک طبقه بندی محرز، هر پژوهشگری برای حصول نتیجه مورد نظر، به حد بضاعت و متناسب با اهداف تحقیقی خود، آن را دگرگون می کند. برای ترمیم این نقص، نگارندگان به این پرسش می پردازند: چگونه می توان با نظر به اصول هنرهای سنتی درباره شیوه های گسترش نقش در زمینه طرح، نسبت به طبقه بندی انواع پارچه های تاریخی ایران اقدام نمود؟ این مقاله، به شیوه توصیفی تحلیلی، نشان می دهد تقسیم موضوعی به جهت ناکارآمدبودن، به نوعی پراکندگی به ظاهر باقاعده انجامیده است. درصورتی که با تاسی به طبقه بندی رایج در هنرهای سنتی، بر اساس شیوه گسترش نقش در زمینه طرح -که نتایج آن پیش تر در هنر هم عرض نساجی سنتی، یعنی قالی بافی نیز به آزمون درآمده- می توان رده بندی دقیق تر با چهارچوب ساختاری مشخص، ایجاد کرد؛ که پارچه های دست بافت ادوار مختلف ایران، تا به امروز، در آن قابل تعریف باشد. در این رویکرد، با برقراری تمایز میان اصطلاحات طرح و نقش، هر نقش، می تواند در بستر هر طرح قرار گیرد و درعین حال ، تطور بنیادی در هویت آن، ایجاد نکند.
    کلیدواژگان: واژگان کلیدی: ایران، هنر سنتی، پارچه، طرح و نقش
  • سمیه موسویان* صفحات 81-92

    آنچه امروز در دنیای مجسمه سازی می گذرد، چنان متنوع و متناقض است که به سختی، می توان صفتی مشترک پیدا کرد که در همه پدیده ها یافت شود. این پژوهش بر آن است، تا ضمن شناخت رویکردهای حاضر در مجسمه سازی از 1980، ریشه های فکری و مبانی نظری آن را در ظهور ویژگی ها، صورت بیانی و مفهوم ضمنی مجسمه سازی معاصر، مورد تحلیل قرار دهد. پرسش اصلی آن است که مجسمه سازی معاصر غرب در قالب چه رویکردهایی ظهور یافته است؟ اصول کلی و ویژگی های عمده این رویکردها کدامند؟ و چه تشابهات و تفاوت هایی دارند؟ این مقاله با رویکردی توصیفی- تحلیلی از بعد فرم و محتوا به مجسمه سازی از سال 1980- 2000، پرداخته است. بدین منظور نگارنده، آثار هنرمندان شاخص در این بازه زمانی را بر مبنای فرم و ویژگی های ساخت مجسمه ها در قالب چهار رویکرد اصلی 1) پیکره گرایی، 2) انتزاع گرایی،  3) شی گرایی، و 4) مکان-ساخت گرایی، معرفی کرده و سپس، ویژگی های هر رویکرد را جهت شناخت بیش تر مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار داده است. دستاورد پژوهش، نشان دهنده آن است که به طور کلی، خصلت های «کثرت گرایی» در کاربرد اسلوب و روش های نامتجانس، «التقاط گری» در ترکیب مواد و اشیا متنوع، «متن گرایی» اثر به عنوان بستری جهت ارائه مفهوم و محتوای مورد نظر هنرمند و «فردگرایی» در به کارگیری سبک ساخت هر هنرمند را می توان از ویژگی مهم رویکردهای مجسمه سازی معاصر برشمرد؛ که هر کدام از موارد مذکور، در هر رویکرد به صورت کم یا زیاد برجسته است و در نهایت، این نتیجه حاصل شد که ویژگی های مذکور، تحت لوای عامل «موضوع گرایی»، به عنوان نقطه اشتراک در همه رویکردها، ظهور یافته است.

    کلیدواژگان: واژگان کلیدی: آثار حجمی معاصر، مجسمه سازی غرب، پست مدرن، موضوع گرایی
  • علیرضا مهدی زاده* صفحات 93-104
    شیعه(دوازده امامی) به واسطه بیان یک سری از باورها، آموزه ها، ارزش ها و روایت ها، نظام معنایی خاصی برای شیعیان می سازد و از این طریق، به کلیه رفتارهای فردی، اجتماعی و آیینی آنان، شکل ویژه و جلوه متفاوتی می بخشد. ازآن جاکه، هنر در جوامع سنتی از سایر شئون زندگی جدا نیست و هر مذهبی با در اختیار گرفتن ذهن افراد، در تمامی جنبه های زندگی آنان خودنمایی می کند، پس، می توان انتظار داشت که نگاره های شیعی نیز به مانند سایر ابعاد زندگی شیعیان، متاثر از مبانی فکری و اعتقادی شیعه، دارای ویژگی های خاص و منحصربه فردی باشند. بر این اساس، تبیین شاخصه های اصلی شکلی و محتوایی نگاره های شیعی بر مبنای مبانی اعتقادی شیعه، هدف این پژوهش است. بدین منظور، در این مقاله، ابتدا برای ارائه تصویری روشن و دقیق از مذهب شیعه، اصول و مبانی اعتقادی و عناصر و مفاهیم تشکیل دهنده این مذهب، بیان شده است. سپس، جنبه های اصلی و مهم نگاره های دارای مضمون شیعی، یعنی صورت و محتوا، روش بیانی و روایت، از منظر مبانی اعتقادی شیعه، بررسی و تحلیل شده اند. پرسش مطرح شده، این است: به واسطه چه شاخصه هایی می توان صفت شیعی را به یک نگاره بخشید؟ روش پژوهش، توصیفی- تحلیلی و شیوه جمع آوری اطلاعات، کتابخانه ای است. نتایج پژوهش، بیانگر این است که به صرف بازنمایی مضمونی شیعی در یک نگاره، نمی توان صفت شیعی را به آن نگاره بخشید؛ بلکه نگاره های شیعی، بایستی از جنبه صورت، محتوا، روش بیانی و روایت، در راستا و بیانگر مبانی اعتقادی شیعه باشند. از طریق این شاخصه هاست که نگاره های شیعی قابل شناسایی می شوند و از نگاره های مذهبی -که تنها بیانگر مضمونی شیعی هستند- متمایز می گردند.
    کلیدواژگان: واژه گان کلیدی: شیعه، مضامین شیعی، نگاره های شیعی، شاخصه نگاره های شیعی
|
  • E. Panjehbashi *, Nahid Yahyaee Anzahaee Pages 7-20
    Architecture and decorations of buildings were among the most important arts during the Safavid Era. The buildings constructed in the Safavid Period in Iran are probably the most enticing and attractive constructions throughout Iranian architecture. Artists and architects of Safavid Period have left a great deal of exuberance, all of which were executed on the orders of King Shah Abbas І, who was an art lover ruler. A collection of impressive architectures, including the Palace of Chehel Sotoun, Hasht Behesht, Haft Dast, Mirror Hall, Namakdan, Ashraf Hall, etc. were all constructed in this magnificent period. The courtiers' palaces often have a long life history, enduring many changes and events. What is noticeable in Persian Architecture, especially during the Safavid Period, is that building construction and architecture has been just as valuable and important as the techniques used to decorate and arrange the interior of the buildings. The Ali Qapu Palace is one of the palaces that have undergone many changes during decades and it was expanded during Shah Abbas I kingdom and was officially used for formal occasions and gatherings. The Ali Qapu Palace is located in the west of Isfahan’s Naghsh-e-Jahan Square, with its impressive decorations and stucco that reaches its peak in the sixth floor. Stucco is one of the most important attributes of the architecture especially within the Safavid Period, and when flourished, the cutout style of design was invented. One of the finest and most captivating examples of the cutout style in this period can be found on the sixth floor of the Ali Qapu Palace (Music Room). This type of stucco is in the form of bowls like stoup, basin and ewer. These decorations have been innovatively incorporated into the ceiling of the room, which mesmerizes every visitor. The whole room is covered with cutout style decorations with the surface being painted with artistic vegetal and animal figures by the most famous painter and artist of that era, Reza Abbasi. This is an inventive method of the Safavid Period and there is no sign of such artwork before Safavid Period. In this research, after reviewing the Safavid Period architecture and its elements, the decoration of the sixth floor of the Ali Qapu Palace, the method of making these tangibles and also the main reason for their presence in the walls of Music Room will be studied. The main questions of this research are as follows: What was the main reason for the construction of these plasterworks in the walls and ceiling of the music room? What kind of features and designs do these stuccos have? The type of research carried out here is historical-analytical, and the presented content has been collected from documents and literature found in libraries. In this research, stucco mosaics are analyzed linearly with Corel Software and all motifs and materials as well as the location of stucco moldings has been introduced through a table for better understanding of the readers. The main focus of the paper is the introduction of stucco molding and investigation of the cause of their existence in the music room. According to this research, we find that the upper levels of the walls are divided and in each division the design and the role of the hollow are drawn, and then the action of the cutout Muqarnas is done with the plaster and wood. Artists in the Music Room have invented these techniques and shapes such as stoup, basin and ewer to satisfy Shah Abbas I's demands. Perhaps the main reason for making these stucco moldings on the wall and the ceiling of the music room is that the reflection from the sounds are taken away by these forms, and natural sounds are heard without reflection like the "Echo Drum" which transmits vocal vibrations without alteration. It seems that the main purpose of this order by the king was to preserve the secretive words of the king and not to distribute the music of musicians in other places like what acoustics do today. Also, surveys show that the intervals between these plasterworks are covered with wall paintings inspired by the nature of the pattern, taking into account the suitability and beauty, and creating flower and plant designs, arabesques, cuthay, foliage and shapes, wild animals and birds by using, okr, gold, turquoise and green colors around the cutouts and backgrounds, developed by the artist, Reza Abbasi, created a masterpiece to satisfy not only the Shah, but also to remain a remarkable and amazing work in Iranian History.
    Keywords: Safavid era, Architecture, Ali Qapu, music room, stucco carvings, tong-bori
  • Ehsan Zarei Farsani *, Maryam Ghasemi Pages 21-42
    The concern of accurately representing the elements of the world around, in a work of art under the technical skill of the artist, sometimes repels the interaction between these elements for the sake of desirable generality. Consequently, relying on the strict representation of the elements of the scene and the lack of attention to design principles in the work will not be sufficient to achieve the target audience. The artist uses the necessary visual arrangements to make sense of the scene in the body and soul of the viewer and to convey the sense of content through the necessary measures. Departure of Iranian paintings from walls to manuscript forms a profound link between Persian literature and Iranian art. The Mongol conquest of Iran was a turning point in the history of the painting of this land. Another process of adaptations and innovations began in the late 13th century AD. With the introduction of bibliography at the courts, there was a restriction on the social function of painting, but instead, the themes and artistic expression became wider'. The Iranian painter has exhibited some of the most prominent works of literature of this region in the form of design and color, and has contributed his wishes, ambition and imagination. Visual representation of artistic discipline and artistic arrangements in Iranian painting, especially in the schools of Herat and Tabriz, represent the Iranian artist's awareness of the principles of design and the visual study of the valuable works of Iranian painting art is a visible evidence of the application of design principles in this field. The artist achieves visual unity by utilizing visual qualities, artistic tactics, and the principles and rules required in the process of creating a work. The principles of image organizing, harmony, diversity, balance, proportion, mastery, movement and the ability to form a single whole are the guides of the artist. Iranian and Indian-Islamic sources have mainly benefited from the term framework rather than the contemporary term of composition. For example, Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlatin the discussion of Behzad -1450-1535 AD wrote as follows: “His pen is tighter and his framework is better than his”. In the works of Tabriz I school, the harmony between image and text, caused horizontal and vertical combinations of events. Symmetrical and sometimes diagonal structures are also visible in these paintings. In some of these works, the artist uses clever tactics to create such a link between the existing elements, the composition and the narrative that the keen eye, after understanding and receiving it, rejoices and camouflaging these measures and applying hidden geometry, doubles the enjoyment of the work. The purpose of this study was to combine composition in Iranian painting with emphasis on the content and principles of visual traditions in a descriptive-analytical method. The present study seeks to draw on the legacy of the fine art of Iranian painting, through extensive research in the form of books and articles, and the author's collection and analysis of the aforementioned cases, conventional, institutional, and authentic tricks and arrangements from the perspective of creating a sense of theme in Iranian painting. In the field of visual traditions, the necessary books and articles are sufficiently accessible, and the conformity of the visual values of Iranian painting with these principles has been the way to achieve the purpose of the present study. Therefore, the results show that Iranian art has long been trying to express deep spiritual thoughts and has been seeking the truth by crossing the boundaries of time and place as elements of perception of reality. The Western artist used all the formal arrangements and techniques of landscapes to create spirituality from the visual elements. The Iranian-Islamic artist, however, tried to immaterialize the world of work. The viewer's feeling against a stimulus will itself be a criterion for measuring the success of a project. The basis of design theory is to discover the conditions under which the viewer's sensory reactions are quite receptive and positive. Design theory is based on the assumption that human sense inherently searches for a particular order within visual stimuli. The result is that the Iranian painter is aware of the principles of visual discipline and does not purport to convey a mere depiction of the elements of the scene in order to convey a sense of variety of themes. Choosing the right frame, the right geometry, and the right composition, along with applying visual qualities and artistic arrangements have been guidance of emotionally believing text and image adaptation. Each theme requires its own structure, composition and geometry, and contemporary themes have often used common tricks and tactics.
    Keywords: Themes, Artistic Tactics, Composition, Iranian Painting, Image Organizing
  • Tahereh Salimi *, H. Azizi Pages 43-52
    The design and role of Golfarang is one of the most popular designs in the field of traditional art and carpet design. The motifs called roses or flowers and bird originate from Western Art, and most scholars regard this motif as an ancient western motif. The Golfarang motif of the Safavid era has been brought to the Iranian art with the advent of westernization, and the Qajar era has been its peak. This motif comes from the very beginning in all artistic fields such as painting, layout, tile and plastering, but carpet art is the last area under the influence of westernization. Perhaps the reason for this is the continuity and sustainability of traditions in the design and texture of the carpet. The Qajar period shows itself in the design of Golfarang Kashan Carpet; it is initially used in combination with traditional designs. During the first Pahlavi Period, the variety of Golfarang increased and the principles of naturalism are also being considered in its design. In Qajar era, Kashan carpet weaving has been more influenced by Western Art, because the effects of westernization in Kashan are greater, and for this reason, Golfarang motif in Kashan, soon became a carpet design. Golfarang design and motif is one of the nineteenth designs in the division of Iranian carpet designs and motifs. The purpose of this research is to study the design and Golfarang motif in historical houses and carpets in Kashan in a comparative manner, and to examine their similarities and differences. The Golfarang design has been used more in Kashan. There are many resources, such as houses and historical buildings, including the Borujerdi House, Tabātabāei House, each of which is rich in variety of Golfarang motif, is one of the important reasons for the diversity of Golfarangs in this city. In fact, the existence of Golfarang in houses and historical buildings reflected the designs of the carpets of the time. Meanwhile, the role of skilled Kashani painters should not be ignored. Of course, in each of the historical periods of the Qajar, Pahlavi I and Pahlavi II, we have undergone changes that we examined. The type of research done is development (assessment) and descriptive-comparative-analytical, and the method of doing it is library and field. The statistical population in this research is the decorative images of Kashan's historical building architecture as well as the Golfarang Carpet of this city. Due to the widespread nature of the statistical population, selective sampling has been used. In addition, for the purpose of analyzing the results, a quantitative method has been used for the number of Golfarang designs, and the qualitative method has been used for discourse analysis. In this research, we tried to describe the comparative analysis of Golfarang (westernization) designs in carpet and rugs of Kashan using historical information (written sources) and documents and photographs provided by direct observation. In this research, we have two groups of statistical society. Historical houses of Kashan: Borujerdi House, Tabātabāei House, Āmeri House, Abbāsi House, Agha Bozorg Mosque and School and Sultan Amir Ahmad Bathhouse. The other statistical population is a sample of carpets in Kashan, which has Golfarang designs. Carpet weavers and designers could easily bring Golfarang design into the field of carpet design. As a result, Golfarang motif has become more common in Kashan carpets and westernization has created harmony with traditional arts in this city. The least influences of Golfarang motif in Kashan are related to the Safavid Era and most of them are related to the Qajar era. So that during Qajar period in Kashan, they used more Golfaran designs in carpets. In this period, the classic and traditional designs combined, for example, over horns on arabesque design. In general, Qajar Golfarang designs used in Kashan carpets are often a combination of Iranian and Western flowers, and they are usually light-weight, flat and simple, and lack shades of light. The colors used in Kashan's Golfarang carpets are mainly based on the color motifs used in Kashan carpets. Navy blue, dark and light red, yellow, golden, light cream, yellowish cream, light and dark blue, green, coral, are the main colors used in this carpet. Navy blue, red and in particular, cream, are the main colors used in these carpets. In Kashan, from the Qajar period, Golfarang designs in the carpet were used, and during the Pahlavi era, Golfarang designs used more than other designs had lots of variety. Golfarang were domesticated in Kashan and were mixed with classical designs.
    Keywords: westernization (Golfarang), architectural decoration of Kashan Historical Houses, Kashan Carpet, Iran
  • Mahsa Shiraliayn * Pages 53-66

    The region which is known in the geographical and political divisions as South Khorasan Province and Sistan and Baluchestan, have vast historical, especially cultural and artistic commonalities which is a factor in the integration and unity among the peoples of these two regions. The purpose of writing this research is to properly understand the recurring themes and their place in the art of this area, the reason and how to repeat these elements from the past to today according to the types of application of these elements in the art of the people of this place. To achieve this goal, the following questions arise: 1) Given that the creators of these designs have a separate language and culture, have there been connections between the motifs used in the handwoven fragments of these two regions and is there any similarities in their form and appearance? 2) Considering the warm and dry climate of both regions, did they use the script language to create the elements? To answer these questions, it must be stated that the most important necessity of this research was the visual analysis of these elements in accordance with their symbolic concepts. Some forms, such as plants, animals and natural objects, may be transformed into mere geometric forms or abstractions and lose their previous meaning. Today, the roles that are depicted in many arts represent specific cultural, social and individual concepts, even in their construction, the concepts and elements influenced by society and the environment in which these arts are formed. In this research, after introducing the appellation and historical background of the handwoven fragments among both regions, the introduction and classification of repetitive patterns based on the structure and apparent similarity between the motifs (geometric, vegetal, animal, vegetation) will be discussed. The present research is a comparative and analytical research and the required information is collected by library method. Indeed, by studying the obtained examples, the effects of natural, cultural and historical factors on the visual qualities of these decorations among the two regions have been examined. According to the above said, various features based on the structure and apparent similarity between geometric, animal and plant designs will be analyzed. Perhaps at first glance we can see the differences between the features of the South Khorasan and Sistan and Baluchistan handwoven objects which makes us to differentiate between them, but with some investigations we find that the apparent difference between these elements is due to the type of dialects and differences between the attitudes between these two regions’ people. Mats and handwoven fragments represent the objective crystallization of art, thought and creativity of their makers. Their designs are of great importance and value in many ways. The decoding of the designs and creative power in combining and simplifying the patterns with solid color combination is one of the important features of the handwoven things among these two regions. The common materials used in the handwoven fragments of both regions, despite relatively large intervals, indicates the presence of the various tribes in these two regions, and on the other hand is the common cultural and rich cultural base that weavers borrow from both lands; and this affinity can be clearly seen in most of the visual elements and motifs used in the rugs and Kilims of both regions. Using geometric designs such as triangle, square and diamond as the main motifs and other elements that are a combination of these original motifs, with warm colors, are balanced and dynamic compositions, symbolic using in linking designs, credibility and noteworthy wich can be found in handwoven objects of southern Khorasan and Sistan and Baluchestan. In conclusion, the present study is an analysis and comparison of repetitive patterns in the handwoven fragments, the suggestion that will be offer to the researchers is that follow this issue because this topic has a very broad scope, including colors and topics related to the color psychology and the world view that the use of these colors to decorate handwoven fragments among this tribes was originated from.

    Keywords: handwoven, design, motif, symbols
  • F. Kateb, A. Mafitabar * Pages 67-80
    In a general perspective, the classification of Iranian historical textiles is subject to dispersal. This turmoil becomes more highlighted when some researchers use two terms of design and motif interchangeably. This is while, design signifies a general combination and motif is the smallest significant component of the design. Hence, each of these two concepts defines a different quality, so that their interchangeable use is not only inappropriate but also disrupts understanding of the actual meaning. The prevalence of this inadequacy is to the extent that the authors of this article, in many of their references, were compelled to modify the terms of design and motif, because in most cases, the creators of the handful of reliable sources available on Iranian hand-woven products, have ignored the difference between these two terms and have considered them equivalent. On the other hand, the classification of the types of traditional fabrics, which are usually defined differently in the ruling periods of the historical dynasties, paying attention to the gist of motifs has earned the greatest effectiveness. Therefore in most studies of Iranian hand-woven textiles in terms of designs and motifs, the composition of the textiles of different eras have been analyzed in terms of the theme and categorized as human, animal, plant, geometric and other types of designs. Due to the lack of reliable theoretical foundation in the aforementioned method, the ultimate feedback is limited to description only. On the other hand, because of the shortcomings resulting from the certainty of this method, there is a tendency for each research to add a few imaginative categories to the type of historical textile which it is related to. In fact, due to lack of stability required for a clear categorization, each researcher make adjustments to their study according to its goals in order to achieve the desired results. To mend this flaw which originates from the concern of most researchers in areas other than applied arts, the authors of this article attempted to find the answer to the following question: How can various types of textiles be classified with regard to the principles of traditional arts on the methods of adding motif to the design? This analysis by utilizing library studies proves analytical descriptive that thematic classification, due to its inefficiency, has led to a seemingly organized but fake dispersion. However, following the common classification in traditional arts by the method of adding motifs to the design which results have already been tested in carpet weaving which is an art parallel to traditional textile art, a more precise classification can be achieved with a structural framework in which handmade textiles of different historical eras can be defined. In this approach, by making a distinction between the terms design and motif, each base image can be in the context of each design and yet avoid making fundamental changes in its identity. In order to overcome this defect and organize things, using the same method of classification of other traditional arts such as different types of carpets seems efficient. In this approach, the types of fabrics are categorized from a different perspective and according to the manner in which the motifs are spread in the design. Accordingly, the types of these textiles can be categorized to (1) story (2) inscription, (3) scattered, (4) altar, (5) medallion, (6) Vagireh or tangled, (7) framed, (8) Muharramat or striped and (9) combined, based on the ways the main design is executed, including independent, axial symmetry (reflexive) and repetitive symmetry (thorough). This is a nine-part classification, capable of covering all historical textiles and ending the disorganized status in the field, with no manipulation needed. In this method, considering the differences between design and motif, any motif is introduced under the name of the main design, such as Shah Abbasi scattered or shrub tangled. Ultimately, this paper distinguished between the applied and effective terms of design and motif and created a reliable categorization, which put an end to subjectivity in scientific researches on future studies (report, comparative or approach-oriented studies) about traditional textiles.
    Keywords: textile, design, motif, Iranian
  • Somayeh Moosavian* Pages 81-92

    Having started decades ago, what is transpiring in the sculpture sphere is of such a varied, plural, uncanny, and paradoxical nature. This goes insofar as not only is it impossible to tell genuine from the impure, but also it is not easily possible to trace attributes shared by all the phenomena and then to define the contemporary sculpture or to outline a certain value or hierarchy system for it. The only term that can be safely used today to describe works of sculpture is “uncertainty”. Featuring scattered, relative, personalized, commercialized, market-oriented aesthetics, post modernism is an art form of altered functions whose nature and identity are constantly changing. Definition of the essential and the art is not possible anymore. In other words, concepts like centralized aesthetics, purity, consonance, harmony, coherence, and ideal beauty have all been faced with disagreement in the temporary art, and this issue is in direct connection with today’s sculpture works. Nowadays, the term “sculpture” encompasses a much wider span of works. In fact, upon the emergence of post modernism, all the criteria that were once the essential conditions of a sculpture, like solidity, uniqueness, being an object and being bound to a particular location for display purpose, were deemed unnecessary.  What is transpiring in the sculpture sphere today is so varied and paradoxical nature that it is impossible to trace attributes shared by all the phenomena. The present study is an attempt to identify the approaches prevailing in sculpture since 1980, and to analyze the theoretical foundations and intellectual origins of such approaches as well as the expressive forms and implicit concepts of contemporary sculpture. The main questions are the following: What approaches does contemporary western sculpture advocate? What are the fundamental principles and attributes of the approaches in question? What are the similarities and differences between these approaches? The main objective of this study is to examine the main characteristics and developments of the contemporary sculptural approaches in order to reach an integrated order of this category. This would in turn help with the extraction of features to achieve a unified viewpoint regarding the contemporary sculpture.  Thus, given that the features of postmodern art have not yet been organized as for their influence in the contemporary sculpture, it is deemed necessary to probe into the issue. The reason is contemporary pieces of sculpture attempt to break away from the arbitrary boundaries set in the modern era. They are not willing to surrender to the purism and feigned confines of the modern era. This is why contemporary sculpture is defined in a far wider domain, and is more varied in the material, techniques, methods, etc. Therefore, it would be of help to identify and outline those features used to distinguish the works of contemporary sculptors from those previous eras and especially modern epoch. This way, a more profound evaluation of this art form would be feasible. A descriptive-analytical approach has been employed to analyze the form and content of sculpture from 1980 to 2000. To this end, the author has introduced the works of prominent sculptors of the mentioned period in the categories of 1.Figuration 2.Abstraction 3.Objectivity and 4.Place-structuralism. Characteristics of each approach are then analyzed.Findings of the research indicate that contemporary sculptors adopt resort to a variety of approaches and work with certain concepts and ambiance to express the fundamental assumptions and experiences of the time. They aim at elimination the extant general sensitivity towards the function of sculpture and redefining this function. The inclusive focus of their works on various approaches doubts the artistic, modern self-sufficient pieces of sculpture once appreciated as a “sublime” commodity. They employ different sculptural approaches to reflect dynamic experiences which are often mysterious, and feature narrative qualities and allegorical and personal expressions. All in all, "pluralism" in the application of fuzzy and heterogeneous methods, "eclecticism" in the combination of various materials and objects, and "text extroversion" of the work as a platform for the artist to present their desired content and concept, and “individualism” evident in the use of the artist’s personal style and self-awareness are the highlights of contemporary sculptural creations. Eventually, being “subject-oriented” was recognized as the common point shared by all the aforesaid approaches.This would per se bring about plurality in the form and concepts, eliminate hierarchies, put the content before the form, communicate a message, consider the issues of the day, apply new media and advanced technologies in the creation of items, widen the cultural span emerging in the works, address more general audience, and bring new media into the platform of sculpture in the form of installation art, architectural sculptures, etc., which would eventually alter the modernist definitions of sculpture. In fact, the notion of  being “content-oriented” as the common point of all contemporary sculpture styles makes it possible for the sculptor to find inspirations in their immediate environment and express national and racial issues, boundaries, and social norms in the form of their individual concerns. Thus, racial, cultural, religious, and sexual minorities are using sculpture as a tool to voice their beliefs and to showcase their constraints. Consequently, given the plurality of the perspectives ahead, the contemporary sculpture is going through varied experimentalism in order to reach a novel expression.

    Keywords: contemporary volumetric works, western sculpture, postmodern, topic based
  • Ali Reza Mehdizadeh * Pages 93-104
    Shiite sect (Twelver Imams), through expression of certain beliefs and teachings, values and narratives dictates a special semantic system for the Shiites, and thus gives a special and different form to all their individual, social and ritual behaviors. Since art in traditional societies is not separated from other aspects of life, and every religion expresses itself in the minds of individuals in all aspects of their lives, it can be expected that Shiite figures, as all aspects of Shia lifestyle, to be influenced by the Shiite intellectual and ideological foundations and to have special and unique features. In other words, the Shia should be known as a territory of concepts, words, individuals, beliefs and stories of which its central core of intellectual and belief is the divine legitimacy of Imam Ali (PBUH) in the case of the succession of the holy Prophet Mohammad and the Muslim leadership. The legitimacy that was transferred to his great children from Fatimah’s (his wife) Generation. Overall, the divine legitimacy of Imam Ali (PBUH) in the case of the succession of the holy Prophet Mohammad, infallibility of the Shia Imams, munificence of Imams, judgment of the Imams in the day of resurrection, intercession of Imams and special stories about some events such as Ghadir, constitute the key and significant elements and concepts of the Shia religion, the elements and concepts of which they are beyond the time and space and represent themselves in all fields of the Shia’s life. These elements along with each other make a condensed structure and particular semantic system which gives a particular look and flaunt to all of the individual and plural behaviors of the Shia and the Shiites are distinguished from other religious tendencies, in this way. Since art works are recognizable by form, content and the way of express and converse by the visual language with us, therefore the main indicators of the Shia figuress should be explained and identified by their significant and principal aspects which are form (exterior and appearance), content (intent and backend),  the expressive method (applying visual elements) and narrative. What is the difference between the Shia figures and purely religious figures? Accordingly, Explaining the main forms and content based characteristics of the Shiite's figures based on Shi'a beliefs is the purpose of this study. For this purpose, in this study, firstly, in order to present a clear and precise picture of Shi'a sect, the principles and foundations of beliefs, elements and concepts constituting this sect are expressed. Then, the main and important aspects of the Shiite figures in terms of form and content, narrative and expression method are analyzed from the view of the Shiite beliefs. The proposed question is that by what indicators Shiite traits can be given to a figure? The research method is descriptive-analytic and data collection in done through library method. At the first step, it is defined based on research theoretical framework, the foundations of belief and intellectual. Then, in this regard, in order to determine the main indicators of shape and content of the Shia figures, some of these themed figures have been investigated and analyzed from the appearance and content, the expressive method and narrative viewpoints. The results of the research show that due to the only representation of a Shiite subject in a figure, it cannot be attributed to Shiite traits, but Shiite figure in aspect of form, content, expression method and narrative should be conforming basic principles of Shia. Through these indices, Shiite figures are recognizable and distinguishable from religious figures that only represent the Shia subject. According to the presented Image examples, it could be said that as the poet expresses the concept and meaning by using the words and literary devices such as likeness and metaphor, the painter also expresses his visual commentary by the help of visual elements, signs, symbols, visual and pictorial arrangements. The Shia painter can express the desired concepts of the Shia by using visual elements (line, shape, color, area, space and light), visual arrangements, signs, symbols and put the main aspects of the producer of his work (appearance and content, way of express and narrative) in line with Shia beliefs and then guide the audience to the conceptual and belief of the Shia. It seems that the results and conclusions of this study can be used to study about other forms of arts with the Shia theme and identify the indicators of each one and thereupon, providing the basis for studies for the conceptualization of the Shias principles. Hence, it is suggested that different types of art works which have the Shia content, should be investigate and analyzed based on the foundations of beliefs and thoughts.
    Keywords: Shiite, Shiite figures, characteristics of Shiite figures