فهرست مطالب

Society of Iranian Archaeologists - Volume:3 Issue:6, 2017
  • Volume:3 Issue:6, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/07/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Ahmad Azadi * Pages 1-12

    Archaeological evidence indicates that the southern parts of Zagros, especially the provinces of Fars and Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, supported human populations during the Pleistocene Period. The region of Kohgiluyeh, at an elevation between 500 to 3600 m asl, which is located in the southern Zagros highlands, is particularly impressive in this regard. This article presents data relating to an archaeological survey by the author which has identified 23 sites dating to the Pleistocene Period in this region. Among these sites, three were attributed to the Middle Paleolithic Period and 20 sites to the Epipaleolithic Period. In terms of typology of the sites, they include open sites, rock shelters, caves and some mounded sites. Different geomorphological landscapes are represented, such as the margins of rivers, heights and their slopes, gorges, margin of plains and landscape of rolling hills close to the Plains and rivers, each of which clearly played a role in the formation of occupations of this Period. It seems that subsistence patterns in the sites of this Period in Kohgiluyeh have been affected by two main geographical factors, mountains and rivers. The evidence presented in this article shows that access to mountainous and riparian plant and animal resources was a high priority for human populations of the Pleistocene in this region.

    Keywords: Pleistocene, Kohgiluyeh, Middle Paleolithic, Epipaleolithic
  • Nasir Eskandari, Akbar Abedi*, mehdi Kazempour, Kamal Aldin Niknami Pages 13-35

    The first and second seasons of extensive survey and excavation at Zardkhaneh were carried out during June-August 2011 and 2012. Third season of excavation continued in August 2014. The survey and excavation yielded materials from the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age. Recently, a survey covering 30 ha at the second millennium b.c. site of Zardkhaneh, located near the city of Ahar in the province of Eastern Azerbaijan, brought to light 95 stone burials indicating that Zardkhaneh was a large cemetery, related to the adjacent settlement and defensive fortress. Our preliminary study shows that the large stone graves and kurgan type burials of Zardkhaneh had close connections with the material culture of areas today located in Azerbaijan, Armenia, and Turkey during these periods.

    Keywords: Zardkhaneh, Late Bronze, Early Iron Age, Stone Graves, Kurgan, Northwest Iran
  • Hamid Reza Valipour*, Iman Mostafapour, Negin Miri, Hossein Davoudi, Hamed Zifar, Behnam Ghanbari, Hamzeh Karimi Pages 36-55

    Archaeological reconnaissance in the Gotvand Dam Basin area in 2007 led to the identification of a number of archaeological sites dating to various cultural periods. One of these sites, known as Kalāntar 4, was proposed for rescue excavation. Architectural remains and two NeoElamite semi-underground stone tombs were discovered, which have enhanced our knowledge of the Neo-Elamite period in the highlands of Khuzestan. Based on ceramic comparisons, there are significant similarities between the assemblages from Kalāntar 4 and those of Susa (Ville Royale II and Ville Royale A), as well as with Neo-Elamite sites in the nearby Mianab-e Shushtar plain further to the southsouthwest. Furthermore, architectural research based on an ethno-archaeological approach indicates some continuities in the architectural traditions of this area from at least the NeoElamite period to the present day

    Keywords: Gotvand Dam Basin, Kalāntar 4, Neo-Elamite Period, Semi-Underground Tomb, Residential Architecture
  • Maryam Dara*, Gholam Shirzade Pages 56-71

    The area between three Lakes Sevan, Van and Urmia was the main region of the Urartians from 9th to 6th centuries b.c. Accordingly, a number of Urartian inscriptions may be found within the borders of present-day Iran. Some of these inscriptions are inscribed over bullae. Urartian bullae were produced mainly to seal vessels. Twelve Urartian inscribed bullae have been already found at the Urartian fortress of Bastam. There is another newly and accidentally found one from Bastam. This bulla has an inscription carved over it and three stamp seal impressions have been made over it. The inscription content is “100 seal” and the seals are badly damaged but seem identical. The trace of a strip passed from inside of the bulla is visible

    Keywords: bulla, seals, Urartu, Bastam, Cunieform Inscriptions
  • Tayyebeh Almasi*, Abbas Motarjem, Kazem Mollazadeh Pages 61-71

    The Iron Age III in western Iran especially that of the Hamedan Plain, is of particular importance in archeological studies. Despite the recognition of the importance of the Hamedan Plain during the historical periods, there are many settlements of the Iron Age III in this area that are still relatively unknown. Tepe Yalfan is one such site, belonging to Iron Age III, located in the southeast of the Hamedan plain, at the confluence of two rivers, the Simin and Yalfan Roud. With the construction of the Ekbatan dam, Tepe Yalfan was marooned in the reservoir. During the years 2007 and 2008, the site was excavated as a salvage project due to the dam construction. Tepe Yalfan contains two cultural periods: Iron Age III architectural remains and Islamic graves. Due to the time limits of the salvage project, only some parts of a brick wall with was found. The similarity of the potsherds from Tepe Yalfan to other Median sites such as Nushijan, Godin II, and Baba jan II.I has helped the excavation team (the director: A.M.) to date the site. Based on the studies, Tepe Yalfan was a dependent settlement of the Median capital, ca. 800- 600 bc.

    Keywords: Tepe Yalfan, Iron Age III, Median Period, Hamedan, Median Pottery
  • Alireza Khosrowzadeh * Pages 72-87

    For many years, no Sasanian sites were known from the Iranian coast of the Strait of Hormuz. Recently, however, with increased knowledge of Sasanian pottery along the shores the Persian Gulf, a large number of sites have been identified on Qeshm Island. Archaeological survey of Qeshm Island was conducted in February and March 2007 and March 2012 with the aim of identifying ancient sites. During these surveys, 192 archaeological sites from different periods were found. The discovered sites date back to different periods, ranging from prehistory to late Islamic times. This article is a study of Sasanian period settlements. As a result of the survey of Qeshm, we have new insight into the ancient settlements on Qeshm Island. Among the identified sites, 24 sites were attributed to the Sasanian Age (19 occupation sites, 3 cemeteries and 2 forts). Some of the Sasanian sites of Qeshm Island are the first real archaeological sites from this period to be identified on the islands of the Persian Gulf. Due to the lack of information on Sasanian sites on Persian Gulf islands, reconstruction of the social and economic aspects of the population in Sasanian on Qeshm is difficult; based on this two-season survey, however, it seems that human communities on the island were settled in areas related to agricultural production and the exploitation of marine resources. Considering the lack of information on the Sasanian pottery, this article will be useful for the future identification of this period in the Persian Gulf region.

    Keywords: Qeshm Island, Sasanian, Persian Gulf, Southeast Iran
  • Mohammadamin Emami*, Soraya Elikay Dehno, Morteza Garavand Pages 88-96

    A field survey of Southern Kuhdasht County around Botkhaneh cave was conducted in order to prospect the area for archaeological sites related to ancient metalworking industries. The first field season identified sixteen locations with abundant amount of slags, which may represent potential metalworking installations. The present study has been carried out on by means of analysis of iron-smelting slags from the survey in terms of their mineralogy, phase-states, and chemical composition in order to determine particular metallurgical extraction techniques. The results of this study show that the Kuhdasht samples are primarily ferrous slags resulted from ironworking in a reduction furnace. Furthermore, based on the phases that appear in the slag mixture, it is proposed that the iron extraction system of this region relied on open furnace technology and high temperatures, ca. 1100-1220 degrees Celsius.

    Keywords: Archaeometallurgy, Slag, Iron, Metalworking, Lorestan, Southern Kuhdasht