فهرست مطالب

School Health - Volume:6 Issue:3, 2019
  • Volume:6 Issue:3, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/07/09
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Rafael Zapata Lamana, Igor Cigarroa Cuevas, Victor Fuentes, Claudio Soto Espindola, Eva Parrado Romero, Carlos Sepulveda, Matias Monsalves Alvarez* Page 1
    Context

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is considered a time-efficient strategy to improve cardiometabolic health markers in children and adolescents. However, the evidence regarding the characterization of each intervention and the quantification of their health effects within the school environment is required.

    Objectives

    To systematically review the characteristics of HIIT-based interventions during school time and quantify their effects on the health of children and adolescents. Data Sources: Recommendation of PRISMA for systematic review was applied. The protocol was registered in the PROSPERO repository 2018 CRD42018089017. A search of the literature (2008 - 2018) on the databases PubMed, Web of Science, CINHAL and PsycINFo was carried out. Study Selection: Twelve publications using HIIT on children and adolescents in a school-based environment were selected. The inclusion criteria were: (1) HIIT; (2) intervention and, (3) type of study. Data Extraction: The inclusion criteria to the titles and abstracts, or three independent researchers analyzed the articles. PRISMA’s recommendation for systematic reviews, Cochrane tool and ROBINS for randomized and non-randomized studies were used.

    Results

    We identified 12 studies that included a total of 917 children and adolescents; 83% of the interventions were performed during physical education classes. The average duration and intensity of the interventions were 8 weeks and > 90% HR, respectively. The most important variables evaluated and impacted by HIIT were cardiovascular fitness, nutritional status, and physiological wellbeing.

    Conclusions

    HIIT seems to be a reliable and time-efficient approach to impact especially cardiovascular fitness of children and adolescents during school time. The focus on class intensity and the number of repetitions needs further investigation to find interventions based on each school due to individual differences regarding time and implementation constraints to impact health parameters.

    Keywords: High-Intensity Interval Training, School-based Interventions, Children, Adolescents
  • Ali Javadi Nejad, Alireza Heidari *, Farah Naderi, Saeed Bakhtiyar Pour, Fariba Haffezi Page 2
    Background

    Spiritual intelligence is one of the important and influential variables in many psychological characteristics including resilience and responsibility.

    Objectives

    Based thereon, the present study was conducted with the objective of determining the effectiveness of spiritual intelligence training in responsibility and resilience of secondary high school students in the city of Baghmalek.

    Methods

    The present study was a semi-experimental study with pretest-posttest design and experimental/control groups. The research population included all secondary high school students from Baghmalek city during 2017 - 2018. Finally, 60 students were selected by the multistage cluster sampling method and randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Data collection was done using the Connor-Davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC) and Kordlou’s responsibility questionnaire. The experimental group participated in eight 90-min sessions for spiritual intelligence instruction while the control group was placed in a waiting list and did not receive any instructions. After the termination of the sessions, both of the groups were subjected to posttest.

    Results

    The results indicated that there was a linear significant relationship between the pretest and posttest scores of resilience (F = 56.32, P < 0.001) and the pretest and posttest scores of responsibility (F = 12.98, P = 0.004) in the experimental and control groups. The results of univariate analysis for resilience (F = 15.55, P < 0.001) and responsibility (F = 7.14, P = 0.016) as dependent variables were found significant. Thus, spiritual intelligence instruction increased resilience and responsibility in students.

    Conclusions

    Spiritual intelligence training could be an appropriate interventional method for enhancing the students’ responsibility and resilience considering the society’s need for committed and flexible students who can resist problems and challenges.

    Keywords: Spiritual Intelligence, Education, Resilience, Responsibility, Students
  • Ali Seghatoleslamy*, Maryam Masoudi , Marzieh Saghebjoo , Morteza Taheri Page 3
    Background

    The main purpose of this study was to determine whether Pilates exercise is as good as aerobic exercise on the performance of subtests of Wechsler ACID profile in female primary school students with learning disabilities. The Wechsler intelligence scale for children developed by Wechsler in 1949 was used to measure children’s intelligence. One of the features of this scale is that, unlike similar individual scales, it is not designed based on the age level and items are arranged in order of difficulty in each test. Each subtest measures different abilities, the sum of which indicates the overall intelligence.

    Methods

    The statistical population consisted of all female students with learning disorders in Sarayan city in the academic year 2013 - 2014, 45 of who were recruited as the sample in this study. Subjects were randomly divided into two experimental groups (aerobics and Pilates) and one control group (each containing 15 subjects). The experimental groups were the subject of independent variables (aerobic or Pilates exercise protocols) for eight weeks. Learning disorder was confirmed through interviews with the children and parents, background reviewing, and the administration of the Wechsler test. The primary objective was the comparison of Pilates and aerobic exercises in the mean score of overall intelligence at the end of the study.

    Results

    The results showed that the mean score of overall intelligence was better in the Pilates group (n = 15, mean = 104) than in the aerobic group (n = 15, mean = 100). However, the results showed that eight weeks of aerobic and Pilates exercises improved the performance of the subtests of Wechsler ACID profile in the intervention groups compared to the control group, but no significant difference was found between the two intervention groups (P = 0.61).

    Conclusions

    It seems that eight weeks of aerobic and Pilates exercises can have positive effects on the performance of the subtests of Wechsler ACID profile in children with learning disabilities as a non-invasive method.

    Keywords: Aerobic Exercise, Pilates Exercise, Learning Disabilities, Performance of Subtests in Wechsler ACID Profile
  • Behzad Azarnioshan *, Habibollah Naderi , Ali Asghar Shojaee , Askar Asghariganji Page 4
    Background

    The study of anger is important from many aspects, one of which is the anger management.

    Objectives

    The current study aimed at examining the mediating role of resilience in the relationship between perceived parenting styles and anger management in high school students.

    Methods

    Using randomized cluster sampling, 395 high school students (females and males) from Babolsar city, Iran enrolled in the school for the academic year of 2017 - 2018 were selected as the study participants. The participants’ ages ranged 12 to 16 years (mean = 13.93, SD = 0.81). The perceived parenting style of the participants was determined, using resilience and anger management scales. Data were analyzed by AMOS version 22. In order to evaluate the proposed model of the study, path analysis was performed.

    Results

    The results indicated that the authoritative parenting style was a positive predictor of anger management (P = 0.006, β = 0.19) and resilience (P = 0.012, β = 0.21). The results also revealed that the authoritarian parenting style was a negative predictor of anger management (P = 0.008, β = -.25) and resilience (P = 0.005, β = - 0.31). Resilience was a positive predictor of anger management (P = 0.011, β = 0.33) and played a mediator role between authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles and anger management. The results showed that the acceptable percentage of anger management variance was explained by the model.

    Conclusions

    Given the results, increase of authoritative parenting style and decrease of authoritarian parenting style are accompanied by strengthened anger management skill in high school students. Therefore, holding workshops for parents can help them to strengthen the management of anger in their children.

    Keywords: Anger Management, Resilience, Perceived Parenting Styles, Adolescence
  • Mehdi Reza Sarafraz *, Haniyeh Chavoshi , Mahyar Alinaghi Page 5
    Background

    Social network websites are defined as web-based services that provide individuals with an opportunity to connect and communicate with other people for sharing information. The use of these networks is growing dramatically, which may have various effects on individuals’ lives.

    Objectives

    The present study hypothesized that using social networks has a negative effect on educational performance, psychological well-being, and mental health.

    Methods

    We selected 315 students from Shiraz, Iran, in 2017 (185 girls and 130 boys with an average age of 16.88 and 15.9 years, respectively) from six high schools at the fourth grade to evaluate the effect of social networks on educational performance, psychological well-being, and mental health. Students were selected using a convenience sampling method. The research plan was sub-projects of correlated plans and data were analyzed by stepwise regression analysis with SPSS version 21 at a significance level of < 0.05. The exclusion criteria included students’ dissatisfaction and age of under 15 and above 18.

    Results

    We found that 90.8% of the students were using social networks. In general, virtual networks had negative (-0.25; P = 0.001) and positive (0.23; P = 0.001) correlations with educational performance and depression, respectively. Particularly, social network websites had positive relationships with anxiety and stress in male students and negative relationships with grade point average (GPA) and psychological well-being in female students. Regression analysis revealed that social networks had significant effects on depression, educational performance, psychological well-being, stress, anxiety, and GPA. Among different social networks (Telegram, WhatsApp, Instagram, and Facebook), Instagram negatively predicted educational performance, psychological well-being, and depression while WhatsApp and Telegram predicted depression and GPA, respectively. Moreover, Telegram, in particular, predicted stress and anxiety among male students.

    Conclusions

    These findings necessitate to pay attention to this phenomenon and its consequences.

    Keywords: Social Network Sites, Educational Performance, Psychological Well-Being, Mental Health, Depression, Anxiety, Students
  • Mohsen Jadidi, Maryam Shahnasi *, Mohammad Bagher Saberi Zafarghandi Page 6
    Background

    Adolescence is a period that a person develops from being juvenile into adulthood; therefore, training female adolescents is of great importance since it is a preparation stage for psychosocial demands. Psychologists should not only think about solving adolescence's problems, but they must also help them to achieve a happier, and more fulfilled life. Excitement and the promotion of the meaning of life can have desirable aspects for the person, in individual and social conditions. Because when conformity appears in the form of normative influence, it improves the quality of life.

    Objectives

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of positive psychotherapy on conformity and the purpose in life among female adolescents.

    Methods

    The research method was quasi experimental with pretest-posttest and control group. The population included high school female students in Neka, Mazandaran province, Iran in 2017. Thirty female adolescents selected using purposeful, and convenience sampling methods as the samples of the study. Fifteen subjects were then randomly assigned into each of the experimental and control groups. The experimental group received psychoeducational based on positive psychotherapy during 8 weeks, one session per week and each session lasted for 90 minutes; the control group did not receive any intervention. Measurements of the study were conformity L-72 test, and purpose in life questionnaire that respectively includes 55 and 20 items. The reliability of both tools was higher than 0.7.

    Results

    Results revealed that in the experimental group, the means of conformity in pretest, posttest and follow up were 85.13, 69.00 and 67.93, and the mean of purpose in life were 103.67, 120.47 and 121.40. The positive psychotherapy had a significant effect on declining conformity and elaborating purpose in life among subjects (P < 0.001).

    Conclusions

    Positive psychotherapy, by relying on positive attributes, can be effective on individual and social health and growth of adolescent girls. It is recommended to be used for adolescents who have low-level of purpose in life in or conformity.

    Keywords: Positive Psychotherapy, Conformity, Purpose in Life, Female Adolescent
  • Fatemeh Sharafian , Mehdi Shahbazi *, Shahzad Tahmasebi Boroujeni Page 7
    Background

    A quiet eye is the final fixation or tracking before moving on, which requires concentration and attention, and is an effective way of teaching interceptive tasks.

    Methods

    In the current semi-experimental study, 20 volunteer female students from a volleyball center of Shiraz District 1 (mean age = 12.10, SD = 0.718) were selected as the participants from February 2017 to February 2018. After taking the pre-test, they were randomly divided into two groups of 10 (technical training and quiet eye training). The intended task was to receive volleyball serve with the forearm from three receiving areas of the mini-volleyball court. To measure the accuracy of the volleyball serve reception, a volleyball Serve Reception Test by forearm was used in mini-volleyball court. Ergoneers eye tracking (EET) was used to record the visual data. After the pre-test, the participants took part in 9 separate training sessions three sessions a week, and 48 hours after the last training session, the first retention test and one month later the second retention test was performed. Data were analyzed by 2 × 3 mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) of quiet eye duration and performance, using SPSS software at a significant level of P ≤ 0.05.

    Results

    The results showed that the mean performance of the quiet eye training group increased from 4.30 ± 1.76 in pre-test to 11 ± 1.76 in the first retention and 12 ± 2 in long-term retention in comparison to the technical training group (P = 0.007). However, there was no significant difference between the mean quiet eye duration of the quiet eye and technical training groups (P = 0.512).

    Conclusions

    It seems that quiet eye training has a significant effect on the long-term learning of beginners compared to technical training, but it does not have a significant difference in the duration of beginners’ quiet eye compared to technical training.

    Keywords: Quiet Eye Training, Perceptual-Cognitive Skills, Long-Term Learning, Volleyball, Female Students
  • Majid Zargham Hajebi, Saeed Pourabdol *, Mahdi Beyki , Seyed Hamed Sajjadpour Page 8
    Background

    Social anxiety disorders are among disorders that decrease the academic performance of students and cause emotional and behavioral problems.

    Objectives

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of brain/behavioral systems and emotional processing in predicting social anxiety of students.

    Methods

    This research was descriptive and correlational. The research population included all 5th grade male students of Ardabil city during years 2016 to 2017, among which 123 students were selected by the multi-stage cluster sampling method. Data collection was done through brain/behavioral systems scale, emotional processing, and social anxiety questionnaire. For data analysis, the researchers used Pearson’s correlation and multiple regression analysis.

    Results

    The results showed mean (and standard deviation) of BAS, BIS, and FFS for emotional processing and social anxiety among students under study was 77.26 (2.76), 79.78 (57), 82.93 (3.25), 114.21 (22.84), and 32.41 (14.22), respectively. Also, the results showed that there was a significant negative correlation between behavioral activation system (BAS) and students’ social anxiety (P < 0.001). Also, a significant positive relationship was found between behavioral inhibition system and fight-or-flight system with students social anxiety (P < 0.001). In addition, there was a negative correlation between social anxiety and emotional processing. Results of regression analysis showed that 46% of the variance in social anxiety of students was significantly explained by brain/behavioral systems and emotional processing variables.

    Conclusions

    Based on these results, it could be said that the relationship between individual differences, emotional processes, and brain behavioral processes can be an important factor in dealing with anxiety.

    Keywords: Brain, Behavioral Systems, Emotional Processing, Social Anxiety