فهرست مطالب

Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products - Volume:14 Issue: 4, 2019
  • Volume:14 Issue: 4, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/07/16
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • Mohammad Reza Shushizadeh*, Mansoureh Beigi Nasiri , Abdol Ghani Ameri , EbrahimRajabzadeh Ghatrami, Saltanat Tavakoli Page 1
    Background

    Marine organisms such as Echinoderms have secondary metabolites, which are antimicrobial naturally. Various extracts of echinoderms organs possess pharmacological activities, including anticancer, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory functions.

    Objectives

    The purpose of this research was to assay the Persian Gulf sea urchin secondary metabolites for antimicrobial effectiveness.

    Methods

    Sea urchins (Echinometra mathaei) were collected from the Boushehr tide coasts, Persian Gulf. Gonads, gut, tests, shell, and spines were carefully dissected from sea urchins, washed with tap water, and separated for the extraction procedure. All organs were extracted with 1:3 volumes (v/w) of methanol, chloroform, and n-hexane by maceration method for 72 hours at room temperature. The antimicrobial activity of the sea urchin tissue extracts was tested by well diffusion agar method.

    Results

    All extracts of the sea urchin E. mathaei at 50 mg/mL concentration exhibited in vitro antimicrobial activity against Gramnegative and Gram-positive bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis, and two fungi, including Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. The antibacterial activity of the sea urchin extracts varied with the solvent used for the bacterial strains.

    Conclusions

    The results clearly showed the high antimicrobial activity of test and spines of the Persian Gulf sea urchin extracts against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

    Keywords: Sea Urchin, Echinometra mathaei, Persian Gulf, Antimicrobial Activity, Organic Extract
  • Jafar Poodineh, Alireza Nakhaee * Page 2
    Background

    Medicinal plants are considered as a useful source of antioxidants against diseases due to reducing free radicals. Caralluma tuberculata is one of such sources utilized by Iranian population as a traditional herbal medicine.

    Objectives

    The present study aimed at investigating antioxidant activity, total phenolic content (TPC), and total flavonoid content (TFC) of C. tuberculata root hydroalcoholic extract (CRE) and aerial parts hydroalcoholic extract (CAE).

    Methods

    Antioxidant properties were assessed using DPPH (1,1-dipheny l,2-picryl hydrazyl), superoxide anion (O2˙¯), nitric oxide (NO), ferric reducing antioxidant power, and anti-lipid peroxidation methods. TPC (mg pyrogallol/g extract) and TFC (mg quercetin/g extract) were measured by colorimetric methods.

    Results

    The findings showed that both CAE and CRE were rich in phenolic and flavonoid compounds. TPC (40.12±1.2) and TFC (20.22 ± 0.62) were higher in CAE compared to CRE (TPC = 25.01 ± 0.85, TFC = 15.11 ± 0.71). Likewise, both CAE and CRE showed significant scavenging effects on DPPH, O2˙¯, and NO radicals and the effects of CAE was more potent (P < 0.05) compared to that of CRE. Also, plant extracts significantly inhibited lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Furthermore, CAE exhibited a more potent ferric reducing activity compared to CRE (510.21 ± 8.2 vs. 450.2 ± 9.3 µM Fe+2/g extract, respectively) (P < 0.05).

    Conclusions

    Based on the study findings, both CAE and CRE could be considered as potential sources of antioxidants and CAE was more effective than CRE.

    Keywords: Caralluma tuberculata, Antioxidant, Anti-Lipid Peroxidation
  • Mehran Amirizadeh, Ebrahim Salehifar, Mohammadreza Habibi, Mohammad Shokrzadeh, Aria Soleimani, Jamshid Yazdani Charati, Rahman Ghaffari, Valiollah Habibi, Gohar Eslami * Page 3
    Background

    Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG)may cause a substantial decrease in trace elements of whole blood during the operation, as well as increased oxidative stress and result in lung damage.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Addamel, as a complete mixture of trace elements, in reducing the period of mechanical ventilation following the cardiac surgery.

    Methods

    In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, two hundred patients receiving CABG were randomized to receive three doses of either Addamel or normal saline. Selenium, zinc, copper, ferrous, andmanganese serum levels weremeasured before the operation, on days one and two in all groups. Besides, the effects of Addamel on the mechanical ventilation period were evaluated.

    Results

    The mean length of stay on the mechanical ventilator was lower in the supplemented patients (21.98 ± 8.4 days) than the control patients (25.16 ± 8.44 days), and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.009).

    Conclusions

    A substantial number of patients undergoing CABG may benefit from supplementation with Addamel, as a source of trace elements.

    Keywords: Cardiac Surgery, Addamel, Trace Elements, Lung Injury, Mechanical Ventilation
  • Moein Eskafi, Mina Saeedi, Azadeh Manayi *, Abbas Hadjiakhoondi Page 4
    Background

    Royaljelly is an exclusive diet of the queen larvae of honey bee, Apis mellifera, which affects the body size, development time, lifespan and reproductive output of the queen relative to workers. The chemical composition of royal jelly is complex and it possesses diverse pharmacological activities. In addition to the chemical composition of royal jelly, other indirect parameters such as color, viscosity, sugar and protein content have also been proposed in evaluating the quality of royal jelly.

    Methods

    The present study described total phenolic compounds, proteins, and polysaccharide contents of two samples of royal jelly using spectrophotometric methods along with their total lipid, ash and moisture by gravimetric analysis.

    Results

    The results showed that similar amounts of phenol and polysaccharide were present in the commercial and raw samples of royal jelly (phenol: 22.98 ± 0.34 and 21.99 ± 0.41 µg/mg gallic acid equivalent; polysaccharide: 12.67 ± 0.00 and 12.63 ± 0.00%, respectively). Whereas, lipid (12.00 ± 0.00%) and protein (11.57 ± 0.00%) content of raw sample was calculated to be significantly higher compared to those in the commercial sample, the commercial sample has higher moisture than the raw specimen (61.03 ± 0.00 and 59.01 ± 0.00%, respectively. The similar amounts of ash were analyzed in both of the tested samples.

    Conclusions

    Although, the content of analyzed components was different in analyzed samples, both of them contained comparable amounts of desired compounds. Therefore, the Iranian raw sample of royal jelly could be a suitable source to produce commercial preparations compared to the formulated royal jelly.

    Keywords: Royal Jelly, Physicochemical Properties, Spectrophotometry, Protein Content, Polysaccharide Content
  • Gonja Javani, Alireza Alihemmati, Parisa Habibi, Hadi Yousefi, Pouran Karimi, Vida Ebraheimi, Naser Ahmadiasl * Page 5
    Objectives

    This study aimed at determining whether an 8-week genistein treatment induced anti-inflammatory and antioxidative stress effects in the uterine of Ovariectomized (OVX) Wistar rats.

    Methods

    Three groups were formed including 10 female Wistar rats each: control (sham), ovariectomy group (OVX); OVX + genistein (1 mg/kg, daily SC for eight weeks). The genistein treatment was initiated 10 days after surgery and continued for two months. Renal malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase activity, tumor necrosis factorα (TNF-α), and Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were measured with Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Western blot.

    Results

    Higher amounts of MDA, TNF-α, and IL-1β were measured in the OVX group compared to the control group (P < 0.05), however, the amount of SOD, GPX, and catalase were significantly lower. The level of MDA, TNF-α, and IL-1β were significantly lower, and SOD, GPX, and catalase activity were on a higher level in OVX + genistein in comparison with the OVX group (P < 0.05). Also, histological observation showed some abnormality in kidney architecture, which was improved by genistein administration.

    Conclusions

    Genistein is an appropriate treatment in attenuation of oxidative stress and inflammation in the kidneys of ovariectomized rats.

    Keywords: Genistein, Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, Ovariectomy, Kidney. Rat
  • Fatemeh Mirzaei, Mozafar Khazaei, Alireza Komaki, Iraj Amiri, Cyrus Jalili * Page 6
    Background

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and obesity are recognized as main health problems in aging, and both cause changes in blood cells and blood factors.

    Objectives

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on hematological and biochemical changes as well as serum oxidative status in an amyloid-β (Aβ) receiving rat that fed a high fat diet (HFD).

    Methods

    A total of 100 male Wistar rats were divided into 10 groups, including: healthy control, HFD, HFD + 8% VCO, HFD + 10% VCO, Aβ (Alzheimer’s model), Aβ + 8% VCO, Aβ + 10% VCO, HFD + Aβ, HFD + Aβ + 8% VCO, HFD + Aβ + 10% VCO. One week after the surgery, HFD, 8% and 10% VCO were used for eight weeks. After that, blood samples were collected. The total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status, hematological factor, calcium (Ca), and phosphate levels were determined.

    Results

    Aβ and HFD induced oxidative stress condition in the serum. They also affected the number of blood cells including red blood cells, white blood cells, lymphocyte, and platelet, and some hematological and biochemical change status such as hemoglobin, hematocrit, Ca, and phosphate (P < 0.05). VCO significantly normalized these effects of Aβ and HFD (P < 0.01).

    Conclusions

    It could be concluded that VCO improved blood cells and blood factors status, probably by scavenging free radicals and improving the antioxidant status of Alzheimer’s in rats fed on HFD.

    Keywords: Amyloid-Beta, Blood Cells, High Fat Diet, Oxidative Stress, Virgin Coconut Oil
  • Maliheh Moradzadeh, Arezoo Rajabian, Azita Aghaei, Azar Hosseini *, Hamid RezaSadeghnia Page 7
    Background

    Human myeloid leukemia is among the hematological cancers associated with arrested differentiation and continued proliferation in promyelocytes. Despite the widespread use of Rheum turkestanicum, as a medicinal plant, there is still a lack of information on its toxicity profile. In this research, the cytotoxic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of R. turkestanicum root was evaluated on leukemic cells.

    Objectives

    We aimed to assess cellular oxidants, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and differentiation caused by R. turkestanicum (60 - 500 µg/mL) and arsenic trioxide (50 µM) in leukemic and polymorph nuclear cells during 72 hours.

    Methods

    In order to determine cell viability, resazurin assay was carried out at 24, 48, and 72 hours following R. turkestanicum treatment (range, 60 - 500 µg/mL). Carboxy 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescein diacetate was used to examine intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) via fluorimetry. For the analysis of apoptotic cells, propidium iodide (PI) flow cytometric assay was performed. Differentiation of cells was evaluated by Giemsa staining and nitro blue tetrazolium reduction.

    Results

    R. turkestanicum inhibited viability and increased apoptosis of leukemic cells similar to the As2O3 group. R. turkestanicum did not induce differentiation of leukemic cells towards a granulocytic pattern. Based on the findings, no toxic effects were induced by the extract on polymorphonuclear cells.

    Conclusions

    The present study demonstrated that R. turkestanicum caused apoptosis dose- and time-dependently without causing any differential effects on leukemic cells. The precise signaling pathway by which R. turkestanicum induces apoptosis needs further research.

    Keywords: Rheum turkestanicum, Leukemia, Apoptosis, Differentiation, ROS
  • Ali Asghar Hemmati, Marzieh Pashmforosh*, Mohammad Reza Tabandeh, Anahita Rezaie, Hossein Rajabi Vardanjani, Mohammad Hasan Pipelzadeh, Neda Sistani Karampour Page 8
    Background

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal and incurable lung disease. Morin, a natural product with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, could reduce lung inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and liver fibrosis in previous studies.

    Objectives

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifibrotic activity of morin in the pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin in mice.

    Methods

    Pulmonary fibrosis was induced by the intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (3 mg/kg) in C57Bl/6J mice. Morin (10, 20, and 40mg/kg, p.o.) was given to mice from day 0 to 21 after bleomycin administration. The mice were sacrificed on day 21 to measure the total number of cells, the percentage of leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), lung hydroxyproline content, lung index, and oxidative stress markers. Histopathological changes were evaluated by the microscopic examination of sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson’s trichrome.

    Results

    Our data showed that treatment withmorin significantly attenuated the infiltration of inflammatory cells, hydroxyproline content, lung index, and oxidative stress that were elevated in fibrotic lungs. In addition, morin could reduce the pathological changes induced by bleomycin.

    Conclusions

    Based on the study, morin, probably by its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, can attenuate pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin in mice.

    Keywords: Morin, Pulmonary Fibrosis, Bleomycin, Oxidative Stress, Mice
  • Hamed Bagheri, Saeed Rezapoor, Masoud Najafi, Hana Safar, Dheyauldeen Shabeeb, Mohsen Cheki, Babak Shekarchi, Elahe Motevaseli* Page 9
    Background

    Although radiotherapy is acommonchoice for cancer therapy, various types of toxicities in irradiated normal tissues limit the received dose by tumor cells. The gastrointestinal tract is one of the most sensitive organs to the detrimental effects of radiation. As a result of a high dose of ionizing radiation, acute morphological changes to the intestine are observed within days to weeks.

    Objectives

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the protective effects of metformin against radiation-induced small intestine injury.

    Methods

    In this experimental study, we used 20male Wistar albino rats in four groups including control, 10 Gy irradiation, metformin alone, and metformin with radiation. Metformin was orally administered 24 hours before irradiation for three days. Afterward, the rats were sacrificed 3.5 days after radiation exposure. The duodenum and jejunum were removed and fixed in 10% formalin. For light microscopic studies, duodenum and jejunum specimens were embedded in paraffin and then, 5 m sections were obtained and stained with hematoxylin and eosin.

    Results

    Irradiation led to a significant shortening of villi and mucosal atrophy, edema and inflammation in villi, and epithelial degeneration. When rats were treated with metformin, these damages were ameliorated in both duodenum and jejunum.

    Conclusions

    In this study, we showed that metformin can be proposed for the radioprotection of the small intestine. This property is very obvious, especially for damages to the villous and epithelium. Although further studies are needed for exploring the protective mechanisms of metformin in this organ, it is possible that suppressing the production of free radicals via mitochondria or inflammatory responses plays a role.

    Keywords: Metformin, Radioprotector, Radiation, Small Intestine, Duodenum, Jejunum
  • Ali Rezvani Aghdam, Hassanali Naghdi Badi*, Vahid Abdossi, Reza Hajiaghaee, Seyed Ebrahim Hosseini Page 10
    Background

    Aromatic herbs and spices are sensitive to drying processes; thus, optimum drying is an essential requirement for attaining a high-quality herbal product.

    Objectives

    The study evaluated the effects of drying conditions on essential oil content and composition of Lippia citriodora.

    Methods

    In this study, leaves of Lippia citriodora were divided into two sets. The first set included immediate drying after harvest using the given drying methods and the second set included sun drying for 3 hours after harvest and then drying according to the given drying methods. The drying methods included oven-drying at 35, 45, and 55°C, microwave-drying at 100, 500, and 1000 W, and shade-drying in the laboratory. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by GC and GC-MS.

    Results

    The drying methods significantly affected the essential oil content and composition. The maximum content of essential oil was achieved in microwave-drying at 100 W with the pre-drying operation. The highest contents of monoterpenes including monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes were observed in microwave-dried and fresh plants, respectively. In addition, the maximum amounts of sesquiterpenes including sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes were observed in oven-drying at 35°C with no pre-drying operation. In both pre-drying and no pre-drying conditions, the amount of limonene as a major monoterpene hydrocarbon was increased by microwave-drying. Although oxygenated monoterpenes including neral and geranial were decreased, the content of 1,8-cineol was increased after drying, especially without pre-drying. The maximum amount of curcumene as a sesquiterpene hydrocarbon was obtained in shade-drying without pre-drying operation. In predrying condition, the essential oil content and its components were more in the microwave and oven-drying procedures than in shade-drying.

    Conclusions

    The microwave-drying at 100Wfollowing pre-drying was the best drying method to achieve the highest quantity and quality of essential oil.

    Keywords: Lippia citriodora Kunth., Essential Oil, Microwave-Drying, Oven-Drying, Pre-Drying
  • Naime Majidi Zolbanin, Reza Jafari, Jafar Majidi, Fatemeh Atyabi, Mehdi Yousefi, Farhad Jadidi, Niaragh, Mohammad, Sadegh Soltani Zangbar, Milad Asadi, Alireza Mohajjel Nayebi* Page 11
    Background

    Apoptosis is a crucial process in the failure of cancer progression. However, the occurrence of resistance to chemotherapy in cancer cells may prevent apoptosis via induction of the expression of the anti-apoptotic genes (Bcl-2) and/or reduction of the expression of the apoptotic caspases.

    Objectives

    The current study aimed at investigating the apoptotic effects of targeted co-delivery of docetaxel and cMet siRNA (siMet) through mucin1 aptamer-conjugated chitosan nanoparticles on mucin1 + metastatic breast cancer cells (SKBR3).

    Methods

    Characterization of nano-drugs,Western blotting assay, annexin V/ propidium iodide staining assay, and gene expression studies were evaluated based on metastatic breast cancer cells.

    Results

    Characterization showed the appropriate size (110.5  3.9 nm), zeta potential (11.6  0.8 mV), and spherical shape of nanoparticles. Loading efficiency of 90.7% and 88.3% were gained for siRNA and docetaxel, respectively. The siRNA entrapment onto nanoparticles and conjugation of aptamers to nanoparticles were confirmed by gel electrophoresis. Gene knockdown assay represented the effectiveness of siMet on cMet gene silencing. According to the flow cytometry results, targeted co-delivery was successful in leading tumor cells to apoptosis (94.9%). Also, targeted co-delivery could reduce the expression of Bcl-2 gene (P < 0.0001) and increase the expression of caspase-8 and caspase-9 genes (P < 0.0001).

    Conclusions

    Combination treatment of metastatic breast cancer cells with aptamer-conjugated nanoparticles containing docetaxel and cMet siRNA significantly increased apoptosis.

    Keywords: Apoptosis, Docetaxel, Metastatic Breast Cancer, Mucin1 Aptamer, siRNA
  • Saeed Sherafatmanesh, Marzieh Mahmoodi, Zohreh Mazloom, Najmeh Hejazi* Page 12
    Background

    Diabetes mellitus as one of the prevalent endocrine disease is associated with a high burden of oxidative stress due to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may lead to decreased antioxidant defense system, increased risk of inflammation, neuropathy, nephropathy, and cardiovascular disease. All of thesemay, in turn, cause a reduced quality of life in these patients.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of vitamin E and vitamin C on the quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Methods

    Forty-five patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly divided into three groups to receive vitamin E (400 IU day-1), vitamin C (1000 mg day-1), and placebo for six weeks. Before and after the intervention, the quality of life was assessed with a valid Persian version of SF-36 (short-form health Survey-36) questionnaire.

    Results

    Supplementation with vitamin E and vitamin C were associated with significant improvements in the role limitations due to physical health (P = 0.02) and general health (P = 0.05). Furthermore, there were significant increases in the role limitations due to physical health, role limitations due to emotional problems, social functioning, and general health in the vitamin E group. Also, a significant increase was observed in general health score in the vitamin C group.

    Conclusions

    This study indicates that short-term supplementation of vitamin E and vitamin C may improve the quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes through alleviating oxidative stress.

    Keywords: Quality of Life, Diabetes Mellitus, Vitamin E, Ascorbic Acid