فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 31 (بهار 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/12/29
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • آرش قربانی *، محسن جان پرور صفحات 1-22

    مقاله ی حاضر در پی بررسی بخشی از مسائل پیش آمده در دهه های اخیر در علم جغرافیا با نگاه آسیب-شناسانه است؛ ازاین رو چون علم جغرافیا حوزه ی مطالعاتی کلانی دارد، این دیدگاه نزد اکثر پژوهشگران وجود دارد که جغرافیا علمی میان رشته ای است و همین زمینه، چالش های اساسی را در دهه های اخیر در قالب تخصص گرایی یا تجمیع این علم نزد جامعه ی جغرافیایی فراهم آورده است. ازاین رو، مقاله با نگرشی فلسفی در پی پاسخی منطقی به سوالی پیش آمده در علم جغرافیاست که کدام اقدام (1- تجمیع گرایش های رشته ی جغرافیا 2- تخصص گرایی گرایش های مختلف به رشته ی جغرافیا) با فلسفه و ماهیت وجودی علم جغرافیا سازگار است؟ و کدام یک علم جغرافیا را در گام شناخت (توصیف و تحلیل مسائل) و گام بهبود (ارائه ی راه حل برای مسائل) تواناتر می سازد؟ در این مقاله جهت تحلیل اطلاعات بیان شده، از روش تحلیل محتوا بهره گرفته شده است؛ بنابراین، این مقاله تلاش دارد تا با نگرشی فلسفی و نگاهی سنجش گرایانه (انتقادی) به آن ها، راه را برای «تجمیع یا تخصص گرایی» علم جغرافیا باز کند. به هرروی، نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد چون موضوع اصلی علم جغرافیا «فضای جغرافیایی» است، بر این مبنا نمی توان گفت که جغرافیا به عنوان علمی میان رشته ای است؛ زیرا جغرافیا دارای موضوعی واحد است که جغرافی دانان آن را مطالعه می کنند. نتایج پژوهش به وحدت کلان-گرایانه در عین کثرت [سیطره ی وحدت بر کثرت] در علم جغرافیا قائل است.

    کلیدواژگان: فلسفه، علم، فلسفه ی علم، جغرافیا، وحدت یا کثرت
  • علیرضا ایلدرمی*، حمید نوری، سارا کاظمی صفحات 23-42

    تغییر کاربری اراضی در آبخیزداری یک از عوامل موثر هیدرولوژیکی در تغییر رواناب سطحی و روش های مدیریت منابع آب است. هدف از این تحقیق، بررسی تاثیر کاربری اراضی و خشک سالی بر رواناب حوضه ی آبخیز تویسرکان همدان در زاگرس مرکزی در سه دوره ی زمانی 1370، 1382 و 1394 (دوره ی 25 ساله) با استفاده از مدل سازی هیدرولوژیک رابطه ی بارش-رواناب (IHACRES) است. برای تهیه و بررسی نقشه ی کاربری اراضی از داده های رقومی سنجنده های TM و ETM+ و نرم افزار Arc Gis 9,3 و نیز برای محاسبه ی خشک سالی از شاخص SPI   با مدل DIP و از دوره ی زمانی سالانه به عنوان یک سیکل متداول هیدرولوژیک استفاده شد. نتایج بررسی شاخص خشک سالی 3 و 12 ماهه در دوره ی 25 ساله نشان داد که بیش تر سال ها در سه طبقه ی مرطوب ملایم، خشک سالی ملایم و بسیار شدید قرار می گیرد و دارای نوسانات شدید هیدرولوژی است. بررسی ها نشان می دهد که بیش ترین تغییر کاربری اراضی در بازه ی زمانی 25 ساله در عرصه های منابع طبیعی به ویژه در مراتع، تحت تاثیر پدیده ی خشک سالی رخ داده و کاهش این عرصه همراه با نوسانات خشک سالی در طول زمان باعث افزایش حجم رواناب شده است. نتایج حاصل از واسنجی رواناب شبیه سازی در مدل بارش و رواناب، بیانگر کارایی قابل قبول مدل بوده و بررسی هیدروگراف حوضه در سه مقطع زمانی 1370، 1382 و 1394 (دوره ی 25 ساله) نشان می دهد که رواناب در حوضه دارای روند افزایشی است که علت آن خشک سالی نه چندان محسوس، تغییر کاربری اراضی قابل توجه و افزایش بارندگی در برخی سال ها است؛ لذا پیشنهاد می شود به منظور مدیریت منابع آب وخاک، طرح جامع کنترل و جلوگیری از تغییر کاربری اراضی و آمایش سرزمین در حوضه ی آبخیز تهیه گردد.

    کلیدواژگان: کاربری اراضی، هیدروگراف، SPI، مدل بارش و رواناب
  • جواد جمال آبادی، مهدی زنگنه*، فرشید روحی، زهرا حبیب زاده صفحات 43-56

    امروزه مسکن به عنوان یکی از بخش های مهم اقتصادی و اجتماعی در برنامه ریزی های کلان کشور موردتوجه واقع شده است. ازآنجایی که مسکن یکی از نیازهای اساسی انسان و ازجمله مهم ترین کاربری های شهری به شمار می آید، شکل مناسب و مطلوب مسکن به نوبه ی خود نقشی تعیین کننده در تامین این نیازها بر عهده دارد و از طرفی مهم ترین عامل تاثیرگذار در میزان رضایت مندی فرد از سکونت در یک محله و نوع زندگی خویش، مسکن و شرایط محیطی آن محله است و زندگی در شرایط مسکونی نابهنجار(چه به لحاظ کیفیت و چه به لحاظ کمیت مسکن) سلامت جسمی و روانی ساکنین را بسیار متزلزل و نابسامان می سازد. پژوهش حاضر با هدف ارزیابی مطلوبیت مسکن از دیدگاه ساکنان شهرک اندیشه ی شهر سبزوار انجام گرفته است. روش تحقیق از نظر ماهیت، توصیفی- تحلیلی و از حیث هدف، کاربردی است. روش گردآوری اطلاعات نیز به صورت اسنادی و میدانی و بعد از طراحی پرسش نامه و محاسبه ی جامعه ی آماری که ساکنین شهرک اندیشه ی شهر سبزوار هستند، از طریق فرمول کوکران تعداد 400 پرسش نامه پیش بینی شده و از طریق پیمایش میدانی به صورت تصادفی تکمیل گردیدند. در این تحقیق، تعداد 36 گویه در قالب 5 شاخص اجتماعی، اقتصادی، زیست محیطی، کالبدی، کیفیت مسکن، جهت بررسی دیدگاه ساکنان در رابطه با مطلوبیت مساکن به کار گرفته شده است. روایی پرسش نامه ی مورداستفاده با آزمون آلفای کرونباخ، 0/723 مورد تایید قرار گرفته است. برای تحلیل ارتباط بین متغیرها از روش اسپیرمن، آزمون کای اسکوئر و t تک نمونه و آزمون فریدمن استفاده شده است. نتایج حاصل از پژوهش حاکی از آن است که ساکنین در شهرک اندیشه، کیفیت محیط مسکونی شان را نسبتا رضایت بخش دانستند، اما شاخص محیطی- کالبدی از دیدگاه ساکنان در پایین ترین رتبه قرار گرفته است.

    کلیدواژگان: مسکن، مطلوبیت مسکن، ساکنان، شهرک اندیشه، سبزوار
  • سید حجت موسوی، ابوالفضل رنجبر*، سید مجتبی شریفیان صفحات 57-73

    گسترش گردشگری در اکوسیستم های بیابانی یکی از مهم ترین راهبردهای توسعه ی پایدار مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک است که با برنامه ریزی صحیح می تواند سبب شکوفایی اقتصادی آن ها گردد. منطقه ی مرنجاب با جاذبه های گردشگری متعدد، پتانسیل بالایی در جذب طبیعت گردان با محوریت کویرنوردی، ماسه نوردی و سافاری دارد که ورود بی برنامه ی آن ها به این منطقه اثرات جبران ناپذیری بر اکوسیستم آن وارد کرده است؛ لذا پژوهش حاضر سعی دارد تا با طرح سناریوهای توسعه ی گردشگری بیابان در قالب مکان یابی پارک سافاری و هتل نمکی راهکارهایی منطبق با حفظ اکوسیستم و توسعه ی پایدار منطقه ارائه نماید. مکان یابی سناریوهای مزبور بر اساس معیارهای دسترسی، سیمای سرزمین، محدودیت و حفاظت از محیط زیست صورت گرفت که امتیازدهی آن ها از طریق مدل تحلیل سلسله مراتبی انجام شد. پس از تهیه ی لایه های رقومی شاخص ها و اعمال امتیاز حاصل از مدل به آن ها لایه های وزن دار معیارها به دست آمد که تلفیق آن ها منجر به تهیه ی لایه ی تناسب ارضی پارک سافاری و هتل نمکی شد. سپس به منظور تعیین مکانی پهنه های تناسبی، دامنه ی امتیاز لایه های تناسبی به پنج اولویت طبقه بندی گردید. نتایج نشان داد که در سناریوی هتل نمکی معیارهای دسترسی و مواد اولیه با وزن 0/495 و 0/044 و در سناریوی پارک سافاری معیارهای دسترسی و محدودیت با وزن 0/418 و 0/093 به ترتیب بالاترین و پایین ترین امتیاز را کسب کردند. طبق نقشه های تناسب ارضی به ترتیب 959 و 45403 هکتار (0/3745 و 6828/17درصد) از سطح منطقه تحت عنوان اولویت های نخست تخصیص به هتل نمکی که منطبق بر محدوده ی جزیره ی سرگردان است و پارک سافاری که عموما بر تپه های ماسه ای شمال ریگ بلند منطبق است، دارای قابلیت بسیار مناسب هستند.

    کلیدواژگان: اکوسیستم های خشک، گردشگری بیابان، پارک سافاری، هتل نمکی، منطقه ی مرنجاب
  • مهرداد شهبازی، محمدرضا بمانیان*، منصور یگانه، نسیم قاسمی صفحات 74-93

    ایجاد و بازتولید فضاهای شهری سرزنده، یکی از اهدافی است که در دهه های اخیر بسیار موردتوجه قرار گرفته است. شهر به مثابه موجود زنده دارای کالبد و روح است که اگر توجه به هر دو جنبه به طور هم زمان صورت نگیرد، موجب نقصان و یا حذف هرکدام در سرزندگی سیستم شهر و خیابان خواهد شد. این پژوهش با بررسی و تبیین نحوه ی پخشایش عوامل کالبدی و فضایی، سعی در یافتن تاثیرگذارترین عامل در سرزندگی خیابان های اطراف میدان امام خمینی شهر همدان دارد. برای دست یابی به هدف اصلی و نیز آزمون فرضیه های مطرح شده ی این پژوهش که از نوع تحقیق توصیفی- تحلیلی است، از روش پژوهش موردی- زمینه ای در بررسی محدوده ی موردمطالعه استفاده شده است. ابزار گردآوری اطلاعات به صورت پرسش نامه، مصاحبه و مشاهده است. جهت سنجش فرضیه با استفاده از تکنیک تحلیل عاملی، متغیرهای بی ارتباط با موضوع از محدوده ی تحلیل خارج شده و در گام بعدی، با استفاده از نرم افزارGIS شاخص های کالبدی را سنجیده و با استفاده از مدل موران میزان پخشایش عوامل کالبدی را در سطح منطقه ی موردمطالعه موردسنجش قرار گرفته است و درنهایت پیوندهای فضایی میان خیابان ها با استفاده از روش چیدمان فضا موردبررسی قرار می گیرد. نتایج حاکی از آن است شاخص تعداد مراکز تجاری به عنوان مهم ترین عامل تاثیرگذار و سپس شاخص های ایمنی و امنیت، نحوه ی پیوند و اتصال شبکه ی دسترسی حمل ونقل، نحوه ی پیوند و اتصال کاربری ها و عملکردها، نحوه ی پیوند و اتصال توده و فضا موثرترین مولفه ها بر کیفیت سرزندگی خیابان ها هستند و نیز میزان پیوند فضایی در خیابان های اکباتان و شهدا و باباطاهر بیش تر است. در آخر مجموعه ای از راهبردها و راهکارها در راستای افزایش میزان سرزندگی خیابان های اطراف میدان امام خمینی شهر همدان پیشنهاد شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: عوامل کالبدی، پیوند فضایی، سرزندگی، خیابان های شهری، خیابان های اطراف میدان امام خمینی شهر همدان
  • مریم مختاری*، علیرضا وحیدزاده، رامین مرادی صفحات 94-115

    موضوع این پژوهش، موانع توسعه ی اجتماعی سکونتگاه های غیررسمی شهر کرمان است. علی رغم گذشت بیش از یک دهه از زمان ابلاغ سند بالادستی سامان دهی و توانمندسازی سکونتگاه های غیررسمی بوده و مسئله ی آن توسعه نیافتگی اجتماعی مناطق ذکر شده است. جامعه ی موردمطالعه این پژوهش، چهار سکونتگاه غیررسمی شهرک پدر، صنعتی، صیاد شیرازی و فیروزآباد بوده و روش انجام آن کیفی با رویکرد نظریه ی زمینه ای و استفاده از استراتژی مدل پارادایمی است. برای نمونه گیری در این پژوهش از روش هدفمند و مبتنی بر قاعده ی انتخاب تدریجی استفاده شده است. تکنیک جمع آوری داده ها مصاحبه ی عمیق و در دو سطح ساختار نهادی و محلی انجام شده و تحلیل داده ها به روش مقایسه ای مداوم استروس و کوربین صورت پذیرفته است. تعداد مصاحبه ها در سطح محلی 43، تعداد مفاهیم شکل گرفته 30 و تعداد مقوله های ایجادشده 12 مورد و در سطح ساختار نهادی نیز تعداد مصاحبه های صورت پذیرفته 17، تعداد مفاهیم شکل گرفته 7 و تعداد مقوله های ایجادشده 3 مورد است. در این بررسی به منظور قابل فهم کردن نتایج تحقیق برای خواننده و افزایش سطح یکنواختی و همسازی نتایج، در بحث روایی به اندیشه ی لینکلن و گوبا و در بحث پایایی به اندیشه های کرک و میلر رجوع گردیده است. یافته های تحقیق نشان می دهد که با توجه به شرایط زمینه ای و مداخله های غیرتخصصی ساختار نهادی محلی، راهبردهای اتخاذشده توسط ساکنین سکونتگاه های غیررسمی شهر کرمان، از سازمان یافتگی لازم جهت مطالبه گری موثر و مشارکت در فرآیند های منجر به توسعه برخوردار نشده و توسعه ی مشارکتی مورد انتظار در راستای دستیابی به توسعه ی اجتماعی تحقق نیافته است.

    کلیدواژگان: سکونتگاه های غیررسمی، توسعه ی اجتماعی، نظریه ی زمینه ای، توسعه ی مشارکتی، ساختار نهادی، مشارکت اجتماعی
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  • Mohsen Janparvar, Arash Ghorbani * Pages 1-22
    Introduction

    Geography first started with simple writing. But today, this science has gained a lot of potentials and with its technical tools which has at hand, has new specialized trends and is training new experts and specialists. Hence, in the present age, especially in Iran, geography is referred to as (interdisciplinary science), because it both studies natural sciences and human sciences. Based on the understanding of this challenge, the present paper tries to address the status of geographical knowledge from the point of view of unity and plurality. The outcome of this philosophical discussion in the field of aggregation or allocation of geographic science is to provide a new model and propose a unified approach while paying attention to plurality, in this way, as it is desirable and suitable, the necessary understanding of the tendencies in the geographic science was formed for readers and researchers in this field.

    Materials and Methods

    The present study, considering its approach to the subject, is the first scientific research in the field of pathological aggregation or allocation of geography science. Thus, the gathering of information in this article was done through interviews with experts [geographers], which lasted about one year. The questionnaire for interviewing and gathering information consists of four questions, which are based on the philosophy of geography science and the authors' perceptions of the existential nature of geography and also derived from other past works. Therefore, the selected statistical community to answer these fundamental philosophical questions includes 30 elites and academic scholars in the field of geography studies. Therefore, considering the importance of analyzing information and presenting research results, the data and information were analyzed by qualitative method (content analysis).

    Discussion and Results

    Among the interviewees, fourteen of them agreed one aggregation in one subject called Geography, and believing that specializing in geography did not make sense because it would lead to geography departing from its original nature, also moving to specialized field means breaking down geography rather than systematizing it. On this basis, in all over the world specialization has been to the detriment of geography because it has diminished the ability of graduates. However, the emphasis was on this main point that in the aggregation of geography there should be a general overview, and that aggregation itself is specialized in it, and we will not acquire it without aggregation, but that expertise depends on aggregation, and in the last decade, the philosophy of science has shifted to a philosophy of context. But from the point of view of the writers, the general approach takes geography to a "generalization" in which it speaks of mountains and rivers, which should not be directed by geography. In geography, instead of being global, it has to be a megaphone, a geography student who knows the ocean, knows the subject of the border, and knows the city and the countryside as well as the water crisis, and knows the city and the village too and is able to provide geographic analysis for it.
    But from the viewpoint of sixteen experts in this field, the aggregation will have unpleasant consequences for the geography and geography family of (students and professors). Because each branches of geography has a separate property. Hence, these tendencies are complementary, but different in terms of content and scientific content. They also believe that aggregation gives a general approach to geography and it educates the graduates illiterate. Therefore, specialization is a necessity in science, and we should not forget the specialization of the approach in that science. They also emphasized that aggregation at this time point not only would not contribute to the sustainability of geography, but also wastes all the work done over the years. But for geographers, geography itself is a science, and its other branches are as sub-branches of this epistemic tree, so that the growth of the branches is possible only when its roots, that is, deeper themes and epistemic geography, can provide a more robust trunk in the sphere of existence for the branches to flourish. With these strategy, geography and specialization cannot be talked about because each branch considers itself a science, because this word in itself carries a rupture and disconnection, in which it considers the branch separate from the whole.

    Conclusions

    The results of the research indicate that the nature of geography is made up of (human + nature) [two fundamental wings], and its subject is "geographic space", and on the basis of which it can be defined as geography is a science that examines and recognize the action and interaction of (human beings with nature) - (nature with humans) with the aim of organizing the universal human life. In general, since the subject of geography is "geographic space", it cannot be said that geography is an interdisciplinary science. Because geography has a single subject that geographers study it. On this basis, if this approach is taken in the science of geography, geographers can, with a macro-vision, become good specialists. In other words, in this paper, the writers believe in heterogeneous unity at the same time as plurality of geography (The rule of unity over plurality).

    Keywords: Philosophy, Science, Philosophy of Science, Geography, Unity or plurality
  • Alireza Ildoromi*, Hamid Nouri, Sara Kazemi Pages 23-42

    Land use change in watershed management one of the most important hydrological factors surface runoff change and water management practices. the purpose of this investigation, Impact of Land Use and drought on runoff of  Tuyserkan watershed in Hamedan  In central zagros In the three time periods of 1991, 2003 and 2015 (25 years) using hydrological modeling is the rainfall-runoff relationship (IHACRES). First to prepare and survey the land use map from digital data TM and ETM + sensors and Arc Gis 9,3 software and also to calculate drought From SPI index with DIP model and the annual time period was used as a conventional hydrological cycle. The Results of 3 and 12-month drought indices the 25 year period shows most years On three Classification mild humidity, mild drought, and severe drought And has severe hydrological fluctuations.The results show that the largest land use change over the 25 years, In the areas of natural resources, especially in rangelands affected by drought and the decline of these lands along with drought fluctuations over time, the volume of runoff has increased.The Results of calibration of simulation runoff in rainfall and runoff model,  Indicates acceptable model performance and Investigation of basin hydrographs in three periods of 1991, 2003 and 2015 (25 years(  sdhows the runoff in the Tuyserkan basin has increasing trend, due to the not so noticeable drought, Significant land use change and increased rainfall in some years. Therefore, it is suggested, In order to manage water and soil resources, prepare a comprehensive plan to control land use change and land use in the watershed.

    Keywords: land use, Hydrograph, SPI, rainfall, runoff of model
  • Javad Jamalabadi, Mehdi Zanganeh*, Farshid Roohi, Zahra Habibzadeh Pages 43-56

    Housing today is considered as one of the most important economic sectors in macro planning.Since housing is one of the main human needs and among the most important urban applications, the proper shape of housing, in its turn, plays a decisive role in meeting these needs. Housing is more of an institutional structure than a physical structure, with multidimensional functions including spatial, physical, architectural, physical, economic, and social dimensions.The present study aimed at analyzing and evaluating the desirability of housing from the perspective of residents of Andisheh town, Sabzevar city.The research methodology is applicable in terms of nature, descriptive-analytical and in terms of purpose.The method for collecting information is also documentary and field.In this research, social, economic, environmental, physical, and housing quality indices have been used to assess the residents' opinion regarding the desirability of housing. To analyze the relationship between variables in spss software, we used Sphrman method, one sample t-test and Friedman test. The results of the research indicate that residents in Andisheh city are more satisfied with the quality of the residential environment, but the physical and residential environment is the lowest in terms of inhabitants.The quality of the residential environment with an average of 4.66 is above the theoretical average (3),which indicates a high level of urban environment quality and high satisfaction of citizens. Among the above mentioned indicators, the physical-spatial characteristics with an average of 1.26,which have the lowest score compared to others, indicate residents' dissatisfaction with the physical and physical environment of the buildings.

    Keywords: Housing, Housing Desirability, Residents, Andishe Town
  • Sayyed Hojjat Mousavi, Abolfazl Ranjbar, Fordoei*, Sayyed Mojtaba Sharifian Pages 57-73
    Introduction

    Development of tourism activities in desert ecosystems is one of the important strategies for sustainable development in arid and semiarid regions that if proper planning can lead to the development of the economy and infrastructure. Improper management policies are effective directly and indirectly on the destruction of the natural environment and more severely on drylands and deserts. Therefore, eco-friendly policies can be preventing from land degradation. Ecotourism development in arid regions can act as a management strategy in line with the environment and also an alternative policy to combat land degradation, ecosystem survival and optimum utilization of nature. Maranjab area in addition to attractions such as the historic castle, with geomorphological and geological phenomena such as sand dunes, Salt Lake and various forms of wind process, including sites geotourism which is capable of absorbing tourism based nature at the national and regional levels, but has yet to find its place in the country in terms of natural tourism. In this regard, the present study with plan of scenarios of desert tourism development in the form of site selection of salt hotel and safari park can provide the solutions to comply with the conditions of arid ecosystems. Therefore, the principles of this study are basis on recognizing the potential and capacities of Maranjab area and planning and management of desert tourism in the form of developmental scenarios based on the location of safari park and salt hotel.

    Materials and methods

    Maranjab area with the geographical position 51 degrees and 15 minutes to 52 degrees and 8 minutes of east longitude and 34 degrees and 35 minutes to 34 degrees and 5 minutes of north latitude, is located in the city's political boundaries of Aran and Bidgol in Isfahan province. The region covers an area of ​​256 763 hectares, with average elevation about 850 meters. Long-term average annual precipitation in the region is 111.4 mm, and July and January, respectively, with average temperatures of 33.25 and 3.51 degrees Celsius are the warmest and coldest months of the year.
    The research is applied and its methodology is based on analysis of spatial and field data in ArcGIS software and analysis of questionnaire data in Expert Choice software. The research process includes the definition of proposed scenarios in the form of salt hotel and safari park, identify of criteria and indicators of each scenario individually and collecting their data, determination of criteria and indicators weight using questionnaires and prioritize them using Analytical Hierarchy Process model, preparation of weighted maps and integrate them according to their weight, and finally zoning of land suitability of study area and priority zones to land allocation for each scenario. Site selection of mentioned scenarios were conducted according to criteria of available, landscape, environmental protection and limitation (risks). By applying the obtained weights of AHP model on layers of criteria and indicators, their weighted maps were prepared. Combination of weighted layers was resulted to layers of land suitability of safari park and salt hotel that in order to determine the location of the suitable zones, the layers were classified into five priorities by natural breaks methods.

    Results and discussion

    In the salt hotel scenario, criteria of available, landscape, environmental protection, limitation and raw materials (salt) were assessed that according to results of AHP model have the weights of 0.495, 0.234, 0.132, 0.094 and 0.044, respectively. Also, the weighted maps of salt hotel scenario showed that digital ranges of distance to roads from 0 to 0.2415, distance to tourism attractions from 0.0158 to 0.1305, distance from residential centers from 0 to 0.1002, landuse from 0 to 0.234, vegetation covers from 0 to 0.0529, geological formations from 0.001 to 0.0137, wind erosion condition from 0.0016 to 0.0135, possibility of surface moisture from 0 to 0.0948 and distance to salt mine from 0 to 0.044 are fluctuate.
    In the safari park scenario, criteria of available, landscape, environmental protection, and limitation were evaluated that according to results of AHP model have the weights of 0.418, 0.326, 0.161, and 0.093, respectively. Also, the weighted maps of salt hotel scenario showed that digital ranges of distance to residential centers from 0 to 0.22005, distance to roads from 0 to 0.1299, distance to health centers from 0 to 0.0214, landuse from 0 to 0.2353, vegetation covers from 0 to 0.123, wind erosion condition from 0.002 to 0.0153, distance from marsh areas from 0 to 0.0626, distance from aqueducts from 0 to 0.0223 and distance from mines from 0 to 0.0084 are fluctuate.

    Conclusion

    final map of land suitability of desert tourism in the region Maranjab represented that the salt hotel scenario layer has weight range between 0.3208 and 0.8351 and the safari park scenario layer has weight range between 0.2294 and 0.8351. Also, according to land suitability maps, 959 and 45403 hectares (0.3745 and 17/6828 %) of Maranjab area have very suitable capability as the first priority for allocation to salt hotel and safari park, respectively. The first priority of salt hotel has an area over 345 hectares, which along with the second priority with area of 614 hectares are generally compliance with Erratic Island in Salt Lake. This compatibility is due to the access to roads, landscape, lack of surface moisture and numerous tourism attractions. The first priority of safari park has an area over 16910 hectares, which is generally matches on sandy areas and sand dunes of north of Aran Erg. This conformity is due to the relative proximity of these lands to road and high weight of sand dunes landuse.

    Keywords: Arid Ecosystems, Desert Tourism, Safari Park, Salt Hotel, Maranjab
  • Mehrdad Shahbazi, Mohammad Reza Bemanian*, Mansour Oryaninezhad, Nasim Ghasemi Pages 74-93
    Introduction

    Meeting the social needs of man and creating the necessary opportunities to create vitality in the community requires the existence of physical space. Public space is a huge capacity to respond to this aspect of human life. In fact, urban space is a peripheral structure for social interactions that can be accessed for members of the urban community (Tuleaee, 2003: 110); today, urban spaces as phenomena that arise from the interplay between the various and essential aspects of modern life are manifestations A network of complex social relationships has shaped many of the basic challenges in the lives of citizens.
    Imam Khomeini Square is located next to the main city and economic heart of Hamedan, and most of the surrounding areas are commercial, thus playing a major role in the spatial structure of the city of Hamedan, which can serve as a social base for a considerable number of people in terms of age and sex in different hours the day has a continuous presence and persistence (Ibrahim Zarei, 2011: 58); Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate and explain the distribution of physical and spatial factors, the most important factors affecting the vitality of the streets around Imam Khomeini Square in Hamedan, by elaborating effective factors in creating the vitality of the streets around Imam Khomeini Square in Hamadan. And find strategies for contemporary urban street space design.

    Materials and Methods

    In order to achieve the main goal of this research, as well as test the hypothesis, the type of research is descriptive-analytic, then the case-land survey method has been used in studying the scope of the study and the study and evaluation of the criteria extracted from the theoretical framework of research in the area of ​​study is discussed. The data gathering tool was a questionnaire and interview and observation. In this research, according to the existing population of Hamedan, it was decided to use a Morgan table to collect questionnaires from 351 people in the streets around Imam Square. Then, using factor analysis technique which is based on the correlation of variables, the indicators and variables are reduced to a few factors, and variables that are not related to the subject are excluded from the scope of analysis. In the next step, using the GIS software, the physical dimension was measured and finally, using the Moran model, the extent of the distribution of physical factors was investigated at the area of ​​the study area. Space Syntax was used to study the spatial links in the streets around Imam Khomeini Square in Hamedan. In fact, using this method, we can measure the link and connectivity of the network of access and transportation, the link and connection of applications, functions and links, and connect the mass and space within the scope of the study. In order to introduce the applied concepts used in this study, space layout has been used for its main concepts, namely connectors, depth and interconnection.

    Discussion and Results

    The largest number of clustering in the streets of Shohada, Ekbatan and Babataher is due to market placement and distribution of well-balanced business centers and cultural heritage. The vitality of today is the missing circle of cities and urban spaces. Considering that urban spaces cover most of our spaces, the necessity of qualitative improvement of these spaces by creating vitality is of particular importance. Because of the lack of vitality in urban spaces, many psychological problems have arisen in people; therefore, it is necessary to meet the social needs of individuals in such spaces and create the right opportunities for these needs. By calculating the correlation between the amount of autonomous physical variables and spatial links on the dependent variable of vitality, as well as the way of connecting the passages and their links, it is concluded that the index of the number of business centers as the most important factor and then the indicators of safety and security , How to link and connect the network, transportation accessibility, how to link and connect the functions and functions, how to link and connect the masses and space are the most effective components on the quality of street life that can be achieved by utilizing public transportation and pause spaces and green spaces on the street to the direction Providing comfort and convenience for pedestrians, priority part of pedestrians and environmental permeability to the streets that are below the norms of this component greatly enhances the vitality of the streets and enriches it.

    Conclusions

    The results of this study indicate that among the physical and spatial links, the greatest effect is on the existence of shops and business centers and markets, followed by safety and security indicators, the way of linking and connecting the network of transportation access, the way of linking and connecting Uses and functions, how to link and connect the masses and space are the most effective components on the vivacity of the streets that can justify the vivacity present on the streets of Ekbatan, Shohada and Baba Taher. Also, the average variation in the value of alignment and connections indicates that the streets of Ekbatan, Shohada and Baba Taher have a higher convergence value than the western and southern neighborhoods. This means that the network connections in this part of the city are in such a way that access to and within these streets is suitable and that the streets have a good position in the structure and bone structure of the metropolis, which itself promotes the economic and social activities It is located on these streets and provides the conditions for physical, welfare and environmental development and, as a result, vitality.

    Keywords: physical factors, spatial links, vitality, urban streets, streets around Imam Khomeini Square of Hamadan city
  • Maryam Mokhtari*, Alireza Vahidzade, Ramin Moradi Pages 94-115

    The subject of this research is the obstacles of social development of informal settlements in kerman city. The problem of this research is social underdevelopment of informal settlements in kerman city. The study of population of this research was four informal settlements of shahrake pedar, shahrake sanati, shahrake Sayyad Shirazi and shahrake poshte bande mamlekat. the method of doing this research has been qualitative with Grounded theory approach and useing of paradigmatic model strategy, for sampling in this research used themethod of purposive sampling and based on the principle of gradual selection, techniqu of data collection, was in-depth interview that in two levels of institutional structure and local community have been done. analysis of data has been done constant comparative method's Strauss and Corbin, the number of interviews at the local level 43, the number of concepts formed 30 and the number of categories created 12cases at the level of institutional structure the number of interviews carried out 17, the number of concepts formed 7 and the number of created categories 3 cases.
    The findings of the research show that according to the underlying conditions and non-specialized interventions of institutional structure, the strategies adopted by residents of informal settlements in Kerman city did not lead to the expected outcomes in the upstream document and Despite the passage more than 10 years have elapsed since the enactment of the mentioned document, In the investigated areas have not been matched in order to realize the process of participatory development towards social development .

    Keywords: Informal settlements, Cultural development, Grounded theory, Participatory development, Institutional structure