فهرست مطالب

Practice in Clinical Psychology - Volume:7 Issue: 3, 2019
  • Volume:7 Issue: 3, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/03/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Mohammad Ashori*, Seyedeh Somayeh Jalil Abkenar Pages 159-166
    Objective

    The present study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of video modeling on social skills of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

    Methods

    The current experimental study with pre-test, post-test design and control group was conducted on 24 male children with ASD aged 6-8 years from two special schools. The samples were selected by random sampling method and randomly divided into experimental and control groups, each group consisted of 12 children. In the experimental group video modeling was used in 16 sessions, while the control group did not participate in this program. Gilliam Autism Rating Scale 2 (GARS-2) was used to diagnose ASD and Autism Social Skills Profile (ASSP) to assess social skills in children with ASD. The data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of covariance with SPSS V. 24.

    Results

    The obtained results showed that video modeling training had a positive and significant effect on social skills of children with ASD in the experimental group (F2.21=28.170, P<0/001).

    Conclusion

    These findings supported the effectiveness of video modeling on social skills of children with ASD. Therefore, this program can be used to improve social skills of such children and plan to provide video modeling training program for them, which has particular importance.

    Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Social Skills, Video Modeling
  • Leila Salek Ebrahimi, Gholamreza Ahmadi, Abbas Masjedi Arani, Seyedeh Elnaz Mousavi* Pages 167-174
    Objective

    The present study aimed to predict internet addiction based on general self-efficacy, difficulty in emotion regulation, and resilience in medical students.

    Methods

    This was a cross-sectional study. The statistical population included all medical students of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. The research sample consisted of 96 medical students selected by random sampling method in 2018. Data collection was performed by Sherer General Self-Efficacy Scale, Gramat’s and Roemer’s Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale, and Young’s Internet Addiction test.

    Results

    To analyze the obtained data, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and the stepwise regression model were used. The obtained results suggested a significant relationship between internet addiction and general self-efficacy, difficulty in emotion regulation, and resiliency (P<0.05). Additionally, general self-efficacy, difficulty in emotion regulation, and resilience are able to predict 27% of internet addiction variance in medical students.

    Conclusion

    To prevent and reduce the harm of internet addiction in students in stressful events, they should be trained to improve their resilience, self-efficacy, and emotion regulation skills.

    Keywords: Internet, Emotion, Social control, Self-efficacy
  • Alia Saberi, Sajjad Rezaei*, Fatemeh Shabani, Samaneh Ghorbani Shirkouhi Pages 175-186
    Objective

    Headache is one of the common complaints of referral patients. The prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety in patients with headache is significant. The previous researches suggested the role of self-efficacy of pain in modifying psychological symptoms and improving clinical outcomes. The current study aimed at investigating the role of selfefficacy beliefs of pain in psychiatric symptoms and clinical outcomes of patients with chronic headache.

    Methods

    The current descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on 106 patients with chronic primary headache referred to neurology clinics of Guilan University of Medical Sciences from September 2016 to March 2017. Patients responded to questions of pain selfefficacy beliefs scales, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Data were analyzed by multivariate hierarchical regression.

    Results

    The results of Pearson correlation coefficient showed a reverse and significant relationship between pain self-efficacy beliefs and pain severity (r=-0.25, P=0.009). In the regression analysis, after controlling demographic variables, self-efficacy beliefs were able to predict the pain severity scale (F=4.570, P=0.035) and anxiety (F=4.414, P=0.038). There was also a significant non-linear quadratic correlation between the severity of pain with headache frequency (F=3.377, P=0.038).

    Conclusion

    Self-efficacy beliefs are more correlated with the reduction of the severity of pain in chronic headache and can predict it. It seems that these types of beliefs can play a protective role against anxiety and headache frequency in patients with chronic headache.

    Keywords: Self-Efficacy, Pain, Headache Disorders, Depression, Anxiety
  • Yousef Khodabandeloo*, Jalil Fat’H Abadi, Negin Motamed Yeganeh, Sara Yadollahi Pages 187-196
    Objective

    Body image is a complex and multifaceted construct encompassing at least perceptual, affective, cognitive, and possibly behavioral aspects of body experience. In the current Iranian society, increasingly the major focus is on the body’s appearance, in particular on body shape and weight. Current societal standards for female beauty excessively emphasize the desirability of thinness; an ideal accepted by most females, but impossible for most of them to achieve. These body image concerns can be measured using Multidimensional BodySelf Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ-AS). The present study aimed at testing the factorial structure and determining the psychometric properties of the MBSRQ in female Iranian university students.

    Methods

    The MBSRQ-AS was administered to 496 participants aged 16 to 39 selected using multistage cluster sampling method among the female students of Tehran University from 70 fields of study.

    Results

    Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the construct validity of the questionnaire. Principal component analysis using Varimax rotations resulted in a five-factor structure (KMO=0.56, Chi-square=5419.80, df=561) including: appearance orientation, appearance evaluation, overweight preoccupation, self-classified weight and body areas satisfaction. confirmatory factor analysis showed that the extracted model had a good fit to the data (RMSEA =0.064, NFI =0.88, CFI =0.91). Reliability analysis of total score of MBSRQAS and its subscales suggested good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for total scale=0.83).

    Conclusion

    In conclusion, the results of the current study provided strong evidence for reliability and validity of MBSRQ-AS as a multidimensional tool to measure body image among Iranian students.

    Keywords: Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, Psychometric Properties, Reliability, Validity
  • Ali Bahari, Mahsa Akbarian Firoozabadi*, Shahram Mohammadkhani Pages 197-206
    Objective

    The present study aimed to determine the roles of maternal care and overprotection. We also explored how they are combined to develop rumination as well as various childhood traumas and parenting styles as the risk factors for depression.

    Methods

    This was a retrospective study with a causal-comparative design. In total, 175 students with the Mean±SD age of 21±2.75 years (age range: 18-35 years) affiliated to Alborz Medical University, Tehran University, and Kharazmi University have been selected using purposive sampling method. They completed the 2nd version of Beck Depression Inventory, Ruminative Response Scale, Parental Bonding Instrument, and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The obtained data were analyzed by the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), path analysis, mediation analysis, and correlation calculations, in SPSS and AMOS.

    Results

    The mediating role of rumination in respect of parenting styles (P<0.02) and depression (P<0.001) was statistically significant. Moreover, parenting styles and childhood traumas, and their interaction may lead to the development of rumination and depression (P<0.001). The pathways of the effects were different; limited maternal care plays an indirect role in this process. This indicates that it will lead to depression and rumination only if emotional abuse is experienced in childhood. However, overprotection can directly lead to these conditions.

    Conclusion

    Paying attention to parenting styles, childhood traumas, and their interaction to prevent rumination and depression is important. This is due to the identified direct and indirect effects of parenting behaviors.

    Keywords: Depression, Rumination, Parenting style, Childhood trauma
  • Hamidreza Fereydouni, Abdollah Omidi, Shima Tamannaeifar* Pages 207-214
    Objective

    The present study examined the effect of choice theory education on the happiness and self-esteem in university students.

    Methods

    The statistical population consisted of all students of Qom universities. The study sample consisted of 30 students (7 males and 8 females per group) with low self-esteem (0 out of 10) and happiness (14 out of 87) levels. The subjects were randomly selected and assigned to the experimental and control groups by convenience sampling technique. To conduct the Pre-test and post-test, the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale were used. The test group members attended the choice theory education program weekly for 5 consecutive weeks, whereas the control group received no treatment.

    Results

    After implementing the post-test, the collected data were analyzed using the Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) in SPSS. The findings indicated that treatment program effectively increased the test group members’ happiness (F=213.53, P<0.0005) and self-esteem (F=0.52, P<0.0005).

    Conclusion

    The principles of choice theory can be implemented among graduate students to promote their happiness and self-esteem; in turn, it may lead to educational and social achievements.

    Keywords: Choice theory, Happiness, Self-esteem
  • Sakineh Saeidi, Ali Mohamadzadeh Ebrahimi*, Aliakbar Soleimanian Pages 215-224
    Objective

    The major focus of present literature on marital satisfaction is about the processes that weaken it in couples. In contrast, positive factors that may contribute to the prosperity of couples’ relationships are less widely considered. Gratitude is one of the factors that its role and in particular, the pathways that associate it to marital satisfaction are not studied. The current study aimed at investigating the direct and indirect effects of gratitude and optimism on marital satisfaction.

    Methods

    The current cross-sectional study using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was conducted on 241 married female teachers. The data collection was performed using the ENRICH Marital Satisfaction (EMS), Gratitude Questionnaire-6 (GQ-6), and Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R). Amos V. 24 and SPSS V. 24 software packages were applied for data analysis. Bootstrap in Preacher and Hayes’ Macro program was used for testing mediation.

    Results

    Results indicated that the model with some modification had a good fit with the data (DF=1.86, GFI=0.95, IFI=0.97, CFI=0.97, NFI=0.94, RMSEA=0.06). The gratitude had a positive direct effect on marital satisfaction (β=0.32, P<0.05) and optimism (β=0.57, P<0.05). Optimism had a positive direct effect on marital satisfaction (β=0.50, p<0.05). The gratitude had a positive indirect effect on marital satisfaction via optimism (P<0.05).

    Conclusion

    Gratitude, directly and indirectly, through increased optimism, is associated with higher marital satisfaction. The current study results showed a stage into a better understanding of positive processes that can protect couples against marital dissatisfaction; counselors can help couples in attaining and keeping marital satisfaction via the training and enhancement of gratitude.

    Keywords: Gratitude, Optimism, Marital Satisfaction
  • Shokoufeh Ramezani*, Abdul Rahim Afkhamzadeh, Hassan Qorbani, Salm Naimi, Saifullah Rahmani Pages 225-234
    Objective

    Substance dependence is the most critical biopsychosocial and legal problem. It has various harmful effects at the individual, familial, and society levels. The current study aimed to determine the effect of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on reducing the intensity of substance dependence and improving cognitive emotion regulation in substance-dependent patients under methadone maintenance treatment.

    Methods

    This was a quasi-experimental study with a Pre-test-post-test design and a control group. The samples consisted of 29 subjects (16 in the experimental group and 13 in the control group) undergoing methadone maintenance treatment in a methadone maintenance treatment clinic in Kamyaran, Kurdistan Province, Iran. They were randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. The experimental group underwent 10 sessions of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Dependence Severity Index and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire were used for data collection.

    Results

    The obtained results suggested that mindfulness-based cognitive therapy reduced the severity of substance dependence (F=2.34, P<0.05), influenced Negative cognitive emotion regulation (F=15.28, P<0.05) and Positive cognitive emotion regulation (F=16.24, P<0.05)

    Conclusion

    Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy affects the intensity of substance dependence and improves cognitive emotion regulation.

    Keywords: Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, Intensity of substance dependence, Cognitive therapy, Methadone therapy