فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:13 Issue:32, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/05/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • Mahmood Hashemian *, Maryam Hosseini, Azizullah Mirzaei Pages 1-22
    Demonstrating their idiosyncrasies in a culture-specific way, cultural aspects are one of the most demanding tasks in cultural transfer, especially in rendering audiovisual materials. This study investigated the applied strategies in rendering taboos from English to Persian in 10 dubbed action Hollywood movies by Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB). To this aim, the original and dubbed versions of the movies were collected from Soroush Sima Company, which is a highly official audiovisual translation (AVT) company in Iran. Afterwards, the original and dubbed versions of the movies were compared seeking for the culture-specific items (CSIs), especially taboos. Then, the taboo expressions were extracted from the original versions and compared with their translations in the dubbed versions. Finally, the results were interpreted through SPSS, considering Venuti's (1995) strategies in translation studies (i.e., domestication and foreignization). Analysis of the chi-square results indicated χ2 (27, N = 10) = 83.49, considering **p < 0.05. Besides, analysis of the data revealed that deletion, with the frequency of 60.26%, was the topmost applied strategy in the rendition of the taboo expressions. Moreover, reduction of the dubbed run-time of the movies indicated that scene omission was another strategy to censor and prevent injection of harmful thoughts into the Islamic society of Iran. Thus, Iranian audiovisual translators mainly tend to localize, or domesticate, translation of taboo expressions while dubbing. Findings contribute to a proper translation of CSIs, especially taboos in AVT, mainly in the dubbing field.
    Keywords: Audiovisual Translation (AVT), Culture-Specific Items (CSIs), Domestication, Foreignization, taboo
  • Farzaneh Khodabandeh *, Ahmad Kasir Pages 23-50
    This study reports on the way nonnative Iranian writers make use of verbs in the discussion section/chapter of their master theses in the field of English Language Teaching. Although verbs have been studied extensively in academic writing, there has been little attention given to the verbs in the discussion of theses written by English Foreign Language (EFL) students. To fill this gap, sixty M.A. theses were purposively selected and analyzed. These theses were first categorized based on the research approach they had employed. There were three broad categories of quantitative, qualitative, and mixed method theses. The verbs in these theses were analyzed with reference to their reporting and nonreporting status. Then, other linguistic features; namely, tense, aspect, and voice were examined. Descriptive statistics was exploited to reveal differences among the theses representing each research approach. The findings indicated that there are no differences between the theses written within the three research approaches regarding the verbs used, except for the use of progressive aspect for the reporting verbs in the qualitative theses and the use of passive voice for the nonreporting verbs in the mixed methods theses. Suggestions for further studies on the issue and a number of implications are given at the end of this study.
    Keywords: aspect, Reporting, Nonreporting Verbs, Research Approach, Thesis, tense, Voice
  • Saman Ebadi *, Abdulbaset Saeedian Pages 51-78
    Dynamic Assessment (DA) is theoretically derived from Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). This study seeks to investigate the effect of Computerized Dynamic Assessment (C-DA) on assisting learners to realize their latent potential in learning reading comprehension. A group of 32 adult EFL students studying English as their BA major in a University in Iran participated in the study. In order to measure the students' potential for learning, Kozulin and Garb's (2002) formula which is called the Learning Potential Score (LPS) was used. The LPSs represented how much mediation was likely required for an individual or a group of individuals to develop or move forward. The results showed that learners with the same pretest scores might turn out to have different or even drastically different DA posttest scores and hence different LPSs. On account of the LPS obtained through the C-DA principles at-risk students are provided with opportunities that might result in overcoming some of the challenges they faced in traditional testing.
    Keywords: Dynamic assessment, computerized dynamic assessment, learning potential score, Sociocultural Theory of Mind, Zone of Proximal Development
  • Mohammadreza Moradian *, Mojgan Hossein Pages 79-95

    Grounded in the sociocultural perspective, talking with/writing to others and the self as mediating cognitive processes has been identified as an origin of second language learning. This crucial role of language has been known as oral and written languaging. This study investigated whether written corrective feedback (WCF) and written languaging bring about improvement in English foreign language (EFL) learners' compositions. To this aim, two groups of EFL learners wrote compositions based on the prompt they received. In the next session, one group reviewed their errors which were indicated by indirect WCF and then languaged about their grammatical errors in their compositions by writing down the rationales behind them. Participants' deliberations and explanations were construed as written languaging episodes (WLEs). On the other hand, the other group reviewed and numbered their errors highlighted by indirect, underlining, WCF, without languaging about them. Moreover, this study sought to probe whether numbers and types of written languaging episodes differed over the five compositions. The micro-analysis of the five writings proved that participants produced the highest number of correctly resolved WLEs. They mostly offered correct reasons behind their errors in response to indirect WCF; unresolved WLEs were the least. The participants did not know the reasons behind their errors in response to WCF. Finally, the results of the study demonstrated that the indirect WCF group producing written languaging outperformed more significantly than the mere indirect WCF group on the posttest.

    Keywords: Languaging, Written Languaging, Written Languaging Episodes, Indirect Written Corrective Feedback
  • Goudarz Alibakhshi * Pages 95-115

    Teachers' perceptions of continuing professional development and the activities which they undertake to develop professionally have been investigated in different contexts. This study assessed professional development needs Iranian English as Foreign Language (EFL) teachers. In so doing a qualitative research method was used. Thirteen EFL teachers were selected through convenience sampling. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews with the participants. Data were analyzed through content analysis techniques. Results showed that EFL teachers need 8 types of professional development activities: teaching methods, assessment, curriculum development, educational psychology, educational technology, communication and management skills, language skills, and linguistics and meta-linguistics awareness. Results can be used by pre-service and in-service training program developers, EFL teachers, and language institutes to assess EFL teachers' needs and develop their profession.

    Keywords: In-service training, Professional Development, EFL teachers
  • Jalil Fathi, Ali Derakhshan* Pages 117-143

    As it has been revealed that characteristics of teachers and their psychological factors have a significant share of variance in affecting teacher performance, a bulk of empirical studies have been conducted to investigate factors related to teachers and their interrelationships. As an attempt to shed more light on the relationships among teacher psychological factors in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context, this study examined the role of teacher self-efficacy and emotional regulation as predictors of teaching stress among Iranian EFL teachers. In so doing, a sample of 256 teachers completed three questionnaires measuring these constructs. Structural Equation Modeling was employed to test the hypothesized relationships among the variables. The findings revealed that emotional regulation accounted for 14.2% of the variance and teacher self-efficacy accounted for 22.1% of the variance in teaching stress. Although each of the two variables had a unique effect on teaching stress, teacher self-efficacy outweighed emotional regulation in predicting teaching stress. Finally, the practical implications of the results were discussed.

    Keywords: Emotional Regulation, EFL Teachers, Teacher Efficacy, Teaching Stress, Structural Equation Modeling
  • Hassan Soodmand Afshar*, Shiva Hosseini Yar Pages 147-179

    This study investigated the relationship between attitude toward professional development, reflective teaching, self-efficacy, and Job Performance (JP) of Iranian English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers. To this end, 150 advanced Iranian EFL teachers completed three Likert-scale questionnaires including English Language Teaching Reflection Inventory, Iranian English Teacher Professional Development Needs Questionnaire, and Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale. In addition, 550 advanced Iranian EFL learners of the same teachers completed a Likert-scale questionnaire called Successful Iranian English Teacher Questionnaire. The results of three separate Pearson Product Moment correlations revealed that there was a significant positive relationship between Iranian EFL teachers': a) reflective teaching and their job performance, b) self-efficacy and their job performance, c) attitude toward professional development and their job performance. Additionally, the results of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Iranian EFL teachers' self-efficacy was a stronger predictor of their job performance. Moreover, the results of the qualitative data analysis of the interviews showed that self-efficacy, professional development, and reflective teaching could lead to Iranian EFL teachers' better job performance.

    Keywords: Attitude toward Professional Development, Iranian EFL Teachers, Job Performance, Reflective Teaching, Self-Efficacy
  • Masood Khoshsaligheh*, Mahboubeh Moghaddas, Saeed Ameri Pages 181-212

    English and Persian translator training have been offered by many Iranian universities as an undergraduate program nation-wide. However, the program failed to keep up with the dynamics of the market demands, findings of Translation Studies research, and varied competences of students in the past two decades. This study investigated the Iranian English translator trainees’ perspectives on the former curriculum that was used for over twenty years. The other aim was to understand whether their needs and wants correspond to either of the old and the recently revised curriculum in 2018. Based on focus group interviews and literature review, a questionnaire was designed and validated, and the survey responses of over five hundred English and translator trainees (351 females & 152 males) from twelve universities in Iran were statistically analyzed. The findings revealed that the courses related to translation practice were ranked as the most important component of the curriculum by the trainees, highlighting that trainees favor practice-oriented translation courses the most.

    Keywords: Curriculum Design, English-Persian Translator Education, Needs Assessment, Trainees' Perspective
  • Shiva Kaivanpanah*, Seyed Mohammad Alavi, Ali Hamed Barghi Pages 213-246

    Despite consensus on the important role of grammar instruction, there are debates about teaching it. Teachers' perceptions about grammar and how it should be taught influence their teaching. Classroom observations indicate that regardless of teachers’ experience and proficiency, their grammar teaching practices are not usually void of problems. Identifying language teachers’ areas of weaknesses in grammar teaching, finding such problematic areas, raising their awareness and providing solutions in line with effective grammar teaching principles can enhance the effectiveness of grammar instruction. This qualitative study aimed at identifying the main problems in the grammar teaching practice of 34 experienced Iranian English teachers through observing their classes, exploring their awareness of effective grammar instruction principles using a semistructured interview and finding mismatches between their grammar teaching knowledge and practice. The most frequently observed problems in grammar lessons and teachers’ corresponding beliefs were reported, and suggestions for alternative practices were made. The findings suggest that teacher educators should provide more focused training to preclude posttraining grammar teaching complications, and language teachers should be more reflective about the effectiveness of their grammar teaching practices.

    Keywords: Grammar, Observation, Teachers' Awareness, Teaching Practic