فهرست مطالب

  • سال یازدهم شماره 1 (بهار و تابستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/06/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • زینب ربانی، الهه حجازی* صفحات 1-25

    هدف از پژوهش حاضر مقایسه انگیزش و هیجان های تحصیلی دانش آموزان براساس نیم رخ های درگیری تحصیلی در آنها با رویکردی فرد-محور بود. بدین منظور تعداد 586 نفر از دانش آموزان پایه نهم از دبیرستان های شهر تهران به روش نمونه گیری تصادفی خوشه ایسه مرحله ای انتخاب شده، و به پرسش نامه های درگیری تحصیلی، انگیزش تحصیلی و هیجان های تحصیلی پاسخ دادند. با استفاده از روش تحلیل نیم رخ نهفته چهار نیم رخ از درگیری تحصیلی دانش آموزان مشخص شد، که با عناوین نیم رخ درگیری زیاد، درگیری متوسط، درگیری کم و حداقل درگیری نام گذاری شدند. این چهار گروه در کارکردهای انگیزشی و هیجانی تفاوت داشتند، به این صورت که میزان هیجان لذت در دانش آموزان با نیم رخ درگیری زیاد در بالاترین حد و در نیم رخ حداقل درگیری، کمترین مقدار بود. هیجان منفی اضطراب در دانش آموزان با نیم رخ حداقل درگیری، بیشترین و در نیم رخ درگیری زیاد، کمترین میزان بود. برای انگیزش درون زاد و برون زاد نیز در دانش آموزان با نیم رخ درگیری زیاد، بیشترین میزان و در نیم رخ حداقل درگیری کمترین میزان به دست آمد، اما بی انگیزشی در نیم رخ حداقل درگیری بیشترین میزان و در نیم رخ درگیری زیاد، کمترین میزان را داشت. الگوهای به دست آمده نشان دهنده این است که، انگیزش و هیجان های تحصیلی دانش آموزان به عنوان تابعی از ترکیب ابعاد درگیری تحصیلی تغییر می کند. این مطالعه نه تنها شواهد تجربی از ماهیت چندبعدی درگیری تحصیلی را نشان می دهد، بلکه در رابطه با انگیزش و هیجان های مرتبط با پیشرفت نیز کاربرد دارد. در نظر گرفتن ابعاد چندگانه درگیری تحصیلی دانش آموزان به صورت هم زمان با دیدگاه فرد-محور، استفاده از یک رویکرد مفید برای نشان دادن ناهمگنی نمونه، پیدا کردن الگوهای متفاوت درگیری تحصیلی و پیشایندهایش را نوید می دهد.

    کلیدواژگان: رویکرد فرد- محور، درگیری تحصیلی، انگیزش تحصیلی، هیجان های تحصیلی، تحلیل نیم رخ
  • خاتون محمودنژاد، راضیه شیخ الاسلامی* صفحات 26-44

    یکی از چالش های مهم موسسه ها و مراکز آموزشی درگیر شدن افراد در رفتارهای غیرمولد تحصیلی است. در پژوهش حاضر نقش واسطه ای عدم درگیری اخلاقی در رابطه بین هویت اخلاقی (درونی سازی و نمادسازی) و رفتار غیرمولد تحصیلی بررسی شد. این پژوهش از نوع همبستگی بود. جامعه آماری شامل کلیه دانشجویان دانشکده های فنی و حرفه ای شهر شیراز بود. شرکت کنندگان پژوهش شامل 220 دانشجو (110 دختر، 110 پسر) بود که با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری خوشه ایانتخاب شدند. برای اندازه گیری متغیرهای پژوهش، مقیاس های عدم درگیری اخلاقی، رفتار غیرمولد تحصیلی، و اهمیت هویت اخلاقی برای خود به کارگرفته شد. نتایج مدل معادلات ساختاری با استفاده از نرم افزار AMOS نشان داد که مدل پژوهش از برازش خوبی برخوردار است. مطابق با یافته های پژوهش، هویت اخلاقی اثر مستقیم بر رفتارهای غیرمولد تحصیلی نداشت. درونی سازی هویت اخلاقی اثر منفی بر عدم درگیری اخلاقی نشان داد. نمادسازی نتوانست به نحو معنی داری عدم درگیری اخلاقی را پیش بینی کند. همچنین، یافته ها بیانگر اثر مثبت عدم درگیری اخلاقی بر رفتارهای غیرمولد تحصیلی بود. نتایج آزمون بوت استراپ نشان داد که درونی سازی هویت اخلاقی از طریق کاهش عدم درگیری اخلاقی منجر به کاهش رفتارهای غیرمولد تحصیلی در دانشجویان می شود. در کل، نتایج این پژوهش شواهدی را برای نقش واسطه ای عدم درگیری اخلاقی در رابطه بین درونی سازی هویت اخلاقی و رفتارهای غیرمولد تحصیلی دانشجویان فراهم آورد.

    کلیدواژگان: رفتار غیرمولد تحصیلی، عدم درگیری اخلاقی، هویت اخلاقی
  • مسلم امیری*، جواد مصرآبادی صفحات 45-69

    در این پژوهش که با بهره گیری از روش فراتحلیل انجام گرفته، به ترکیب عددی نتایج پژوهش های انجام شده در ایران در زمینه رابطه بین هوش هیجانی و مولفه های آن با خودکارآمدی افراد پرداخته شده است. جامعه آماری فراتحلیل، پژوهش های در دسترس مرتبط با رابطه هوش هیجانی و مولفه های آن با خودکارآمدی در داخل کشور است که در بین سال های 1386 تا 1396 منتشر شده اند. براساس ملاک های تعریف شده ورود و خروج پژوهش های اولیه و نیز تحلیل حساسیت، در نهایت50 اندازه اثر از 22 مطالعه اولیه بررسی شد. بعد از بررسی ملاک های ورود و خروج، یافته های کمی پژوهش های منتخب با نرم افزار CMA ویرایش2، تحلیل شدند. نتایج نشان دادند که هوش هیجانی و مولفه های آن بر خودکارآمدی افراد تاثیر معنی داری داشته و طبق ملاک کوهن، میزان اندازه اثر ترکیبی رابطه بین هوش هیجانی و مولفه های آن با خودکارآمدی برای مدل اثرات تصادفی، در حد متوسط به بالا (34/0= ES) است. بررسی نقش متغیرهای تعدیل کننده مولفه های هوش هیجانی، جامعه آماری تحقیقات اولیه و حجم نمونه تحقیقات اولیه در ارتباط بین متغیرهای مستقل و وابسته تحقیق، رابطه معنی داری نشان دادند. به طور خلاصه، می توان نتیجه گرفت که آموزش هوش هیجانی می تواند بر خودکارآمدی افراد تاثیر چشم گیری داشته باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: خودکارآمدی، فراتحلیل، مولفه های هوش هیجانی، هوش هیجانی
  • شکوفه رحیم پور، مژگان عارفی*، غلام رضا منشئی صفحات 70-91

    پژوهش حاضر با هدف تعیین اثربخشی ذهن آگاهی بر غرقگی و ثبات قدم دانش آموزان دختر انجام گرفته است. پژوهش از نوع مداخله با طرح پیش آزمون-پس آزمون با گروه کنترل بود. جامعه آماری، همه دانش آموزان دختر دوره دوم متوسطه شهرستان ابرکوه در سال تحصیلی 1397- 1398 بود. شرکت کنندگان در پژوهش، 30 دانش آموز بود که به روش نمونه گیری خوشه ایچند مرحله ای انتخاب شد. مشارکت کنندگان بر اساس گمارش تصادفی در دو گروه مداخله و کنترل به تعداد مساوی قرار گرفتند. برای جمع آوری داده ها از مقیاس غرقگی مارتین و جکسون و پرسش نامه ثبات قدم داکورث استفاده شد. این ابزار ابتدا برای هر دو گروه به عنوان پیش آزمون، اجرا شدند سپس آموزش ذهن آگاهی به عنوان متغیر مستقل پژوهش در 10جلسه 60دقیقه ای، برای گروه آزمایش اجراشد.گروه کنترل هیچ مداخله ای دریافت نکرد. پس از پایان آموزش، بار دیگر دو ابزار پژوهش برای هر دو گروه مداخله و کنترل، به عنوان پس آزمون، اجرا شد. داده ها با استفاده از روش آماری تحلیل کواریانس، تجزیه و تحلیل شد. نتایج نشان داد که آموزش ذهن آگاهی در افزایش غرقگی و ثبات قدم در گروه مداخله تاثیر مثبت و معنی داری دارد. یافته های پژوهش حاضر، با توجه به پیشینه پژوهش بحث شده اند. در پایان پیشنهاد هایی برای انجام پژوهش درباره آموزش ذهن آگاهی و متغیرهای مربوط به غرقگی و ثبات قدم ارائه شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: ذهن آگاهی، روان شناسی مثبت نگر، غرقگی، ثبات قدم
  • مرضیه صادق زاده*، لیلا شاملی، فرهاد خرمایی صفحات 92-107

    پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی نقش میانجی استرس والدگری در رابطه میان مولفه های صبر مادر و پرخاشگری کودک انجام گرفت. شرکت کنندگان در پژوهش شامل 195 نفر از مادران کودکان پیش دبستانی شهر کازرون بود، که به روش نمونه گیری خوشه ایچندمرحله ای انتخاب گردید. به منظور گردآوری داده ها از سه مقیاس صبر بزرگسالان خرمائی، فرمانی و سلطانی، استرس والدگری آبیدین، و برون ریزی-پرخاشگری سیاهه رفتار سازگار کودک کوان، کوان و همینگ پاسخ دادند. این پژوهش به لحاظ روش در دسته مطالعات همبستگی قرار گرفته است. همچنین، داده ها با استفاده از الگوی معادلات ساختاری در نرم افزار AMOS 22 تحلیل شدند. نتایج گویای این بود که از بین مولفه های صبر مادر تنها استقامت رابطه منفی معنی داری با پرخاشگری کودک پیش دبستانی دارد. همچنین، در این رابطه استرس والدگری نقش واسطه ای دارد، و کاهش پرخاشگری کودک از طریق همین نقش واسطه ای است. بنابراین، با توجه به یافته های آماری می توان گفت که صبر مادر به عنوان یک توانمندی اخلاقی، توانایی پیش بینی پرخاشگری کودک از طریق کاهش استرس والدگری را دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: صبر، استرس والدگری، پرخاشگری، مادر
  • شیلان کاملی، فریده یوسفی* صفحات 108-127

    هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی نقش واسطه گری خودکارآمدی در رابطه بین ارزش های فرهنگی (فردگرایی، جمع گرایی) و نشاط ذهنی در گروهی از دانشجویان دوره کارشناسی دانشگاه شیراز بود. مشارکت کنندگان 448 نفر از دانشجویان بودند که  به روش نمونه گیری تصادفی خوشه ایچندمرحله ای انتخاب شدند و مقیاس نشاط ذهنی ریان و فردریک، پرسش نامه خودکارآمدی موریس  و نسخه کوتاه مقیاس فردگرایی و جمع گرایی افقی و عمودی سیواداس و همکاران را تکمیل کردند. روایی و پایایی پرسش نامه های پژوهش نیز با استفاده از روش تحلیل عاملی تاییدی و ضریب آلفای کرونباخ مورد بررسی و تایید قرار گرفت. برای تحلیل داده های توصیفی و ماتریس همبستگی بین متغیرهای پژوهش از نرم افزار SPSS و برای آزمون فرضیه ها و مدل پژوهش از نرم افزار AMOS استفاده شد. یافته ها نشان دادند که مدل پژوهش با داده های جمع آوری شده برازش مطلوبی دارد. همچنین یافته ها نشان دادند که اثر مستقیم ارزش های جمع گرایی و فردگرایی بر نشاط ذهنی مثبت و معنی دار است. اثر مستقیم ارزش های فردگرایی بر خودکارآمدی نیز مثبت و معنی دار بود. همچنین فردگرایی با واسطه گری خودکارآمدی توانست نشاط ذهنی را پیش بینی کند، اما اثر واسطه ای خودکارآمدی در رابطه بین جمع گرایی و نشاط ذهنی معنی دار نبود. به طور کلی یافته های پژوهش نقش ارزش های فرهنگی و  خودکارآمدی را در تبیین نشاط ذهنی نشان می دهند. بر اساس یافته های این پژوهش می توان نتیجه گرفت که به منظور ارتقای سطح نشاط ذهنی دانشجویان باید به ارزش های فرهنگی و نیز افزایش خودکارآمدی آنها توجه شود.

    کلیدواژگان: ارزش های فرهنگی، خودکارآمدی، نشاط ذهنی
  • کوکب خلیلی پاجی*، سیاوش طالع پسند، فرحناز کیان ارثی صفحات 128-145

    روش های آموزشی مختلفی در مورد چگونگی آموزش لغت های انگلیسی وجود دارند. هدف از پژوهش حاضر بررسی نقش تصاویر و ژست ها به عنوان کمک کننده های غیرکلامی در یادگیری لغت زبان انگلیسی در کودکان پیش دبستانی بود. طرح پژوهش حاضر از نوع شبه آزمایشی بود. شرکت کنندگان این پژوهش 60 کودک پیش دبستانی(30  دختر و 30 پسر) 4 تا 6 ساله بودند که به روش در دسترس از مهدکودک های منطقه شش شهر تهران انتخاب شدند. توانایی کودکان در یادگیری لغت های جدید با استفاده از یک طرح اندازه گیری مکرر در سه موقعیت ارائه لغت به تنهایی، ارائه لغت به همراه ژست و ارائه لغت به همراه تصویر اندازه گیری شد. همه کودکان آزمون یادآوری معنا و آزمون درک مطلب را پس از آموزش و همچنین در مرحله پیگیری تکمیل کردند. یافته ها حاکی از آن بود که کودکان در موقعیت آموزشی ارائه لغت به همراه ژست و ارائه لغت به همراه تصویر بهتر از موقعیت ارائه لغت به تنهایی عمل کردند، همچنین عملکرد آن ها در موقعیت ارائه لغت به همراه ژست بهتر از موقعیت ارائه لغت به همراه تصویر بود. در مرحله پیگیری گروه ارائه لغت به همراه ژست از دو گروه دیگر ثبات بیشتری در آزمون درک نشان دادند. نقش تعدیل کننده جنسیت در یادآوری و درک مطلب لغات معنی دار نبود. کمک کننده های غیرکلامی در افزایش یادگیری تاثیرگذار هستند. پایداری آموخته ها با کمک کننده غیرکلامی ژست مناسب تر از سایر کمک کننده ها است.

    کلیدواژگان: یادآوری معنا، درک مطلب، ژست، تصویر، لغت
  • مهدی رحیمی*، مهدیه آرایی، مریم زارع صفحات 146-162

    این پژوهش برای بررسی اثربخشی کتاب درمانی تحولی بر مهارت اجتماعی و مشکلات رفتاری دانش آموزان انجام شد. کتاب درمانی تحولی، یکی از انواع کتاب درمانی است که در محیط کلاس درس روی می دهد و معلم سعی می کند روش و رفتارهای مثبت مواجهه با چالش های زندگی را نشان دهد. پژوهش کاربردی حاضر از نوع تحقیقات نیمه ‏آزمایشی از نوع پیش آزمون، پس آزمون با گروه گواه است. جامعه آماری این پژوهش شامل همه دانش آموزان دختر پایه سوم ابتدایی مشغول به تحصیل در مدارس ابتدایی شهر یزد است. مشارکت‏ کنندگان این پژوهش، یک نمونه 40 نفری را در بر می‏ گیرد که به شیوه خوشه ایانتخاب شده و به‏ صورت تصادفی در دوگروه آزمایش و گواه (20 نفر در هرگروه)، گمارده شده اند. برای اندازه گیری متغیرهای وابسته، از پرسش نامه مهارت اجتماعی گرشام و الیوت استفاده شد. نتایج اندازه‏ گیری مکرر، بیانگر این موضوع بود که کتاب درمانی تحولی بر مهارت اجتماعی و ابعاد آن، یعنی همکاری، قاطعیت و خویشتن داری تاثیرگذار بوده است. فرضیه های پژوهش درباره تاثیر کتاب درمانی بر کاهش مشکلات رفتاری و رفتارهای بیرونی، تایید شد؛ اما فرضیه های پژوهش درباره کاهش رفتارهای درونی و بیش فعالی تایید نشد. بنابراین، کتاب‏درمانی یکی از روش های آموزش غیرمستقیم است که می تواند مهارت های صحیح را به دانش آموزان آموزش دهد و تا حدی از مشکلات رفتاری آن‏ها بکاهد.

    کلیدواژگان: کتاب درمانی تحولی، مهارت اجتماعی، مشکلات رفتاری
  • مهدی محمدی*، امید سلیمانی بالاوی، جعفر جهانی، مریم شفیعی، فرهاد دریانوش صفحات 163-182

    تربیت بدنی در آموزش ‏و ‏پرورش همیشه به عنوان سکویی در نظر گرفته می شود که فراگیران در آن تجارب و مهارت های تمرینی خود را در ورزش های مختلف و فعالیت‏ های فیزیکی گسترش می دهند. هدف پژوهش حاضر، تاثیر رویکرد آموزشی «تدریس بازی برای فهم» (TGFU) بر مهارت ‏های ورزشی دانش‏ آموزان در درس تربیت بدنی در دوره اول متوسطه بود. روش پژوهش شبه‏ آزمایشی، طرح پیش‏ آزمون - پس‏ آزمون با گروه شاهد بود. جامعه آماری پژوهش شامل دانش ‏آموزان دوره اول متوسطه در شهر ارومیه بودند که از بین آن ‏ها دو کلاس از مدارس مناطق متوسط شهر انتخاب شدند و به صورت تعیین تصادفی در دو گروه آزمایش و شاهد قرار گرفتند. برای ارزیابی عملکرد دانش‏ آموزان در فوتبال، از آزمون مهارت فوتبال و فرم مشاهده عملکرد میچل، اسلین و گریفین، استفاده شد. پس از محاسبه روایی و پایایی ابزار، برای تحلیل سوالات از تحلیل کواریانس استفاده شد. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد تفاوت معنی داری بین مهارت‏ های شش‏ گانه دانش‏ آموزان گروه آزمایش و گواه پس از آموزش با رویکردهای متداول و TGFU وجود دارد. بر اساس نتایج، می‏ توان دریافت با تاکید بر ارزش های تدریس متمرکز بر یادگیرنده و برنامه مبتنی بر رویکرد تاکتیکی TGFU می‏ توان به توانمندسازی دانش ‏آموزان در مهارت‏ های ورزشی کمک شایانی کرد.

    کلیدواژگان: تدریس برای فهم، مهارت‏ های ورزشی، تربیت بدنی، دانش‏ آموزان، دوره متوسطه
  • زعیمه نعمت الهی، حبیب الله رعنایی کردشولی*، مسلم علی محمد لو، قاسم سلیمی صفحات 183-217

    هدف پژوهش حاضر، معرفی قابلیت های دانشگاه نسل سوم است. در این پژوهش به وسیله مطالعه نظام مند پژوهش ها و با توجه هم زمان به دو بعد اقتصادی و اجتماعی رسالت سوم دانشگاه ها، قابلیت های این دانشگاه از ادبیات پژوهش استخراج شد. تفاوت اصلی الگوی دانشگاه نسل سوم با الگوی دانشگاه کارآفرین، توجه به بعد اجتماعی رسالت سوم دانشگاه ها علاوه بر بعد اقتصادی است. اطلاعات مورد نیاز این پژوهش با استفاده از مطالعه نظام مند ادبیات، به کمک تحلیل محتوای کیفی جمع آوری و برای انجام تحلیل محتوا از نرم‏ افزار مکس کیو دی ای استفاده شد. از پایگاه داده ای اسکوپوس به عنوان یکی از دو پایگاه داده ه ای برتر جهت استخراج پژوهش های مورد نیاز استفاده شد و با توجه به میزان ارتباط پژوهش ها با موضوع مورد بررسی، تعداد 150 پژوهش بررسی شدند. در انتها با توجه به نظرات گروه کانونی، قابلیت های دانشگاه نسل سوم در بیست‏ و‏یک بعد تقسیم بندی گردید. نتایج این پژوهش، چارچوبی را برای ارزیابی فعالیت های انجام‏ شده در راستای دستیابی به دانشگاه نسل سوم فراهم آورده و توجه به قابلیت های معرفی‏ شده توسط سیاست گذاران و مدیران دانشگاهی، مسیر دستیابی به دانشگاه نسل سوم را هموارتر کرده و به این طریق دستیابی به اهداف مورد نظر در زمینه رسالت اقتصادی و اجتماعی دانشگاه ها با سرعت بیشتری تحقق می یابد.

    کلیدواژگان: دانشگاه نسل سوم، دانشگاه کارآفرین، دانشگاه پایدار، قابلیت ها، مطالعه نظام مند
  • فرهاد احمدی اصل، سکینه شاهی*، یدالله مهرعلی زاده، مقصود فراستخواه صفحات 218-238

    پژوهش حاضر با هدف شناسایی مولفه های ساختار مطلوب دانشگاه در راستای بسترسازی برای یادگیری پوی‏پا انجام شد. این پژوهش از نوع مطالعات کیفی به روش پدیدارشناسی است. مشارکت‏ کنندگان پژوهش به روش هدفمند انتخاب شدند و با 16 متخصص حوزه آموزش عالی مصاحبه عمیق انجام شد. در این پژوهش، از رویکرد پدیدارشناسی موستاکاس برای گردآوری و تحلیل داده ها استفاده شده است. قابلیت اعتماد مصاحبه ها از طریق باورپذیری و انتقال‏ پذیری به‏ دست آمد. داده های حاصل از مصاحبه و تحلیل اسناد و مدارک به‏ صورت تحلیل محتوا به روش کدگذاری استقرایی، تجزیه و تحلیل شد. نتایج تحلیل مضمونی، چهار خوشه معانی و 32 مضمون را برای یادگیری پوی پا و سه خوشه معانی اصلی؛ 11 خوشه معانی فرعی و  38 مضمون را برای ساختار دانشگاه نشان می دهد. مولفه های یادگیری پوی پا در چهار محور: یادگیری برای یادگرفتن، یادگیری برای انجام ‏دادن، یادگیری برای با‏هم ‏زیستن و یادگیری برای زیستن دسته ‏بندی شده است. در زمینه ساختار مطلوب سازمانی، سه نوع ساختار رسمی، غیر‏رسمی و نامرئی در دانشگاه شناسایی شده است. ساختار رسمی شامل تمرکز، پیچیدگی و رسمیت؛ ساختار غیر‏رسمی شامل روابط غیر‏رسمی، روابط مبتنی بر اعتماد، روابط تعاملی برون‏گرا و روابط عاطفی فراگیر است. ساختار نامرئی دانشگاه حول محورهای سیاسی، اجتماعی، رفتاری و علمی شکل می گیرد. تحقق یادگیری پوی پا در دانشگاه نیازمند اصلاح ساختارها و حذف موانع موجود ساختاری از طریق ایجاد ساختارهای منعطف و پویا، تقویت ساختارهای غیر‏رسمی و ایجاد بستر مناسب برای فعالیت ساختارهای نامرئی دانشگاه است.

    کلیدواژگان: یادگیری پوی پا، ساختار رسمی، ساختار غیر‏رسمی، ساختار نامرئی، دانشگاه
  • هادی قنبری*، ناهید شتاب بوشهری، پروانه شفیع نیا، یدالله مهرعلیزاده صفحات 239-257

    هدف از این تحقیق ارائه مدلی برای عوامل موثر بر گرایش دانش آموزان دبستانی به تربیت بدنی و ورزش در مدارس استان خوزستان بود. طرح پژوهش به شیوه آمیخته اکتشافی بود. شرکت کنندگان پژوهش در مرحله کیفی شامل 25 نفر از خبرگان حوزه ورزش دانش آموزی استان خوزستان بودند که مورد مصاحبه عمیق قرار گرفتند. داده های حاصل از مصاحبه به روش تئوری سازی داده بنیاد کدگذاری و تجزیه و تحلیل گردید. سپس پرسش نامه ای مطابق با کدهای بدست آمده طراحی شد. برای روایی پرسش نامه از تکنیک دلفی استفاده شد و پایایی پرسش نامه نیز با آلفای کرونباخ مورد تایید قرار گرفت. در مرحله کمی شرکت کنندگان پژوهش شامل 280 نفر معلمان تربیت بدنی، کارشناسان تربیت بدنی ادارات آموزش و پرورش و اعضای هیئت علمی دانشگاه های استان خوزستان بودند. با استفاده از روش مدلسازی معادلات ساختاری، مدل پژوهش استخراج و اعتبارسنجی گردید. نتیجه گروه بندی کدها، 54 مولفه را در سه سطح زمینه ای(جامعه و محیط زیست)، سازمانی(مدرسه و معلم ورزش) و رفتاری(عوامل فردی و خانواده) نشان داد. طبق مدل برآمده از پژوهش می توان گفت که به ترتیب معلم تربیت بدنی، عوامل فردی، خانواده، محیط زیست، جامعه و مدرسه بیشترین تاثیر را بر گرایش دانش آموزان به ورزش در مدارس داشتند؛ متغیر جامعه علاوه بر تاثیر مستقیم بر گرایش دانش آموزان به ورزش بر متغیرهای عوامل فردی، مدرسه، خانواده و معلم تربیت بدنی اثر معنی دار داشته است؛ متغیر محیط نیز علاوه بر تاثیر مستقیم بر گرایش دانش آموزان به ورزش بر متغیرهای خانواده، مدرسه و عوامل فردی اثر معنی دار داشته است؛ متغیرهای خانواده و مدرسه نیز به ترتیب بر متغیرهای عوامل فردی و معلم تربیت بدنی اثر معنی دار داشته اند. مدل ارائه شده می تواند به عنوان ابزار تحلیلی پیرامون عوامل موثر بر گرایش دانش آموزان دبستانی به ورزش در مدارس استان خوزستان مبنای عمل قرار گیرد تا بگونه ای منطقی و اصولی به حل مشکلات این حوزه از ورزش پرداخت.

    کلیدواژگان: ورزش مدارس، ورزش دانش آموزی، گرایش به ورزش
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  • Zeinab Rabbani, Elahe Hejazi* Pages 1-25
    Introduction

    Student engagement in educational activities is one of the most important issues in explaining the rate of academic dropouts as well as the number of students remaining at schools or entringhigher levels of education and work (Christensen, Rashly & Wyle, 2012). Students who are more engaged in school earn higher grades and show better psychological adjustment to school (Li & Lerner, 2011). Conversely, students who are disengaged in school are more likely to experience academic failure, school dropout, and a host of other negative psychosocial outcomes (Archambault, Janosz, Fallu, & Pagani, 2009; Wang & Holcombe, 2010).Engagement is a multidimensional construct. Engagement encompasses four distinct, but highly intercorrelated aspects, including behavior, emotion, cognition and agency (Reeve & Tseng, 2011). Therefore, judging how actively the student is involved in the learning activity requires a consideration of their concentration, attention, and effort, which are aspects of their behavioral engagement. Further important are the presence of task-facilitating emotions such as interest and the absence of task-withdrawing emotions such as distress (emotional engagement), the use of sophisticated rather than superficial learning strategies (cognitive engagement), and the extent to which they trie to enrich the learning experience rather than just passively receiving it as a given (agentic engagement) (Reeve, 2012).Such a multidimensional conceptualization of engagement provides a rich characterization of how students act, feel, and think (Wang & Peck, 2013). Despite the large number of studies devoted to school engagement and academic achievement, the literature has two critical gaps.Primarily, it is necessary to carify the distinctions among the different dimensions of school engagement. Recent theoretical work points to the importance of conceptualizing school engagement as a multidimensional construct (Fredricks et al., 2004; Skinner & Wellborn, 1994). Empirical studies, however, either focus on the behavioral dimension or combine various dimensions of engagement on a single, global scale (Marks, 2000). The practice of combining items onto global scales precludes both the examination of distinctions among the different types of engagement and comparing between these types of engagement and the educational and developmental outcomes (Wang & Peck, 2013).Secondly, it is essential to explore how individual differences among the students might affect their school engagement in general and the particular aspects of their engagement in particular. The majority of the studies conducted in this regard have used variable-centered approaches to examine how levels of global school engagement are associated, on average, with different levels of academic outcomes. A critical, yet seldom investigated assumption of such variable-centered approaches is that the individuals sampled from the population are homogeneous with respect to the causal dynamics among the study variables (Bergman, von Eye, & Magnusson, 2006). If the homogeneity assumption is proved valid, estimates of average relations among variables will correspondingly have strong external validity; if, however, this assumption is invalid, the average effect generalized from the sample to the population may not apply to a single individual. To examine the validity of the homogeneity assumption, therefore, a person-centered approach toboth theory and data analysis should be adopted, verifying (a) how individuals vary in their multivariate profiles, and (b) how different profiles have different implications for individual developmental processes (Bergman & Andersson, 2010).Accordingly,this study aims to determine student academic engagement profiles in a person-centered approach, and to compare academic motivation and emotions among these profiles.

    Research questions

    The present study aims to compare academic motivation and academic emotions based on academic engagement profiles in a person-centered approach. Therefore, the present study attempts to answer the following questions:1.What are the different profiles of academic engagement among students?2.Do the academic motivation and emotions differ among student engagement profiles?

    Methods

    This study is a non-experimental research with causal-comparative design. The statistical population of the study included all ninth grade students from Tehran high schools.A sample of 586students (314females and 272males) was selected randomly using cluster sampling technique. Participants responded to academic engagement (Reeve & Tseng, 2011), academic motivation (Vallerand et al, 1989) and academic emotions (Pekrun et al, 2002, 2005) questionnaires. All these measurements had appropriate levels of validity and reliability.

    Result

    sUsing the Latent Profile Analysis (LPA) four profiles of students' academic engagement were specified. Theses profiles were identifiedas “highly engaged”, “moderately engaged”, “low engaged” and “minimally engaged”. These four groups differed in their motivational and emotional functions.Enjoyment was the highest in the students with highly engaged profile and was the lowest level in those with minimally engaged profile. Anxiety, on the other hand, was the highest in the students with minimally engaged profile and was the lowest in the highly-engagedprofile students. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations were also the highest in the learners with highly engaged profile and was the lowest in those with minimally engaged profile.However, amotivation had the highest rate in the minimally engaged profile and lowest rate in the highly engaged profile.

    Discussion and Conclusion

    The findings ofthis study showed that four dimensions of academic engagement determined four distinct profiles among students. Moreover, the types of academic motivation and emotions in these profiles were different, so that the higher degrees of engagement dimensions, were associated with higher levels of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations, and the students with lower levels of amotivation experienced more positive and less negative emotions. These findings not only provide empirical evidence for the multidimensional nature of the academic engagement, but are also applicable for academic motivation and emotions. Considering the multiple dimensions of academic engagement simultaneously from a person-centered perspective promises a useful approach for addressing sample heterogeneity and for understanding different patterns of academic engagement and their antecedents.

    Keywords: person-centered approach, academic engagement. academic motivation, academic emotions
  • Khatoun Mahmoudnejad, Razieh Sheikholeslami * Pages 26-44
    Introduction

    One of the most important challenges of facing educational institutions and centers is the involvement of individuals in academic counterproductive behaviors. Counterproductive behavior is an intentional behavior that violates the significant norms of an organization and threatens the well-being of the organization, its employees or both (Robinson & Bennett, 1995). Academic counterproductive behavior is one of the most important subjects of in the field of educational field. Academic counterproductive behavior is against the contrary of university citizenship behaviors (Schwager, Hülshegar, Lang, Klieger, Bridgeman, & Wendler, 2014). Academic counterproductive behaviors are divided into two categories: other-focused behaviors (that harm others) or self-focused behaviors (that harm the student himself) (Robinson & Bennett, 1995). Academic counterproductive behaviorIt has has ten main dimensions: cheating, using drugsdrug use, telling lieslie, plagiarizingplagiarism, showing discriminating behaviors, absencegetting abscent, having passive presence, procrastinatingon, getting lazyiness (indolentce) and peer pressure. Research evidence suggests that academic counterproductive behavior prevents academic achievement and hurts the learning process (Crede & Niehorster, 2009). Moral disengagement refers to a set of eight cognitive mechanisms that decouple one's internal moral standards from one's actions and facilitate engaging in unethical behavior without feeling distress (Moore, 2015). Moral disengagement could be considered as a cognitive distortion that allows individuals to view immoral behavior and its negative consequences in a socially and morally favorable way (Farnese, Tremontano, Fida, & Paciello, 2011). Moral disengagement mechanisms are include moral justification, euphemistic labeling, advantageous comparison, displacement of responsibility, diffusion of responsibility, disregard or distortion of consequences, and dehumanization and attribution of blame. Moral disengagement mechanisms are known as the tendency to justify immoral behaviors in order to protect one’s self-esteem (Caprara, Fida, Vecchione, Tramontano, & Barbaranelli, 2009). Moral identity has been described as a kind of self-regulatory mechanism that motivates moral action (Blasi, 1993). ItMoral identity has two dimensions: the private dimension, which is called internalization that and refers to the self-importance of moral characteristics, and the general dimension is which is referred to as symbolization. According to the cognitive-social theory, individuals behave immorally in spite of having moral standards, because of moral disengagement mechanisms. Researchers consider moral identity as moderating the impact of moral disengagement mechanisms (Aquino, Reed, Thau, & Freeman, 2007). The pPresent study has investigated the mediating role of moral disengagement in the relationship between moral identity (internalization and symbolization) and academic counterproductive behavior.

    Research Questions

    1. Can moral identity (internalization and symbolization) directly predict academic counterproductive behavior? 2. Can moral identity (internalization and symbolization) directly predict moral disengagement? 3. Can moral disengagement directly predict academic counterproductive behavior? 4. Does Moral disengagement play a mediating role in the relationship between moral identity and academic counterproductive behavior?

    Methods

    The study enjoyed a A correlational research design was used in this research, with m. Moral identity internalization and symbolization were being the predictor variables and a. Academic counterproductive behavior was being the criterion variable. Moral disengagement mechanisms were the mediator variables. The statistical population consisted of all students of technical and professional schools of in Shiraz city. The participants were 220 students (110 females, 110 male) who were selected by through cCluster sampling method. Moral disengagement mechanisms were measured by Moral Disengagement Scale (Bandura, 1995). Academic counterproductive behavior was measured by Academic Counterproductive Behavior Scale (Rimkus, 2012) and mMoral identity and its components were measured by via Self-Iimportance of Moral Identity Scale (Aquino & Reed, 2002). The rReliability and validity of instruments were justifiedconfirmed. The data was analyzed using Data analyzed by AMOS software.

    Results

    The results of the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) showed that the proposed model has a good fitness with the default model. The fFindings further indicated that moral internalization and symbolization could not directly predict academic counterproductive behavior. Besides, it was found Findings also showed that moral internalization has a negative and significant effect on moral disengagement. = β) -0/52, p= 0/001). According to the findings, moral sSymbolization could not significantly predict moral disengagement. The fFindings further showed suggested that moral disengagement has a positive and significant effect on academic counterproductive behavior (β= 0/61, P= 0/001). The rResult of the bootstrop test, on the other hand, indicated that, moral disengagement has a mediating role in the relationship between moral identity internalization and academic counterproductive behavior. The research causal model could explain 36 percent of the counterproductive behavior variance.

    Discussion and Conclusion

    The goal of this study was to investigate the mediating role of moral disengagement in the relationship between moral identity and academic counterproductive behavior. According to the study findings, moral identity did not have a direct effect on academic counterproductive behavior. Moral identity internalization could negatively predict moral disengagement. On the other hand, moral identity symbolization couldn’t significantly predict moral disengagement. Besides, moral disengagement had a positive effect on academic counterproductive behavior. The results of the bootstrap test showed that moral identity internalization, by decreasing moral disengagement, could lead to a decrease in academic counterproductive behaviors among students. Overall, the results of the present research provided evidence for the mediating role of moral disengagement in the relationship between moral identity and the students’ academic counterproductive behavior. This finding is consistent with the results of the studies that point to the moderating role of moral disengagement (Kavussanio, & Ring, 2017, Moore, 2015, Farnese, Tremontano, Fida, & Paciello, 2011, Hyde, Shaw, & Moilanen, 2010). Moral disengagement mechanisms separate the individuals' internal standards from the interpretation of their behavior and neutralize them, thereby enabling individuals to set aside their moral standards (Moore, 2015). The results of this study contribute to the explication of the available information about the factors involved in the relationship between academic counterproductive behavior, moral identity and moral disengagement.

    Keywords: academic counterproductive behavior, moral disengagement, moral identity
  • Moslem amiri*, Javad mesrabadi Pages 45-69
    Introduction

    Self-efficacy, discussed in the field of positive psychology, is one of the most important components in success and compromise. It originated from Albert Bandura's cognitive-social theory. According to this theory, humans are active organisms that can regulate their behavior and can control events by their behavior (Bandura, 2000). Bandura defines self-efficacy as the individual's assessment of their ability to complete a set of acts for achieving goals (Zajakova and Lynch, 2005). Emotional intelligence is one of the most important emotional factors in individuals that can be important in their self-efficacy perception. The term was first introduced by Salovey and Mayer in 1997, and refers to a form of social intelligence that focuses on the individual’s ability to control their own and others’ emotions, and to distinguish between the two and to use this information to guide their thought and actions (Salovey and Mayer, 2002). Emotional intelligence involves at least five main skills which include self-awareness, self-control, self-motivation, social consciousness, and social skills. There is a lot of research about the interrelationship between self-efficacy and emotional intelligence on individual and social success in lifespan. For example, emotional intelligence has been shown to result in self-excitability, stability in failure situations, impulses control, the ability to work with insistence and hope (Nouri Samarin, 1395). Recently, a lot of research has been conducted on the relationship between the various components of emotional intelligence and self-efficacy. The results, however, have not been consistant. Given the expansion of research on the relationship between emotional intelligence and self-efficacy, it is necessary to summarize their results to solve the contradictions in the findings and to reach the overall conclusion about this relationship. One of the precise methods of aggregating the quantitative results is the meta-analysis method. Considering the theoretical and empirical bases, the purpose of this research is to perform a meta-analysis of the research on the relationship between emotional intelligence and its five components and the individual’s self-efficacy.

    Method

    The present study conducted a Meta analysis of the previous studies on the relationship between emotional intelligence and self-efficacy. This involved converting the quantitative results of the previous studies on the issue into a common scale and then re-analyzing the quantitative data from these studies with specific statistical methods. The most common method for combining numerical results is the effect size, which shows the results of each research and the relationship value between two variables as a standard score (z). The effect size is an indicator of the intensity of the effect, the intervention, or the difference between groups. In general, there are two major effect size families: the group r and group d. The r group effect sizes are used in correlational research and the d group effect sizes are used when the researcher examines the differences. Bearing in mind that the present study conducted a Meta analysis of the correlational researcch on self efficacy and emotional intelligence, the r-group and Pearson correlation coefficient was used as a measure of the effect size.

    Results

    The results of the stuy showed that emotional intelligence and its components had a significant effect on the individual's self-efficacy and based on cohen's criterion, the effect size of this relationship was found to be moderate (ES=0/34). In the study of the impact of the moderating variables on emotional intelligence components, the primary research population, and the primary research sample size showed a significant relationship between the independent and dependent variables. In summary, based on this metaanalysis results, it can be concluded that emotional intelligence training can have a significant effect on people's self-efficacy.

    Discussion and Conclusion

    This meta-analysis was conducted with the aim of combining the studies done on the relationship of emotional intelligence and its components with self-efficacy in Iran. Based on the criteria for the inclusion or exclusion of the studies in the analysis, 22 were selected. Of these studies, 54 effects were obtained and after sensitivity analysis, 50 effect sizes remained in the analysis. Based on the random-effects model, the overall effect size for the stated relationship was (E=0.34), which is moderate according to Cohen's criterion. This implies that people with high emotional intelligence have more effective power in dealing with stressful events because they can understand, assess, and control their emotions more precisely and they can develop their mood to manage more efficiently and to prevent self-efficacy in difficult circumstances. Hence, the finding highlights the importance of educating the individuals to be emotionally intelligent so as to enhance their self-efficacy. Moreover, according to Cohen (1977), the sum of the effect sizes of the relationship between the components of emotional intelligence (except for self-motivation) and self-efficacy was found to be moderate. This indicates that emotional intelligence and its components, except of self-motivation, can predict self-efficacy, thus highlighting the need to train individuals to be emotionally intelligent so as to promote their self-efficacy. Nevertheless, the sum of self-motivation effect sizes was significant and very low (0.08). The reason may be that even though self-motivation can, through individual perseverance, lead to success and can strengthen self-efficacy, the idealism and insistence on things beyond the power of individuals leads to failure and ultimately undermines their self-efficacy. According to the results of this meta-analysis, emotional intelligence training could positively and meaningfully promote the self-efficacy of all social groups; therefore, it is suggested that the educational programs put into action the existing packages on emotional intelligence.

    Keywords: emotional intelligence, emotional intelligence components, meta-analysis, self-efficacy
  • Shekoofeh Rahimpour, Mozhgan Arefi*, Gholamreza Manshaii Pages 70-91
    Introduction

    Positive Psychology is the scientific study of human flourishing, and an applied approach to optimal functioning. It has also been defined as the study of the strengths and virtues that enable individuals, communities and organisations to thrive (Gable & Haidt, 2005, Sheldon & King, 2001). Flow and grit are the key concepts underpinning positive psychology. Seligman (2011) insists on engagement, for instance, by regularly entering into a state of flow (Csikszentmihalyi & LeFevre, 1989), and seeking and realizing achievement (Geller & Wiegand, 2005). Csikszentmihalyi (1990) characterizes flow as a state of optimal experience. The most important features of flow are effortless attention, absence of time awareness, and absence of emotion. Seemingly contradictory, Duckworth, Peterson, Matthews, and Kelly (2007) suggest that grit, characterized as passion and persistence for long-term goals and the associated exercise of self-control (Duckworth & Seligman, 2005), are key predictors of sustainable achievement. Mindfulness is another significant factor for human self flourishing. It has been defined as the state in which one attends to their internal and external surrounding purposfully, at the moment, and non-judgmentally (Kabat-Zinn, 1994). Universal interventions that incorporate contemplative practices, like yoga and mindfulness, have resulted in positive outcomes, such as increasing emotion regulation (Rashedi, Weakley, Malhi, kunakorn & Sheldon 2019). Flow and mindfulness share a number of defining characteristics. Flow can perhaps best be described as an optimal psychological state of peak performance that can occur when there is a balance between perceived challenges and skills (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990). Although there are studies considering the correlation between, for instance, mindfulness education and flow or mindfulness education and grit, there is no research investigating the impact of mindfulness education on both flow and grit. This study is an investigation to answer the following research questions: Research Questions: - Does mindfulness education of high school female students have any impact on flow? - Does mindfulness education of high school female students have any impact on grit?

    Method

    This is an experimental research, using a pre-test-post-test approach with control group design. The statistical population included all high school female students in Abarkouh, Extended Abstracts of the Persian Articles in English and the participants were 30 students recruited through multi-cluster sampling method. Using simple randomized method, they were divided into two experimental and control groups. To collect data, the short forms of flow and grit scale questionnaires were used as the pre-test in both groups. Then, the mindfulness education, as the independent variable (intervention), was conducted only in the experimental group in 10 sessions of 90 minutes each; the control group did not receive any instruction. At the end of instruction, the questionnaires were administered again in both groups as post-tests. Data were analysed by covariance analysis.

    Results

    The results showed that the mindfulness education instruction has a positive and meaningful impact on the flow and grit of female students.

    Discussion

    The findings showed that the mindfulness education has an impact on flow. This finding is in agreement with those of Kee and Wang (2008), Aherne, Moran & Lonsdale (2011), Bervoets (2013), Bernier, Thienot, Pelosse, and Fournier (2014) and of Zhang, Duan, Keatley, and Chan (2016). In fact, flow and mindfulness share many features, including non-judgemental, non-self-conscious, moment-to-moment awareness, and concentration on the task (Gardner & Moore, 2007). Increasing mindfulness, flow and psychological flexibility has implications for the students’experience while studying. The finding of the present study also showed that mindfulness education had a statistically significant effect on the grit of female students. This finding is in agreement with those of Hochanadel and Finamore (2015), Raphiphatthana and Phatthanakit (2019). Mindfulness is hypothesized to have an impact on several psychological skills, such as arousal regulation, attentional skills, volitional skills, personal development, and life skills (Birrer & Morgan, 2010). Finally, mindfulness education may be beneficial in encouraging people to succeed, and have meaningful, pleasurable, and engaging lives, while also reaching their goals, becoming successful, and flourishing. It is recommended that this research be conducted in other academic levels, including university levels, on males, and in other cities. It is also recommended that mindfulness education be conducted for teachers and students.

    Keywords: mindfulness education, positive psychology, flow, grit
  • Marziyeh Sadeghzadeh*, Leila Shameli, Farhad Khormaee Pages 92-107
    Introduction

    Patience has been strongly recommended in religious texts as a moral virtue and as a coping strategy. Patience, of course, has been psychologically described as a completely natural tendency to help one stay calm in the face of suffering and thus can be one of the most powerful personal resources (Schnitker, 2012). Past research has correlated patience with a wide range of positive psychological outcomes in different groups and has even reported a correlation between mothers' patience and their children’s positive psychological outcomes (e.g., Zare & Farmani, 2017; Khormaee et al, 2016; Khormaee et al, 2014). However, it remains unclear how psychological mechanisms or mediators can link patience to different psychological outcomes. In particular, the mediating variables in the relationship between parental patience - especially mother’s - and the different psychological consequences of children have not been studied yet. Of course, parenting stress, which refers to some kind of discrepancy between parenting needs and individual parenting resources (Essex et al, 2002), has always been introduced as a significant mediator between the parents’ mental statuses and the developmental consequences or behavioral problems of their child (Fredrikson et al, 2019). In fact, the amount of parenting stress demonstrates the extent to which the parent has tolerated or managed the parenting experience based on his or her own resources (Deater-Deckard, Li & Bell, 2016). However, despite repeated research showing the impact of parenting stress on children's behavioral problems, as well as studies showing the correlation between patience and various psychological outcomes, there has been no research to investigate the relationship between maternal patience and child behavioral problems, most specifically, through an examination of the mediating role of parenting stress. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate a model in which maternal parenting stress is introduced as a mediating variable in the structural relationship between maternal patience and child aggression.

    Hypothesis

    The patience of the mother through parenting stress can predict the child's aggression.

    Methods

    The present research is descriptive (non-experimental) and the research design is a correlation model. The statistical population consisted of all the mothers of preschool children in the city of Kazerun. A sample of 200 mothers was selected from the cluster sampling method. To this end, five preschools were randomly selected and then from each center, two classes were randomly selected and all the mothers of the children in those classes were evaluated. However, after deleting questionnaires that were flawed, a final sample of 193 mothers was formed. The software used in this study was SPSS 22 Extended Abstracts of the Persian Articles in English and AMOS 22. The research tools consisted of Adult Patience Scale (APS), a short form of Parenting Stress Index (PSI) and Child Adaptive Behavior Inventory (CABI).

    Results

    To determine the share of components of patience in predicting the child's aggression score and the mediating role of parenting stress, the statistical method of path analysis with structural equation modeling was used. The result showed that mother’s reflection is the only variable that directly leads to a negative and significant prediction of the child's aggression. However, maternal perseverance appeared as the only component to significantly predict maternal stress, and its impact was found to be negative. Parenting stress, in turn, positively and significantly impacted the prediction of child aggression.

    Discussion and Conclusion

    Research findings showed that of the various components related to maternal patience, the mother’s delayed gratification and perseverance were the only predictors of the child's aggression score; while both variables had a negative impact on the dependent variable, the effect of the former was direct but the latter indirectly affected child aggression score through the mediation of parental stress. This finding is consistent with those of other studies, including Izadi Taame et al. (2009) and Khormaee et al. (2014). In order to justify this, one may consider the component of perseverance. Perseverance is a part of patience that returns to the person standing over time and not leaving the subject or position behind him. With Khormaee et al. (2014) showing a strong correlation between perseverance and hope for the future, it can be argued that the mother's perseverance made her hopeful to continue upbringing her child in spite of all parental problems and the child’s improper behavior. The study findings further indicated that the component delayed gratification directly predicts the child's aggression, negatively and significantly. In explaining this finding, one can also refer to the definition of the variable, which, refers to a kind of ability to delay the response. People with the ability to delay gratification, by recognizing their immediate and harmful emotions, endure the failures or discomforts arising from interpersonal relationships; In other words, such people by delaying their immediate responses at the time of aggression, try to find a more constructive solution to the problem. Accordingly, the direct impact of this feature of mothers on their children’s aggression can be justified in terms of the children modeling this behavior of their mothers in delaying their immediate responses to challenging situations.

    Keywords: Patience, Parenting Stress, Aggression, Mother
  • Shilan Kameli, Farideh Yousefi* Pages 108-127
    Introduction

    Subjective vitality refers to the state of having the mental and physical energy necessary to experience a sense of enthusiasm and liveliness. It originates from such positive emotions as freedom, autonomy, self-control, and intrinsic motivation (Ryan & Deci, 2008) and influences the mental and physical aspects of human health as well as their interactions and alertness, thereby determining the overall well-being (Koppe, Harder, & Væver, 2008). Therefore, because subjective vitality, as a positive psychological state, corresponds with a more fruitful social life and fewer psychological problems, (Binyamin & Brender-Ilan, 2018), it is quite significant to identify the factors that contribute to and reinforce this psychological state. In this regard, several researchers have explored the role of individual and social factors as the two main predictors of subjective vitality (Nani, Matsouka, & Antoniou, 2018). Social values are indeed are among the main factors that can have a positive and/or negative effect on the development of personal skills and abilities, one of their positive effects being their impact on subjective vitality. Hence, researchers such as Kurita, Akizawa, & Fukuhara (2018) describe subjective vitality as a mental perception of happiness that people experience and that results from individual and social values. According to Scott, Rowe, and Pollock (2018), cultural values are also related to a fine and happy life, so that adopting correct values can promote vitality. Indeed, it is believed that individualist and collectivist cultural values, influenced by perceived social values, can create a sense of confidence in the individual and thereby set the scene for the promotion of vitality in them. Nevertheless, cultural values of the society are not the only determinants of subjective vitality experienced by the people; it seems that some positive experiences and emotions, in addition to the impact of environmental factors, are influenced by individual differences and factors (Kapraara, Alsandri, Diegoeta, Panier, & Isenberg, 2010). Selfefficacy, for instance, is one of the individual factors that can affect subjective vitality. According to Bandura (1982), self-efficay refers to the individual’s beliefe in their success in special circumstances by changing and amending the existing situations. In this regard, several recent studies (Bandar & Ingram, 2018; Carter, Brin, Yarous, & Bilbi, 2017; Mersardo et al., 2018) have have investigated this construct and have identified different predecessors and outcomes for it, one of which being cultural values. However, little research has explored the relationship between self-efficcy and subjective vitality, and its interaction with cultural values. Nevertheless, with cultural values being one of the determinants of subjective vitality, and the main factors affecting self-efficacy, it is possible that the with a consideration of self-efficacy, the impact of cultural values on subjective vitality not be direct and linear, as some studies suggest. In other words, although cultural values do affect subjective vitality, their impact might be mediated by individual self-efficacy, or the individual’s perception of the influence they can have on their circumstances (Lekes, Houlfort, Milyavskaya, Hope, & Koestner). In sum, due to the causes and antecedents of subjective vitality and the role played by each of these causes, the present study aimed to investigate the mediating role of selfefficacy in the relationship between cultural values and subjective vitality.

    Research Hypothesis

    1. Cultural values are directly related to subjective vitality. 2. Cultural values are directly related to self-efficacy 3. Self-efficacy has a mediating role between cultural values and subjective vitality.

    Methods

    A correlational research design was used to test the research hypotheses. Participants were 448 students at Shiraz University (174 men and 274 women) who were selected via random multi-stage cluster sampling method. The data was collected, administering three questionnaires including subjective vitality, task value scale, self-efficacy, and horizontal, vertical individualism and collectivism questionnaires. The proposed model was tested using structural equation modeling in AMOS software.

    Results

    The findings indicated that the proposed model fit the data properly. Better fit and more meaningful results were obtained by eliminating one insignificant path. The results indicated that the influence of individualist and collectivist values on subjective vitality was significantly positive. On the other hand, the effect of individualism on self-efficacy was significantly positive. Similarly, the influence of self-efficacy on subjective vitality was significantly positive. The results further suggested that individualism, mediating selfefficacy, indirectly predicted subjective vitality.

    Discussion and Conclusion

    Direct hypothesis examination indicated that cultural values could significantly predict subjective vitality. In this respect, Ryan and Frederick (1997) argue that subjective vitality is affected by environmental factors. In environmental factors domain, cultural values are a path that affects individuals' beliefs, values, vitality and liveliness. Based on research findings, individualism could significantly predict self-efficacy. Societies with individualist norms emphasize self-reliance and self-sufficiency, and such norms influence their members’ self-construal and guide their behavior. People from individualist societies tend to view the self as unique, bounded, and independent of other people; therefore, success and self-efficacy are endorsed and encouraged in individualist cultures. Moreover, self-efficacy could significantly predict subjective vitality. According to Bandura, selfefficacy plays an effective role in human accomplishment and subjective vitality as part of well-being. The examination of the indirect hypothesis in the study indicated that individualism with the mediation of self-efficacy could predict subjective vitality. The results of this research provide insights for students, families, higher education centers, and all those involved in educational policy. The results of this study show the importance of cultural values in influencing the students' self-efficacy and subjective vitality, which can be considered as a practical and theoretical point of view. The results of this study show that, by emphasizing the individualistic values, students will have a stronger sense of self-efficacy, which can lead to their increased subjective vitality.

    Keywords: cultural values, self-efficacy, subjective vitality
  • Kokab khalili Pachie*, Siavash Talepasand, Farahnaz Kianersi Pages 128-145
    Introduction

    Children learn languages in their early years of life and can effectively communicate with people around them. Given the complexities of today's societies and the movement of societies towards globalization, the need is felt for a common language to make possible the transmission of concepts and messages. From the various existing languages, English is considered an international language, which people of different ages are trying to acquire. There are different instructional methods for teaching English vocabulary (Badeley, 1990). The aim of the present study was to examine the role of pictures and gestures as nonverbal aids in facilitating the preschoolers' learning of the vocabulary of a novel language. Research questions: Q1: Is there any significant difference in the preschoolers’ recall and comprehension of new words when presented under the following conditions: the word alone, the word with pictures, and the word with a gesture? Q2: Is there any significant difference between female and male preschoolers in their recall and comprehension of English words when presented under the following conditions: the word alone, the word with pictures, and the word with a gesture?

    Methods

    The present study was conducted through a one - shot design. Sixty 4 to 6- year-old preschool children (30 females, 30 males), selected through the available sampling method from the kindergartens of region 6 in Tehran, consisted the participants of the study. Before the implementation of the main research phase, a pilot study was conducted. In this study, the students’ range of vocabulary was examined and six words that were not taught before were selected. The words included "sunflower", "tongue", "gum", "Rug", "scissors" and "Fig". Six objects per word were shown to the children and they were asked to identify those objects. The child was introduced to a puppet named "Max" and was told that Max comes from a different country and speaks a language different, and thus gives objects different names as they do. Three words were taught under three learning conditions, the words presented along with pictures, along with a gesture, or alone. The word "sunflower" was taught along with the picture; the word "tongue" was taught along with the gesture and the word "gum" was presented alone. The participants were then tested for their recall and comprehension of the new words using a Recall Test and a Comprehension Test. Of course, the words were tested in a different order from the one in which they were taught to make sure they had learned the words, rather than their order. After the first series of vocabulary was taught and tested, they were reviewed again in the same order and manner as they were taught. Following that, in the second phase of the study, three different words were taught in the stated ways, i.e. with a picture, with a gesture, and alone. The words were then tested and reviewed in the same manner as they were in Phase 1. One week after the training, a follow up was used to examine the students’ recall and comprehension of the six new words. Accordingly, a repeated measures design was used to analyze the data, with the learners’ comprehension and recall scores functioning as the dependent variables and the three different instructional approaches being considered as the independent variables.

    Results

    The results suggested a significant effect for the way words are presented (i.e. with a picture, with a gesture, and alone) (ŋ2 = 0.37) and comprehension of words (ŋ2 = 0.18). Nevertheless, no significant difference was found between males and females in their recall and comprehension of the words presented in the stated ways. Overall, the participants demonstrated a better comprehension and recall of the words presented with picture and gesture, as compared to those that were presented without any of these teaching/learning assets. However, comparing these two teaching/learning assets (i.e. picture and gesture), the learners showed a better comprehension and recall of the words presented with gesture, as compared to those presented with a picture. The same results were observed for their performance on the follow-up Comprehension Test.

    Discussion and Conclusion

    Based on the results, it can be argued that nonverbal aids are effective in increasing learning. The stability of learning using gesture is higher than the other two teaching/learning approaches, namely using pictures and no nonverbal aids. Therefore, the use of gesture to teach is an important method for increasing the learners’ long-time learning. It is an effective way to recall and understand words. Practical implications of findings were discussed.

    Keywords: Recall, Comprehension, Gesture, Picture, Word
  • Mehdi Rahimi*, Mahdieh Arayi, Maryam Zare Pages 146-162
    Introduction

    Social skills are the skills we use every day to interact and communicate with others. They include verbal and non-verbal communication, such as speech, gesture, facial expression and body language. Social skills are vital for a person's social development, and for forming social relationships. They also determine the quality of social interactions, as well as the individual’s social adjustment and mental health. Research showed that any insufficiency in social skills may lead to poor academic performance, learning, adjustment and behavioral problems (Parker and Asher, 1993), misunderstanding other's goals and intentions and challenges in emotion regulation (Chang et al., 2007). Behavioral problems involve a pattern of disruptive behaviors in children that cause problems in school, at home and in social situations. Nowadays, most families concentrate on their children entering universities, but they may neglect vital constructs such as mental health or social adjustment for their children. One useful method for transferring concepts to children and helping them in facing challenges and solving conflicts in interpersonal relationships is the purposeful use of storytelling or bibliotherapy. Bibliotherapy involves storytelling or the reading of specific texts with the purpose of healing. It uses an individual's relationship to the content of books and poetry and other written words as therapy. Bibliotherapy can be used for helping children deal with various problems of childhood, as well as for preventing personal troubles from becoming problems that interfere with social functioning (Pardeck and Pardeck, 1988). Bibliotherapy can be clinical, institutional or developmental. Developmental bibliotherapy takes place in classroom contexts and involves the use of books to help a person solve life dilemmas and problems in non-clinical settings. The aim of this type of bibliotherapy is natural development and growth, as well as self-actualization and maintaining mental health in stressful situations (Afolayan, 1992). In developmental bibliotherapeutic approach, the child reads about others who have solved similar problems, and with the support of the helping person, gains insight about the alternative solutions they can work out. Moreover, through books, a child can see how others have encountered anxieties and frustrations, hopes and disappointments, failures and successes, and can then apply such insights to real-life situations. Bibliotherapy can also be a tool for avoiding predicaments (Pardeck & Pardeck, 1987). Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of developmental bibliotherapy on students' social skills and behavioral problems.

    Hypotheses

    1. Developmental bibliotherapy increases the students' social skills in all its dimensions (i.e. cooperation, assertion and self-control). 2. Developmental bibliotherapy decreases the various aspects of the students' behavioral problems (i.e. externalizing problems, internalizing problems and hyperactivity).

    Method

    This study had a quasi-experimental design (pretest-posttest with control group). The statistical population of the study included all third grade Yazd female students. The sample group included 40 students who were selected through cluster sampling method and were assigned to the experimental and control group randomly. The bibliotherapy training package included 4 phases (preparation, pre-reading activities, reading and post-reading activities) and was performed in 12 one-hour sessions, one session per week. To measure the dependent variables, the teacher form of Social Skills Rating System (SSRS) (Gresham & Elliot, 1990) was used. Pretest and posttest were administered, and the repeated measure analysis was used to examine the research hypotheses.

    Results

    The results of repeated measure analysis corroborated the hypothesis regarding the positive impact of developmental bibliotherapy on the various aspects of social skills; that is, cooperation, assertion and self-control. The results further confirmed the research hypothesis about the reduction of behavioral problems as a result of bibliotherapy. Nevertheless, this reduction was observed merely in one aspect of social problems, namely the problem of externalizing problems); no significant effect was observed on other social problems considered in the study, including internalizing problems and hyperactivity.

    Discussion and conclusion

    The results of the study showed a significant effect for developmental bibliotherapy on social skills. This implies that the use of age-appropriate stories, free discussions of their contents, and the mental review of them in the needed situations can empower the child to overcome egocentrism, find the right perception of the problem and modify their behavior. Bibliotherapy is an indirect instructional method in which the child reconstructs his/her schemas, relationships, and behaviors. Children in post-reading activities learn the importance of cooperation, helping and help seeking. Besides, according to Bandura’s social learning theory, vicarious reinforcement and punishment can motivate the children to adopt more appropriate and sociable behaviors. This can explain the positive effect observed in the present study for developmental bibliotherapy on the various dimensions of social skills (i.e. cooperation, assertion and self-Control) too. The study findings further suggested a significant effect for developmental bibliotherapy to have on behavioral problems. Among the various dimensions of behavioral problems, the one related to externalizing problems was affected significantly by developmental bibliotherapy, but the other aspects concerning internalizing problems and hyperactivity were not changed. Externalizing behaviors are problematic behaviors that are directed toward the external environment. They include physical aggression, disobeying rules, cheating, stealing, and destruction of property. In bibliotherapy process, children can follow the stories about behavioral problems and their consequences in the third person view and find solutions for their expressive and physical aggression. They learn through this process that hands are not for hitting, and words are not for annoying. In conclusion, the study found the positive effects for developmental bibliotherapy. Therefore, it is suggested that this kind of instruction be used by the teachers. On the other hand, it is recommended for the future research to explore the impact of bibliotherapy when the students read books by themselves to see whether the same findings are obtained. Researchers can further consider other consequences of developmental bibliotherapy and can focus other target groups.

    Keywords: developmental bibliotherapy, social skills, behavioral problems
  • Mehdi Mohammadi*, Omid Solymani balavi, Jafar Jahani, Maryam Shafiei Sarvestan, Farhad Daryanoosh Pages 163-182
    Introducation

    Physical education in education is always considered to be a platform where learners develop their experiences and practice skills in various sports and physical activities. In recent decades, several methods aimed at countering decontextualised training, have suggested an integrated tactical approach to coaching. The Teaching Games for Understanding (TGFU; Bunker & Thorpe, 1982), Tactical Games (Griffin, Mitchell and Oslin, 1997), Play Practice (Launder, 2001), Tactical-Decision Learning Model (Gréhaigne, Richard, Griffin, 2005), Game Sense (Light, 2013; Zuccolo, Spittle & Pill, 2014), Games Concept Approach (GCA) (Rossi, Fry, McNeill & Tan, 2007), the GAG method, which stands for Global-Analytical-Global (Bonfanti & Pereni, 1998; Csabai et al., n.d.; “The Grassroots Soccer Session,” n.d.) and Tactical Periodization (Mendonça, 2013) are all methods intended to promote the athletes’ learning through games (tactics) within a constructivist learner-centred, inquiry-based approach (Light, 2013). The TGfU model of Bunker and Thorpe (1982), rather than being technique-centered, was intended to be grounded in a performance and learner context. Therefore, there needed to be acknowledgement of the learner's stage of learning and an emphasis on the tactics and games within the performance context. These elements provided a stark contrast to the traditional methodologies that focused solely on technique acquisition without considering the three elements of learner, context and content. Exploring how useful this developed process can be for PE teachers who engage in TGfU, Game Sense and other game-based approaches, may also be an area of research that can be explored. The purpose of this research was to investigate the impact of the "teaching games for understanding (TGFU)" approach on the athletic performance of the freshman highschool students.

    Research Question

    Is there a significance difference between traditional and TGFU approach groups in athletic skills?

    Methods

    This was a quasi-experimental research with pretest-posttest and control group design. The statistical population of the study encompassed all freshman high-school students in Oromyeh city. Two classes from two typical secondary schools were selected and randomly assigned to experiment and control groups. The instrument used in the study included the Football performance test and an observation form (Mitchell, Griffin, & Oslin, 1995). After the reliability and validity of the data was verified, covariance test was used to analyze the data.

    Results

    In the findings of the study, prior to the implementation of the TGFU approach, no significant difference was observed in the athletic performance of experimental and control groups. However, after the experimental and control groups were, correspondingly, trained through the TGFU and traditional approaches, the former demonstrated a significantly better performance as compared to the latter that received traditional training.

    Discussion and Conclusion

    Based on the results, it can can be argued that due to its emphasis on learner-centered values, TGFU is an educational model that enables teachers, students, parents, and managers to promote general education and change the ability of children through sport education. Discussion within the paper also focused on the importance of teachers and coaches recognizing the different theoretical perspectives that underpin the use of TGFU and traditional approach as this knowledge can foster the professional development of teachers and coaches and improve the fidelity of the pedagogical approaches implemented. Future research could compare other game-based approaches to provide further inshight into them.

    Keywords: TGFU, athletic skills, physical education, students, secondary course
  • Zaeimeh Nematollahi, Habibollah Ranaei, kordsholi*, Moslem Alimohamadloo, Ghasem Salimi Pages 183-217
    Introduction

    One of the solutions offered by researchers to respond to changes and adapt to new conditions and challenges facing universities is to move towards a third generation university model. As Gagnides (2016) stated, the 3rd generation university is very successful for today's environment and the expansion of these universities can improve innovation at national level and thus improve the economic conditions of the country. In Iran, in order to respond to changes and adapt to new challenges and conditions in the field of higher education, attention has been paid to the subject of third generation universities and efforts have been made to address this issue. For example, according to articles 48 and 21 of the Fourth Economic, Social and Cultural Development Plan of the Islamic Republic of Iran, which emphasize the development of entrepreneurship to increase the efficiency of university students and graduates, the Code of Entrepreneurship Development Plan, referred to as KARD, has been compiled and implemented in all the universities of the country (Country Code of Entrepreneurship Development Plan, 2006). Given the aforementioned and the need to move on to the third-generation university, it is first essential to specify what it takes to establish a third-generation university so that it will be possible to make the necessary planning for it. The most distinguishing characteristic of a third-generation university is its concern not only with the educational, but also with economic and social issues as well. Therefore, the present study aimed to extract from the literature the economic and social requirements of third-generation universities, and thereby to better make known this generation of universities.

    Research Questions or Hypothesis

    - The main question this study aims to answer is: - What are the prerequisites of the third generation university?

    Methods

    The required information for this study was collected through a systematic review of the literature using both qualitative content analysis and MaxQDA software for quantitative content analysis. The Scopus database was used as one of the top two databases to extract the required research and 150 studies were reviewed considering the relevance of the research to the subject under investigation.

    Results

    Based on the studies reviewed, the prerequisites of a third-generation university could be divided into twenty-one dimensions, which include: - Market-oriented governance - Attracting and developing innovative, entrepreneurial and community-driven executives - Strategic communication with multiple stakeholders - Paying attention to the third generation issues in the strategic orientation of the university - Attracting and developing innovative, entrepreneurial and community-driven human resources - using new information and communication technologies - Sustainable and diverse financial management - Risk Management for third-generation universities - Evaluation management and quality assurance of the third-generation university - Knowledge management - Achieving a dynamic structure - Aligning education with the requirements of the third-generation university - Aligning research with the requirements of the third-generation university - Innovation management - Creating knowledge companies - Intellectual property management - Internationalization of the university - Playing a role in the economy of the region and of the country - Playing a role in social development - Sustainable management of the internal operations in the university - Culture entrepreneurship and sustainability

    Discussion and Conclusion

    The results of the study, specifying the prerequisites to the development of a thirdgeneration university, provide a framework for evaluating both the activities carried out to arrive at a third-generation university and the guidlines proposed by policy-makers and administrators, thereby paving the way for the expansion of third-generation universities. Accordingly, the policy makers and university administrators, seeking to derive benefits from the establishment of a third-generation university, are recommended to use the guidlines extracted from the literature in the current investigation. The results of the study, indeed, can guide them to the right things to do and the appropriate strategies to adopt appropriate strategies to make the development of the third-generation university a possibility. Obviously, if universities decide to move towards the creation of a third Generation University and the re-create the university, the designers are recommended to apply the above guidelines in vision, mission, strategy, organizational values, organizational structure, academic leadership, organizational processes and systems, as well as in the organizational culture, and in other university management systems. Future research, therefore, can consider the implementation of these guidelines in Iranian universities and explore the social and cultural constraints that might impede their implementation, thus specifying the directions that shoud be taken.

    Keywords: third generation university, Entrepreneur University, sustainable university, capabilities, systematic literature review
  • Farhad Ahmadiasl, Sakineh Shahi*, Yadullah mehralizadeh, Maghsoud Farasatkhah Pages 218-238
    Introduction

    Researchers and policy makers are challenged to develop effective learning systems that support lifelong learning. Throughout the learning process, human experiences create knowledge and transform it into skills, attitudes, values, emotions, and beliefs (Jarvis, 2001). Learning can result from formal, non-formal or informal interactions (Chris Duke & Hinzen, 2010). Because learning occurs every day and during every period of life (Lena & Liv, 2006), finding appropriate nomenclature for how, where, and why people learn has spawned many new phrases in the literature including life-long, life-wide, and lifedeep learning (Bell, 2012). According to a recently released international report through a partnership with the Pearson Learning Company and Jobs for the Future (JFF) (Deegan & Martin, 2018), the world is facing a crisis due to a growing disconnection between higher education and the skills needed for work. In their words, “we are on the cusp of a new wave of postsecondary education reform” (p. 6). Clearly, the future demands a more dynamic, flexible, and equitable educational structure that acknowledges the necessity of teaching specific skills while at the same time recognizing that the skills of today will become obsolete in the future thus requiring learners to adapt to a lifetime of learning. Over time, the concept of the “ideal university” went through phases, sought different identities and nomenclatures such as “entrepreneurial” (Clark, 1998), “successful” (Shattock, 2010), “enterprising” (Marginson & Considine, 2000), “innovative” (Burton Clark), “adaptive” (Sporn, 1999), and “University of Learning” (Bowden & Marton, 2003). Studies of organizations have introduced theories such as Complexity, Chaos and Quantum to explain the dynamically complex milieu in an unpredictable world. These theories lead us to an uncertain future (McDaniel & Walls, 1997). Chaos Theory in organizational development describes educational systems as unclear and chaotic (Murphy, 1996) and existing in a dynamic environment. This system scans and senses the external environment and then makes internal adjustments and developments in order to meet the demands of the changing external environment (Morrison, 2008). Consequently, higher education needs other models of universities that are based on more flexible structures. Higher education has a “business side” (the domain of building, supplies and finance) and an “academic side” (the domain of teaching and research) (Clark, 1986). Responding to subsequent changes in higher education missions, changes in the educational environment and the shifting needs cause higher education to be different from the way it is today and there will be mass adoption of learning styles and methods in universities and colleges (J. Q. Anderson, Boyles, & Rainie, 2012; Lacková & Karkalíková, 2011). Therefore, lifelong learning must be seen as a never-ending quest for learning better ways of living with each other and thus should be the final goal of learning in educational systems. There are different goals in formal, non-formal and informal learning all over world. Based on these differentiations, the universities play different roles in different societies, so there is no unique model for all universities around the

    Research Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the desirable structural components of a higher education system so as to pave the way towards the expansion of lifelong learning.

    Method

    The study was a phenomenological research that collected data by carrying out semistructured in-depth interviews with 16 experts in the field of education. Using Moustakas's structured method of inductive data analysis, the interviews were inductively coded and analyzed. The reliability of the interviews was verified through credibility, transferability measures.

    Results

    Given the broadness of the issue under investigation in the study, the results were divided into two main categories: a) those pertaining to the identification of the life-long learning criteria, and 2) specification of a desirable university structure that can contribute to life-long learning. Concerning the first category, the results of the study revealed four main thematic clusters, and 32 themes for life-long learning. On the other hand, regarding the second category, the results of the study provided three major thematic clusters, 11 subsidiary thematic clusters, and 38 themes for a desirable university structure than can contribute to life-long learning.

    Discussion and Conclusion

    Lifelong learning components were categorized into four pillars: learning to learn, learning to do, learning to live together, and learning to be. Formal structure, informal structure and invisible structure were the effective factors identified for a desirable university structure. Formal structure involves formalization, complexity and centralization; informal structure, on the other hand, encompasses informal relationships, trust-based relationships, externally-oriented interactive relationships, and emotionally inclusive relationships. The invisible structure of the university is formed around the political, social, behavioral and scientific axes. Higher education is facing massive pressure from dynamically complex milieus. Technological change, globalization, economic and social change, and virtual reality are changing the shape of higher education. Regarding the international reports, there is growing disconnection between higher education and the skills needed for work and life as a whole. Lifelong learning focuses on the individual’s demands in his/her life and career and encompasses learner needs in lifetime. Therefore, learning to learn, learning to do, learning to be and learning to live together could solve our current challenges and problems in the world. Change in the environment is inevitable, constant and dynamic. In order to retain vibrancy, organizations must not only acknowledge the need for change but also be willing and able to exchange outdated inefficient structures for more robust adaptable alternatives.

    Keywords: lifelong learning, formal, informal, invisible structure, university
  • Hadi Ghanbari*, Nahid Shetabbushehri, Parvaneh Shafiniya, Yadollah Mehralizadeh Pages 239-257
    Introduction

    Physical education is an important part of education that helps human development in all aspects through physical activity and movement and it can boost talent. Moreover, as a social phenomenon, due to the diversity of its functions, it has reciprocal effects on other social phenomena. Therefore, the development of physical education and sport is a way to deal with the problem of inactivity and complications and to provide the basis for providing a healthy manpower, which is part of the National Development Plan. Hence, the expansion of physical education and sports at schools is one of the most important measures taken to develope other sports sectors in the country. The purpose of this paper is to design a model for the factors affecting the tendency of elementary school students to do sports in schools in Khuzestan province.

    Research Questions

    1. Which factors influence on the tendency of primary school students to exercise at schools in Khuzestan province? 2. What is the relationship among the factors affecting the tendency of primary school students to exercise in schools in Khuzestan province? 3. How is that the model of factors influencing the tendency of primary school students to exercise in schools in Khuzestan province? 4. Is the model extracted from the research valid?

    Methodology

    For this purpose, the researchers referred to experts in the field of student sports in Khuzestan province and began to collect information from them through in-depth interviews. They then coded and analyzed data from twenty-five of the interviews using grounded theory. Following that, based on the codes and the criteria identified in the analysis of the interviews, a questionnaire was designed and distributed among the 280 school sports specialists participating in the study. Finally, the collected data was analyzed using spss and Smart PLS software and the research model was extracted and validated.

    Results

    The results of the code classification showed 54 components at three main levels: background level, organizational level, and behavioral level. The background level has two main sub-themes: community and environment; the organizational level has two main sub-categories: the school and teacher of physical education and two sub-branches were identified at the behavioral level: individual factors and family. According to the model that emerged from the research, it could be said that respectively, teacher of physical education, personal factors, family, environment, community and school, had the greatest effect on the elementary students' tendency to do sports. The community variable, in addition to the direct impact on the students’ tendency to so sports, had a significant impact on other variables, including the individual factors, as well as the school, family and teacher of physical education. The environment, on the other hand, besides its direct impact on elementary students' tendency to play sports, had a significant effect on the family, school and the individual factors. The family variable, in addition to its direct impact on elementary students' tendency to play sports, had a significant effect on the variable of individual factors. On the other hand, the school variable, in further to its direct impact on the elementary students' tendency to play sports, had a significant effect on the variable of the teacher of physical education.

    Discussion and Conclusion

    The presented model can be used as the analytical tool for identifying the factors affecting the tendency of elementary schools students to play sports at school in Khuzestan province so that it will be possible to solve the problems of this field reasonably and principally. The model, developed according to the opinion of sports experts in Khuzestan province, can be used to analyze the practice of physical education and sport at schools in Khuzestan province. It can clearly specify the factors affecting the students’ practice of sports in the stated contet and how these factors interact with each other. This model, being special to Khuzestan province, provides an appropriate framework for the future research on this topic, andserve as a base for action to be taken to enhance the students’ engagement in sports and physical education. It is now the job of the policy makers and stakeholders to set policies and design programs related to each of the three components (background, organizational, and behavioral) identified in the proposed framework, to promote physical education and sports at schools. This could ultimately result in the sustainable development of the country.

    Keywords: sports schools, student sport, tendency to sport