فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:11 Issue:3, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/04/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Hadiseh Darvishzadeh, Moghaddameh Mirzaee *, Yunes Jahani, Hamid Sharifi Pages 138-147
    Background

    Around the world, one of the main concerns and risky behaviors among youths ismethamphetamine consumption. Since the age of onset of methamphetamine use is decreasing, therefore, itis important to identify the effective factors on the age of onset of methamphetamine consumption. In thepresent study, factors affecting the age of onset of methamphetamine consumption was studied in Iranianyouths aged 19-29 years.

    Methods

    In this cross-sectional nationwide study, individuals aged 19-29 years were selected throughmultistage cluster sampling and convenience sampling method from 13 provinces in Iran. People completedthe questionnaire pertaining to knowledge, attitude, and history of methamphetamine consumption. In orderto investigate the factors effective on the age of onset of methamphetamine consumption, we used theWeibull parametric model for data with doubly censored characteristic.

    Findings

    3246 people participated in this study, half of whom were men and mostly single (60.4%),university student or graduate (50.2%), and unemployed (58.1%). Nearly 6% of participants have ever usedmethamphetamine. Mean and standard deviation (SD) of age of onset of methamphetamine use was20.3 ± 3.3 years. Data analysis indicated that the variables of gender, marital status, education, knowing amethamphetamine consumer, knowing an ecstasy consumer, ecstasy consumption, illegitimate sex,attitude towards methamphetamine, and age group were the factors affecting the age of onset ofmethamphetamine consumption.

    Conclusion

    The results can contribute to the policy-makers to take the necessary interventions on the factorsaffecting the age of onset of methamphetamine consumption to reduce the methamphetamine consumption,especially in the critical young ages.

    Keywords: Methamphetamine, Age of onset, survival, Iran
  • Wafa Badulla *, Abdul, Rahman Ben Yahiya Pages 148-155
    Background

    Saliva is a biological fluid that has multiple protective functions. These functions can beattained only if the saliva keeps certain physo-chemical properties such as pH.

    Methods

    The main purpose of the current study was to compare the salivary pH among khat chewers andnon-khat chewers before and after specific intervals (15, 30, and 60 minutes) of using three commerciallyavailable mouthwashes (MWs). Thirty pharmacy student volunteers were divided into three groups of 10 forthe three MWs. Each group was then subdivided into 5 volunteers as khat chewer and non-khat chewer. Thestatistical evaluation was carried out by using paired t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) for in vivostudy of salivary pH.

    Findings

    Low salivary pH in all khat-user volunteers before and after using MWs was indicated. There wasan increase in the salivary pH after 15 minutes of rinsing with the three selected MWs for both groups ofvolunteers, after that there was a gradual decrease to the initial pH. The difference between the three groupswas not significant at baseline and after 15 minutes, but there was a significant difference after 30 and 60minutes for the non-khat-chewing and khat-chewing volunteers.

    Conclusion

    It can be concluded that using MWs results in altering salivary pH and continuous khat chewinglowers the baseline pH of saliva and ability to compensate the change of salivary pH.

    Keywords: Mouthwashes, Khat, Saliva
  • Mehdi Yaghubi, Mohammad Abdekhoda, Samira Khani * Pages 156-164
    Background

    Spirituality is one of the most important factors that can contribute to the recovery of substanceuse disorder (SUD). The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of the religious-spiritual grouptherapy on the spiritual health and the quality of life in methadone-treated patients.

    Methods

    This study was carried out in Qom City, Iran, in 2018. 72 methadone-treated patients wererandomly selected and assigned in two groups: the experimental group (which received religious-spiritualtherapy) and control group (which received no treatment). At the beginning of the study (pre-test), eightweeks after the start of the study (post-test), and three months after the start of the study (follow-up test), allparticipants completed the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF)questionnaire and the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS). Participants in the experimental group received 8sessions (90 minutes for each session) of spiritual and religious training, while the control group received noreligious-spiritual intervention; it just was trained with general information on addiction. Data were analyzedusing SPSS software and descriptive and inferential statistics methods.

    Findings

    The results of repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there was nosignificant difference between the intervention and control groups in the pretest, but religious-spiritualtraining significantly increased spiritual health and the patients' quality of life (P < 0.001).

    Conclusion

    Religious-spiritual education can improve the quality of life and spiritual well-being inmethadone-treated patients. The findings suggest that religious -spiritual education can be considered as aninexpensive, accessible, useful, and effective treatment for SUD treatment

    Keywords: Religious beliefs, Spirituality, Quality of Life, Methadone, Health
  • Seyed Mohamad Moosavi, Jamshid Yazdani, Fatemeh Amini * Pages 165-172
    Background

    Methamphetamine (MA) abuse is a serious and costly public health problem worldwide; It also commonly affects the sleep quality. The present study was carried out aiming to evaluate the effectiveness of modafinil versus placebo on sleep pattern in MA withdrawal during an eight-week period.

    Methods

    In a double-blind randomized controlled study, a total of 80 patients with a confirmed diagnosis MA withdrawal were treated with modafinil (200 mg/day). Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) were used to assess sleep pattern in the 1th and 56th days of the study. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was applied to compare the groups. All analyses were performed by using SPSS software with a 5% significance level.

    Findings

    The mean age of the people in the intervention and placebo groups was 32.92 ± 2.06 and 34.08 ± 2.13 years, respectively. The mean scores of ESS decreased from 16.15 ± 4.50 to 9.15 ± 3.34 after the intervention in the modafinil group (P < 0.001), with no significant reduction in the placebo group (P = 0.990). The mean scores of PSQI decreased from 13.88 ± 3.40 to 9.92 ± 3.10 after the intervention in the modafinil group (P < 0.001), however there was no significant reduction in the placebo group (P = 0.980). The value of the Eta effect size of the PSQI and ESS questionnaires was 0.52 and 0.72, respectively. Modafinil was superior to placebo in improving the PSQI and ESS scales in the 56th day of assessment (P < 0.050).

    Conclusion

    Modafinil improves the sleep quality in patients with MA withdrawal.

    Keywords: Methamphetamine, Modafinil, Placebo, sleep
  • Naser Nasiri, Leili Abedi, Ahmad Hajebi, Alireza Noroozi, Malahat Khalili, Maryam Chegeni, Sairan Nili, Moslem Taheri, Soodejani, Mehdi Noroozi, Armita Shahesmaili, Hamid Sharifi * Pages 173-182
    Background

    Estimating the population who use drugs is essential for planning, monitoring, and evaluation of substance use prevention and treatment. This study aims to estimate the population who misuse tramadol in urban population in Iran.

    Methods

    We used the wisdom of the experts (WOTE) and network scale-up (NSU) methods to calculate the population of tramadol misusers in 10 provincial capitals of Iran, in 2016. The WOTE was conducted among pharmacists in drugstores and the personnel of traditional medicinal herbs stores. They guessed the best estimation of tramadol misusers population in their cities. The NSU method was conducted among the general population and participants were questioned about ever and daily, non-medical use of tramadol during last 12 months in their network. The median of the methods was used to calculate the proportion of the adult population (15-49 years old).

    Findings

    The population size of tramadol misusers in studied cities was 83300 [95% uncertainty limits (UL): 47960-256220]. This corresponded to 6.6 per 1000 (95% UL: 3.88-20.30) of the 15-49-year-old population. The projected number of tramadol misusers for all 31 provincial capitals was 118290 (95% UL: 68100-363130840) and 212440 (95% UL: 122310-653410) for all urban areas. NSU also estimated the number of people who misuse tramadol on daily basis. These numbers were 52000 (95% UL: 19940-176570) for studied cities, 73840 (95% UL: 28320-250740) for all 31 provincial capital cities, and 132610 (95% UL: 50860-450310) for all urban areas in Iran.

    Conclusion

    This study presents information on high prevalence of tramadol misuse in urban population. We need national control measures and demand reduction programs to control tramadol misuse.

    Keywords: Tramadol, Prescription drug misuse, Population, Network scale-up method, Wisdom of the experts, Iran
  • Saeedeh Homayee, Farzaneh Raaii, Hassan Ziaaddini, Nabi Bannazadeh * Pages 183-191
    Background

    Patient experiences play an important role in the quality of health care and gathering patients’ experiences is common as part of quality measurement in health care. The present study was carried out with the aim of developing and psychometric analysis of the methadone therapy experiences questionnaire among patients under treatment with methadone.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was performed in 2018 and 200 patients referred to the addiction treatment clinics in Kerman, Iran, participated in this study. The convenient sampling method was employed. The validity was assessed using the opinions of 50 individuals similar to the target population and 8 experts. In addition, the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was utilized to examine the test-retest reliability. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics in the SPSS software.

    Findings

    The face validity of the questionnaire was acceptable in the present study and the values for content validity were higher than 0.79, indicating the appropriate content validity of the questionnaire [content validity index (CVI) = 0.82 and content validity ratio (CVR) = 0.83]. Moreover, the results confirmed the reliability or reproducibility of the questionnaire (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.83).

    Conclusion

    The methadone therapy experiences questionnaire was of a good validity and reliability among the patients. In the clinical area, the psychiatrists, psychologists, authorities, and staff in addiction treatment clinics can identify the quality of treatment and its strengths and weaknesses using this questionnaire.

    Keywords: Questionnaire, Validity, Reliability, Methadone
  • Masoud Moghadari, Haleh Tajeddini, Mohammad Setayesh, Mohadese Kamali * Pages 192-201
    Background

    Alcohol use has always been prevalent in human societies, but in many Muslim-majority countries, including Iran, national laws prohibit the consumption of this substance.

    Methods

    In this study, reference books on traditional Iranian medicine and electronic documents from Google Scholar, PubMed, and Scopus were searched for entries about the consequences and treatments of alcohol abuse.

    Findings

    Seminal books of traditional Iranian medicine refer to alcoholic beverages using two terms, namely, “khamr” and “sharâb” (wine). These sources indicate that the temperament of “sharâb” is generally warm but may vary depending on color, taste, concentration, and age. Traditional Iranian medicine views wine as a cause of multiple adverse effects on health.

    Conclusion

    Traditional Iranian medicine advocates the beliefs that no level of alcohol use is beneficial for health and that physicians should advise against alcohol consumption even in small amounts. Scholars of indigenous medical practices have long been opposed to the adoption of wine as a remedy or otherwise, as they believe that the benefits of alcohol are dwarfed by its harmful effects.

    Keywords: lcohol abuse, Medicine, Traditional, traditional medicine
  • Denelle Mohammed * Pages 202-206
    Background

    Synthetic cannabinoid use such as “K2” and “Spice” is popular secondary to its inability to be detected in a urine drug screen. It is associated with a wide range of myocardial pathologies including obstructive and non-obstructive coronary disease such as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

    Case Report

    A case report of an emancipated 15-year-old male experiencing Takotsubo cardiomyopathy after using the synthetic cannabinoid “Spice” is presented here.

    Conclusion

    Synthetic cannabinoids act as full agonists and bind to cannabinoid receptors (CB receptors) with a much greater potency compared to natural forms of marijuana. In particular, “Spice” decreases the release of glutamate via the CB receptor type 1 (CB1 receptor) in higher concentrations, which causes mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, substances released in response to stressful environments being experienced in the body. These effects can cause the sympathetic system to become activated by synthetic cannabinoid use, leading to a surge in catecholamines and a change from normal positive inotropy to abnormally-mediated negative inotropy. Use of synthetic cannabinoids can therefore be associated with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. This case has important implications for additional examination secondary to the sparse information describing co-occurrence of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and synthetic cannabinoid use.

    Keywords: Designer drugs, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, Cannabinoids