فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:18 Issue:4, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/06/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 41
|
  • J.H Ni, Q.Q Tong, M.M Zhang, X Cao, S.L Xu, D.L Wang, Y.L Zhao* Pages 588-604

    In this study, we explored the pathogenic effects of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and effects of yeast cell wall in the red claw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus, by investigating the activity of enzymes related to innate immune function following artificial infection of immunized and non-immunized crayfish. Our results reveal that the activity of four enzymes, phenoloxidase (PO), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lysozyme (LSZ), increased in the hepatopancreas and antennal gland of C. quadricarinatus 6 – 24 hours after exposure to WSSV. Activity levels of these enzymes decreased rapidly, so that 72 h post-exposure the activity of the enzymes in WSSV-infected crayfish were significantly lower than those of the control individuals (except for LSZ). Interestingly, we found that immunization with yeast cell wall before challenge with WSSV conferred an immune protection rate of 51.86% at 7 days post-infection, demonstrating that yeast cell wall could improve immune-related enzyme activity in the crayfish and enhance the anti-viral defenses of this species. Morphological examination by transmission electron microscopy revealed significant damage in the hepatopancreas and antennal glands of infected crayfish. WSSV infection caused damage to the epithelium of the hepatopancreas and antennas and reduced the number and size of microvilli. In addition, mitochondria morphology changed following infection, with parts of the cristae diminishing leaving large vacuoles. Moreover, the dictyosome morphology changed, the lysosome membranes ruptured, and heterochromatinized nuclei could be seen in cells with ruptured nuclear membranes although no WSSV particles appeared in the hepatopancreas or in the antennal gland.

    Keywords: Cherax quadricarinatus, WSSV, Hepatopancreas, antennal gland, Immune enzymes activity, Ultrastructure
  • S.M.A. Jalali*, S.A.H Jalali, F. Yadollahi Pages 605-618

    Different beta 1 and 2 adrenergic receptors agonists might have various biological and physiological effects on fish species. An experiment was designed to study the effects of feeding ractopamine, terbutaline and metaproterenol; as beta1, beta2 and less selective beta2 adrenergic receptor agonists, respectively; on body weight gain, feed conversion rate, concentration of biochemical parameters in the serum, gene expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in liver and meat and also, fatty acids profile of filet of the rainbow trout. One hundred ninety two juvenile rainbow trout were randomly assigned into 16 fiber glass tanks and fed one of four dietary treatments containing control (0), ractopamine, terbutaline and metaproterenol at level of 10 ppm in diet for 8-week feeding trials. The results showed metaproterenol and ractopamine improved final body weight, body weight gain and feed conversion rate of fish. The serum concentrations of phosphorus and albumin were also significantly increased by all beta adrenergic agonists and ractopamine reduced triglyceride level (p<0.05). The fatty acids level of fish filet was significantly increased by the dietary supplement of various beta adrenergic agonists (p<0.05) but ractopamine had a greater effect. The gene expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in liver was significantly (p<0.05) increased by all beta adrenergic agonists. The present study showed that various beta1 and beta2 adrenergic receptor agonists had same physiological effects on rainbow trout but it seems ractopamine, as a beta1 adrenergic receptor, had more potential on fatty acid metabolism and growth response of rainbow trout.

    Keywords: Ractopamine, Terbutaline, Metaproterenol, Fish
  • M Jorjani*, M Sharifrohani, A Mirhashemi Rostami, S.H Tan Pages 619-634

    This study examined the effects of China rose powder (Hibiscus rosasiensis) supplementation (1.5%) on the growth performance, body composition, and pigmentation of blue gourami at different stocking densities (0.6 and 0.9 fish L-1). Four treatments were assigned in this study: China rose diet+0.6 fish L-1 (CG0.6), China rose diet+0.9 fish L-1 (CG0.9), control diet+0.6 fish L-1 (C0.6) and control diet+0.9 fish L-1 (C0.9). The results showed that after 70 days, there were no significant differences in growth and body composition between China rose treated groups and their corresponding control groups. Color parameters (L*Lightness, a*redness, b*yellowness) behind the operculum were measured on a weekly basis. Results indicated that in the most of weeks, there were no significant differences for (L*, a*, b*). However in the China rose treatments, the fish were brighter in the first weeks but turned darker in the last weeks. The fish in the China rose treatments had higher greenness and yellowness values at the end of the experiment. The amounts of skin total carotenoids, canthaxanthin and β-carotene in the China rose groups were significantly different compared with the corresponding control groups. Similar patterns were observed in muscle and caudal fin canthaxanthin and β-carotene contents. Significant differences were observed in the content of blood plasma canthaxanthin and β-carotene between C0.6 and CG0.6; whereas such differences were observed in astaxanthin, canthaxanthin and β-carotene between C0.9 and CG0.9 groups. The study shows that the China rose powder is a potent natural carotenoid source for blue gourami to enrich its color in low density.

    Keywords: Carotenoid, China Rose, Hibiscus rosasiensis, Blue gourami, Stocking density
  • S YEDİER, D Bostanci*, S Kontaş, G Kurucu, M Apaydin Yağci, N Polat Pages 635-645

    In this study, otolith morphology and otolith contour from big-scale sand smelt, Atherina boyeri were analyzed in Lake Eğirdir and Lake İznik (natural lakes), and Hirfanlı Dam Lake (artificial lake). The otolith contour and sixteen otolith morphological characters such as width, depth, shape, sulcus acusticus shape, ostium, cauda, rostrum size-shape, and thickness, antirostrum size-shape, and thickness, anterior and posterior regions, mesial and lateral surfaces were successfully investigated for three total length groups of A. boyeri inhabiting the lakes. Intraspecific variation in rostrum shape, rostrum size, rostrum thickness, antirostrum, anterior region, mesial and lateral surfaces were observed for the three total length groups of three A. boyeri populations. In the three different lakes, saccular otolith surface morphology of A. boyeri was detected such as a flattened surface for Lake Eğirdir, rough surface for Lake İznik, and relatively smooth surface for Hirfanlı Dam Lake using the Scanning Electron Microscope. The otolith contours showed noticeable differences in the three total length groups of A. boyeri from the different lakes. Intraspecific variability of the otolith characters and morphology consisting of the otolith surface morphology and otolith contour were presented and compared for the three total length groups of the A. boyeri from the different lakes.

    Keywords: Morphology, Intraspecific, Atherina boyeri, Invasive, Natural, artificial lakes
  • F Tadi Beni*, J Pazooki, M Safaei Pages 646-655

    In this study, the feeding habits of blue swimming crab (Portunus segnis) in the Northeast Persian Gulf were investigated. A total of 722 specimens were collected using bottom trawl. The samples were transferred to the laboratory in order to further analysis after freezing. All individuals were dissected and their stomach was removed. The results showed the vacancy index of stomach (CV) was 34.5. This finding indicated that this species is a gluttonous crab. Also the analysis of their feeding habits showed that this species is carnivorous. The main items included crustaceans, fishes and mollusks. Their diet varied seasonally. Crustaceans were more important in summer whereas fishes and mollusks were more important during autumn and winter, respectively. The crustaceans included shrimps and other crabs. The dominant mollusks were the bivalves such as common name Marcina hiantina, Circentia callipyga, Tellina sp., Cardita bicolor and gastropods Cerithium erythraeonese, Atys sp. There were significant differences in feed items occurrence frequency between sexes.

    Keywords: Portunus segnis, Feeding habits, Persian Gulf
  • M Pahlavan, H Jalili*, M Noroozi, Y Morady, F Saba Pages 656-671

    In this study, a native microalgae strain with a high capability of DHA production has been isolated and purified from mangrove shores in the Persian Gulf. Morphological and molecular identification based on 18S rRNA gene showed that the isolated strain belongs to Aurantiochytrium genus. In order to optimize the growth of this strain, various environmental factors were examined, including temperature (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35°C), salinity (10, 30 and 50 g L-1) and different concentrations of nitrogen sources of yeast extract, peptone, meat extract and monosodium glutamate, each of which was tested at the concentration of 10 g L-1. The findings show that the optimal growth conditions occur at temperatures of 25-30 °C, pH equal to 6 and in the presence of meat extract as the nitrogen source. In these conditions, the cellular biomass weight, fatty acids and DHA amounts obtained were 7.34, 2.25 and 0.4 g L-1, respectively. These results imply that the new isolated strain of Aurantiochytrium sp. shy it can be suitable for lipid production.

    Keywords: Isolation, Aurantiochytrium sp., Optimization, Biomass, Microalgae, Heterotrophic
  • H Fazli*, G.R Daryanabard, A Janbaz, R Mirzaei, H Hoseinpour, N Vahedi, M Naderi Pages 672-683

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the population parameters including length-weight relationship (LWR), condition factor (KF), relation condition factor (Kn), age, growth and mortality of Alburnus mossulensis in Azad dam and Komasi River in Kordestan Province, Iran. Of 522 specimens, the fork length, total length and weight of A. mossulensis ranged from 70 to 164, 75-175 mm, and 4.3 to 48.1 g and averaged (±SD) 114.0 (±15.97), 127.5 (±25.29) mm and 18.2 (±5.61) g, respectively. The length-weight regression was W=0.0003×FL2.7434 indicating a negative allometric growth. The sex ratio (M:F) was 1:0.49, for adult A. mossulensis (n=134) which differed significantly from the expected 1:1 ratio (p<0.001). The von Bertalanffy growth parameters were estimated as L∞=170.3 mm, K=0.46 yr-1, t0=-0.59 yr. The instantaneous coefficient of natural mortality was estimated as 0.85 yr-1. The average of condition factor (KF) was 1.27(±0.161). Statistically significant differences were found in KF during different seasons (p<0.001). There was a significantly negative correlation between FL and KF (r2=0.60). The average of relative condition factor (Kn) was 1.06±(0.130). In the present study, the Kn of A. mossulensis were close to 1 and greater than 1 in Komasi River and reservoir, respectively. These results suggested the well-being of the fish was good in Azad Dam region.

    Keywords: Age, Growth, Condition factor, Alburnus mossulensis, Azad Dam, Kordestan
  • S Jorjani*, A.A Khanipour, M Soltani, A Matalebi, A Kamali, A Ghelichi Pages 684-698

    This study aimed to assess the chemical, microbial and sensory properties in a new product from kilka in mass scale with two different types of batters (simple and tempura batter). Kilka fish were battered in a simple or tempura batters, before being breaded with conventional breading crumbs and pre-fried in sunflower oil at 170°C for 30 sec. The fried samples were then immediately frozen through continuous method at -40°C in a spiral freezer before being packed kept at -18°C. Chemical, microbial and sensory properties were performed on the fried breaded kilka a day after freezing. There was no significant difference in protein, fat and ash contents of raw breaded kilka prepared from tempura and simple batters (p≥0.05), while there was significant difference in moisture content of raw breaded kilka prepared from two batters (p<0.05). There was a significant difference in moisture and fat contents between raw and fried breaded kilka by both tempura and simple batters (p<0.05) with lower moisture content and higher fat content seen in fried breaded kilka. To determine the microbiological quality of breaded kilka, total bacteria count (TBC) and total Colifirms (TC) and E. coli were evaluated. The produced breaded kilka with two types of batters were proper from the hygienic view point. Comparing TC and TBC of breaded kilka products with different batters showed that the breaded kilka with tempura batter is in a better status. There were significant differences in some sensory properties of breaded kilka with simple and tempura batters includes odor, cohesiveness of batter and general acceptability (p<0.05). Among all determined characteristics, the breaded kilka with tempura batter had higher scores than the one with simple batter.

    Keywords: Breaded kilka, Batter, Tempura, Product quality
  • A.R Shaviklo*, H Mozafari, A Motamedzadegan, N Damavandi Pages 699-715

    Tuna processing by-product is estimated at more than 100,000 metric tonnes annually in Iran, which could be a potential source of edible protein in human food. Hence, recovering proteins from tuna by-products is a big achievement in the seafood industry. In this work tuna protein isolates (TPI) were extracted from dark/ red meat using the isoelectric solubilization/ precipitation method. Oxidative stability, biochemical indices and characteristics of the fatty acid composition of TPI (pH 6.5) containing 16.2% protein, 1.2% fat and mixed with a blend of salt and sucrose – as a cryostabilizer - and stored 6 months at -24°C were studied. The levels of peroxide (PV), TBARS, FFA and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) were significantly increased in TPI without cryostabilizers during the storage time. The results revealed that 22 fatty acids were identified in the light and dark tuna meat and TPI. The fatty acid composition of light and dark muscle of tuna and TPI containing salt and sucrose was the same. However a significant change was observed only in the TPI free from cryostabilizers during frozen storage. The results confirm inhibiting of lipid oxidation due to the incorporation of salt and sucrose to TPI.

    Keywords: Tuna processing by-product, Protein isolates, Frozen storage, Fatty acid profile, Cryostabilizer
  • M Alishahi*, Z Tulaby Dezfuly Pages 716-726


    Artemia is one of the most important test organisms available for ecotoxicity test. In this study the toxicity of five widely used herbicides formulations including: Paraquat, 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), Trifluralin, Glyphosite and Atrazin were compared using ecotoxicity bioindicator, Artemia franciscana. Acute toxicity (48 h LC50) of five herbicides were determined via OECD standard method. Artemia were hatched via standard method and
    12 h old nauplii were used for toxicity evaluation of herbicides. Naupliis exposed to Serial concentrations (more than 6 in triplicates) of each herbicid. Mortalities at 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours after exposure were recorded and the LC50 were calculated using Probit software. Results showed that the mortality rate increased along with increasing the exposure time in all herbicide toxicity assays. Besides 48 hours LC50 value of Paraquat, 2,4-D, Trifluralin, Glyphosite and Atarzine calculated at 15.67, 12.93, 11.87, 164.31 and 61.34 mg/L in A. franciscana respectively. Glyphosate showed significantly lesser lethality and toxicity while Trifluralin and 2,4-D showed the highest toxicity in A. franciscana among the examined herbicides. Then for sustainable agricultural activity, especially in areas that runoff water flow to aquatic ecosystems, it is highly recommended to use environmental friendly herbicides like glyphosate as an alternative to highly toxic herbicides like trifluralin, Paraquat and 2,4-D. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first study comparing the toxicity of highly used herbicides using ecotoxicity bioindicator, Artemia franciscana

    Keywords: Toxicity, Herbicide, Artemia franciscana, Ecotoxicity bioindicator
  • S Lameeihassankiadeh, M Mohammadalikhani, S Najjar Lashgari*, F Abbasian Pages 727-734

    The fishing industry is deeply dependent on complex and high quality diets consisting of dry feed, vitamins and micro/macro-elements. The suitable dose of each essential nutrient is different based on the fish species, their age and physiological conditions. In this study, the effects of two recommended doses of riboflavin (20 and 30 mg vitamin per each kg dry feed) on growth, hematological and immunological parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings were investigated. The results showed that although treatment with riboflavin could improve biometric and immunological parameters of the fishes but the higher concentration (30mg) of riboflavin had no extra-positive effects on these factors. Furthermore, both doses decreased hematopoietic activity of this fish. Overall, the results of this study showed that treatment with 20 mg of riboflavin is more effective than treatment with 30 mg of riboflavin per kg of dried food.

    Keywords: Rainbow trout, Riboflavin, Growth, Haematological, Immunological
  • H Khandan *, A Gharaei, N Sanchooli, M Miri Pages 735-744

    This study aimed at determining blood biochemical parameters with potential diagnostic value to assess the nutritional status for healthy Snow trout, Schizothorax zarudnyi. For this purpose, three treatment groups of Snow trout (average weight, 65.9±5.3 g) were kept unfed for 24 h, 7 and 14 days. During the experiment, a natural photoperiod was adopted, water temperature was maintained at 23.2±1.1 °C, pH at 7.8±0.2, dissolved oxygen at 7±0.4 mg L-1 and ammonia concentration was kept around zero mg L-1. Fish in all treatment groups were fed twice a day, to apparent satiety. At the end of the trial, the levels of glucose; triglyceride; cholesterol; total protein; inorganic phosphorus; calcium; magnesium; triiodothyronine (T3); thyroxin (T4); alkaline phosphatase (ALP); aspartate aminotransferase (AST); Alanine aminotransferase ( ALT ) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined using standard clinical methods. The results showed that glucose (71.8±6.64-138.6±13.02 mg dl-1), AST (63.53±12.17-130.41±23.04Ul-1) and T4 (6.46±0.88-11.69±1.16 ng ml-1) levels were significantly affected by the starvation period (p<0.05). T3 levels remained relatively stable during the first week of starvation (2.3±0.25-2.39±0.31 ng ml-1) and then significantly decreased (1.77±0.16 ng ml-1) in the second week of starvation (p<0.05). Triglycerides levels increased during the first week of starvation (147.40±16.62 to 199.31±31.42 mg dl-1) and decreased significantly (p<0.05) in the second week (163.70±24.63 mg dl-1). These results suggested that in healthy Snow trout juveniles, glucose, AST and T4 levels are responsive to starvation.

    Keywords: Blood biochemistry, Thyroid hormone, Enzymes activity, Schizothorax zarudnyi, Starvation
  • C ATEŞ, S TUNCA*, M Çelik, H CERİM Pages 745-762

    This study analyzed the interaction between the small-scale fishers and the Mediterranean Monk Seal (MMS) in an important Peninsula and two important marine protected areas on the southwest coast of Turkey. The survey was carried out from January 2014 to December in 2015 in the Muğla Province. Small-scale fishers in the study sites were interviewed to assess the interactions between small-scale fishers and the MMSs including total economic loss of fishers from MMSs, the number of MMS sightings, the reactions of the seals and the fishers during the sightings, fishers’ perceptions on the MMS, and demographic and socio-economic profiles of the fishers. Small-scale fishers from Bodrum appeared to be the group that suffered the most among the locations with an annual loss of $1465.4 in contrast with Datça fishers with the lowest annual loss ($397.6). The annual loss in Fethiye-Göcek ($860.4) was almost double the loss of Bozburun fishers ($492.4). Harvesting costs varied from $6.7 kg-1 in Bodrum to $14.5 kg-1 in Fethiye-Göcek, whereas it was $11.8 kg-1 in Datça and $8.8 kg-1 in Bozburun. In conclusion, small-scale fishers should be subsidized to cover their economic losses caused by MMSs. Furthermore, re-regulating and minimizing the relation between fishing areas and MMS habitats, and raising the awareness of the fishers about the MMS can be essential in minimizing the negative interactions. We also recommend the use of economic indicators such as DPUE rather than absolute values to better understand and illustrate the negative economic impacts of MMSs.

    Keywords: Mediterranean monk seal, Small-scale fisheries, Marine protected areas, DPUE, Economic loss
  • J Peng, Z.G Xu, B.Q Liu, C.C Duan, Y.C. Tang, Y.L Zhao* Pages 763-774

    Eriocheir sinensis, which is an important aquaculture species, belongs to the class Crustacea. To discuss the temperature tolerance of E. sinensis, the survival rates of juvenile crabs of E. sinensis were determined in this paper using a series of temperature settings (normal temperature, 25°C, 30°C, 32°C, 34°C, 35°C, 36°C, 38°C, 40 °C). The results indicated that except the normal temperature level, mortality rate almost reached 100% at other temperatures. The time of death of all crabs at 30℃, 35℃, and 40℃ was different. All the crabs died in only 10 minutes at 40℃, while they died after 3 days and 7 days at 35 ℃ and 30℃, respectively. In addition to normal temperature conditions, minimum survival time of the juvenile crabs of E. sinensis at other temperature condition was no more than 24 h. Before the 8th day, the death rate at 30℃ and normal temperature was different, change of turning slope for concentration of NH3-N and TN was contrary. Under normal temperature, the behavior of abdomen extension was not observed in juvenile crabs but the percentage time of abdomen extension was relatively long at 25℃. This research studied the influence of temperature stress on the survival of juvenile crabs of E. sinensis to provide information reference for the production and transportation of juvenile crab of E. sinensis.

    Keywords: Eriocheir sinensis, Temperature stress, Survival, Behavior responsed
  • Y. Lu, F Liu, Q. Guo, B Cheng, H Shi, L Gou Pages 775-789

    To provide a scientific basis for artificial culture, the effects of different breeding densities, feeding cycles, and light environments on the growth regulation of Poecilobdella manillensis were studied. After P. manillensis were cultured at breeding densities of 250 ~ 3250 leeches m-2; feeding cycles of 2 ~ 16 days; and a light environment with noise or a light-free environment without noise, the weight gain rate (RWG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion rate (FCR), and total content of the effective component (TCEC) were measured for 64 days. The results showed that the RWG and SGR presented the same growth indexes, which decreased with the increase in breeding density and the lengthening of the feeding cycle. In the light environment, the RWG and SGR of P. manillensis were lower than in the dark environment. The TCEC of groups 2 d and 4 d were significantly higher than in the other feeding cycle experiment groups. From these results, we advise that the optimal breeding density for artificial culture is 1750 leeches m-2 and the feeding cycle is 4 days; in the dark and quiet environment, P. manillensis grew better.

    Keywords: Artificial culture, Specific growth rate, Feed conversion rate, Total content of effective component
  • Z. Yazdani, S. Vatandoust, J. Khayatzadeh* Pages 790-797

    Capoeta buhsei is native species in the Namak Lake basin and biological aspects of life history of this fish in Iranian waters is not very well known. Life history of this fish examined by collecting 92 samples in Gharachay River. Sampling done by using Electroshoker in July and January 2011 and October 2012. The maximum age was found +4 years in female. Sex Ratio (male: female) was 1:0.73, and length –weight relationship was BW=35.55.TL3.2 in male and BW=14.8. TL3.07 in female. Mean egg diameter (ED) was 0.8726 0.12 mm ranging from 0.67 to 1.1 mm. Mean absolute (AF) and relative fecundity (RF) were 4917.2157 ( 1690.04 SE) egg female-1 and 69.1 ( 16.15 SE) eggs g-1 body weight, respectively.
        AF and ED were found to increase significantly with increasing fish size, whereas RF increased significantly with both fish TL and weight.

    Keywords: Capoeta buhsei, Life history, Egg diameter, Reproduction, Fecundity
  • A Bahri, H. Khara, F Mohammadizadeh*, A Hamrang Pages 798-811

    The present study aimed to determine the effects of lucantin red and yellow and also astaxanthin on the growth, hematological and immunological parameters, and coloration of the tiger oscar (Astronotus ocellatus). To this end, 120 fingerlings of tiger oscar were equally and randomly divided into 12 aquariums. The fish were fed with experimental diets for 8 weeks. Treatments included diets containing no pigment (control), 100 mg kg-1 lucantin red, 100 mg kg-1 lucantin yellow, and 100 mg kg-1 astaxanthin, with three replicates apiece. At the end of the trial, growth factors, hematological and immunological parameters, and coloration were measured and the obtained data were statistically analyzed. The results showed that there is a significant difference between the control group and other treatments fed with pigments in terms of growth factors (p<0.05). However, no significant difference was found between treatments fed with pigments in this regard (p>0.05). The results indicated no significant difference between treatments in hematological parameters (p>0.05). The results demonstrated that there is a significant difference between the control group and other treatments in terms of lysozyme activity. In addition, a significant difference was observed between treatments 1 and 3 in this regard (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between treatments in other immunological parameters (total immunoglobulin, IgM). The statistical analyses suggested no significant difference between experimental treatments in terms of total carotenoids in the blood (p>0.05). Statistical analysis of color intensity variation revealed a significant difference between the control group and other treatments (p<0.05). The study findings showed that lucantin red and yellow and astaxanthin can improve growth factors and coloration and increase lysozyme activity in Tiger Oscar.

    Keywords: Astaxanthin, Astronotus ocellatus, Lucantin, Coloration, Blood
  • Alireza Ghaedi*, H Hosseinzadeh, R Hashim Pages 812-829

    In this study the effect of different protein levels on reproductive performance of Channa striatus was conducted. Snakehead juveniles (65.5±0.2 g) were randomly distributed into nine homogenous groups of 75 fish each. Three isocaloric experimental diets differing in protein levels were prepared. The experiment lasted for 8 months and gonadosomatic index, absolute fecundity, egg diameter, number of mature oocytes, hatching rate, larval length, survival rate and amino acid and proximate composition of tissue, liver and ovary were monitored. Growth, gonadosomatic index (GSI) and absolute fecundity increased with increase in protein level. Protein and lipid content of ovary was highest in fish fed 450 g kg-1 protein. The percentage of mature oocyte, egg diameter, hatching rate and larval length were the highest in the group fed 450 g kg-1 protein.  There was no significant difference between the amino acid profiles of muscle tissue in all treatments. Amino acid profile in the liver showed that isoleucine, leusine, phenylalanine and tyrosine were significantly higher in fish fed the 450 g kg -1 protein diet.

    Keywords: Channa striatus, Protein nutrition, Reproductive performance, GSI, Fecundity
  • M. Banaee*, M.H. Seyed Hassani, B. Gholizadeh, B. Nematdoost, A. Yousefi Pages 830-846

    Selenium is one of the most essential trace elements in fishes. Therefore, determining the optimal level of selenium in the fish diet is one of the main concerns of researchers. This study investigated the effects of Sel-Plex (Selenium yeast) supplement on the hematological parameters and immunological parameters, and growth performance in Siberian Sturgeon, Acipenser baerii</em>. The Siberian Sturgeon fed with diets supplemented with 0 (control), 5, 10 and 15 g kg-1</sup> Sel-Plex feed for 8 weeks. Growth performance, hematological parameters, total immunoglobulin, alternative complement activity (ACH50), C3 and C4 levels and lysozyme activity were measured at the end of the experiment. No significant differences have been observed (p</em>>0.05) in weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and condition factors (CF) in the fish fed with different concentrations of Sel-Plex supplement when compared with the control group. The results showed that administration of 10 g Sel-Plex in this fish significantly increased erythrocyte, hemoglobin levels, hematocrit value, leukocytes, and lymphocytes counts. However, neutrophils of fish administrated with 10 and 15 g dietary Sel-Plex significantly decreased. The results revealed that Sel-Plex significantly increased total immunoglobulin, ACH50, C3, and lysozyme activities in the supplemented groups compared with the control. Plasma C4 levels in the fish fed with 5 and 15 g Sel-Plex were significantly higher than the control fish. The results of this study suggest that dietary Sel-Plex supplement at levels ≤15 g kg-1</sup> diet increased some hematological indices and improved the innate immune parameters of the Siberian Sturgeon, without affecting their growth performance.

    Keywords: Sel-Plex, Siberian sturgeon, Growth performance, Immune parameters
  • M. Tanekhy*, M. Sakai Pages 847-861

    Cytokines are important regulators of the immune system, and identifying fish cytokines has potential applications for the development of vaccines and/or immunostimulants application in fisheries. In order to understand the immune-related genes triggered by immunostimulants derived from pathogens, we investigated the effects of agonists (lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Poly I:C, and imiquimod) of three Toll-like receptor (TLR)—TLR4, TLR3, and TLR7, respectively—on the expression level of 10 cytokine genes—interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), CXC-chemokine, interleukin-10 (IL-10), type1 interferon (1INF), IFN-γ1, IFN-γ2, Mx protein, and interleukin-12 (IL-12p35 and IL-12 p40)—in the head kidney leukocytes of common carp (Cyprinus carpio </em>L.). All cytokine genes tested, except for type-1 IFN, were significantly up-regulated after LPS treatment. Poly I:C and imiquimod treatment resulted in striking up-regulation of most of the genes examined, particularly for the interferon genes as compared with the control groups. These results clearly demonstrate that TLRs agonists elicit the signaling pathways for cytokines production and initiation of innate immune responses in common carp. The development of strategies to control the pathogen load and of immune-prophylactic measures must be addressed further to realize the economic potential of fish production.

    Keywords: LPS, Poly I:C, Imiquimod, Carp, Cytokines
  • Tayyab R., Khan N.*, Ashraf M., Khalique A., Rasool F, Azmat H., Abbas S, Mahmood Anjum K, Hameed Mughal D, Javed Iqbal K, Dogar S., Kim H., De Zoysa M Pages 862-872

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of beta glucan, the plant extract, Vitabio A, and the plant extract with probiotic Lactobacillus spp. (Vitabio B) on the growth, histology and immune response of Labeo rohita (Rohu), reared for 120 days in a flow through system. Fish with an average body weight of 264±2.65g were stocked in cemented tanks at 10 fish/replicate. Four iso-nitrogenous artificial feeds containing 0.1% of beta glucan, plant extract, plant extract+probiotic and control (without any immunostimulants) were given to fish twice a day at 3% body weight of fish. A significant (p<0.05) difference in weight gain was observed between the control and plant extract fed group while it was non-significant (p>0.05) for the other treatments. The total serum proteins and cell counts (CBC) showed non-significant (p>0.05) difference among all the treatments except for RBC and Hb which were significantly higher in T1 (control) and T2 (plant extract + bacteria Lactobacillus spp.) compared to T3 (beta glucan) and T4 (plant extract). The analysis of fish body composition revealed that plant stimulant treatment had significantly higher crude protein and ash contents compared with the other treatment groups and lower fat content compared with the control (T1). In conclusion, the plant extracts and beta glucan can be used without any adverse effects on growth, total serum proteins, hematology and fish body composition.

    Keywords: Labeo rohita, Immunostimulants, Growth, Hematology, Body composition
  • F. Hekmatpour*, P. Kochanian, M. Zakeri, S.M. Mousavi, J. Ghafle Pages 873-890

    A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the potential of using poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a partial replacement for fish meal (FM) in the diets for juvenile sobaity. Six iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipidic diets were formulated to contain graded levels of PBM, at 0 (as control diet), 15, 25, 35, 45, and 55% of FM replacement. Each diet was fed to groups of 20 juvenile sobaity in triplicate 300-L tanks, three times a day to apparent satiation. Survival, feed conversion ratio and efficiency ratio showed that there were no significant differences between fish fed PBM based diets compared to fish fed the reference diet. Growth performance and protein efficiency ratio of fish fed the PBM15 and 25 were higher than in other treatments. The somatic indices, biochemical content of whole body and fillet, hematological factors were not significantly affected by the replacement level of FM with PBM, with the exception of serum cholesterol and triglyceride content. The results of the present study indicated that PBM is a suitable replacement for fish meal in juvenile sobaity diet up to 55% substitution.

    Keywords: Poultry by-product meal, Sparidentex hasta, Hematological factors, Feed utilization
  • M. Sinaei*, M Bolouki, S.Gh Ghorbanzadeh, M. Talebi Pages 891-902

    The green turtle (Chelonia mydas) has been a species of global concern for decades. As an attempt to study health status of nesting green turtles, Blood biochemistry and hematological values were obtained from 18 clinically normal, nesting female green sea turtles on the northern coast of the sea of Oman. Mean curved carapace length (CCL) was 111±4 cm with a range of 103—122 cm. Barnacles were recorded on three turtles. No fibropapillomas were observed on any of the 18 turtle. The mean PCV was 0.41 (proportion of 1) with a range of 0.30–0.58. No basophils or hemoparasites were detected in any of the 18 turtles tested. All biochemistry and hematological values of green sea turtles were within published reference ranges of healthy sea turtle population. No statistically significant differences were noted between the two anticoagulants for Plasma biochemistry values. Plasma alpha–tocopherol concentrations in the 18 turtles tested was 7.8±2.8 g ml-1 with a range of 0.5-11.8 g ml-1. Plasma retinol was evaluated in 18 turtles and the concentration was 0.4 ±0.1 g ml-1  with a range of 0.2-0.6 g ml-1. The present study provides baseline data of the green sea turtle characterized by biological and non-biological factors, which may provide the basis for future studies.

    Keywords: Blood, Biochemistry, Hematological, Chelonia mydas, Sea of Oman
  • Sh. Jamili*, H Sadeghi, M Rezayat, H Attar, F. Kaymaram Pages 903-914

    One of the mainly popular consumed colloid protein materials in pharmaceutics, medical, food and military industries is Gelatin. Especially from warm-water fish gelatin report poss similar characteristics to mammalian’s gelatin .Yellow fin tuna (Thunnus albacares</em>) gelatin skin, lots of waste in form of skin and bones of the fish are produced every day. Analysis factors were extracted alkaline gelatin from skin, physiochemical and rheological test (amino acids composition, SDS- page electrophoreses, FTIR (Fourier transform infrared), moisture content, pH, setting point and setting time, melting point and melting time, color and gelatin yield).  In contrast cool water fish gelatin, yellowfin tuna had higher gelatin content (Proline and Hydroxyproline) than mammalian gelatin content. SDS-electrophoresis for yellow fin gelatin showed protein bands (α, β, γ) same as mammalian’s protein bands. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) had the same spectra for both of them. Factors were pH (6.1), Moisture (8.5%) Setting temperature and time respectively 4(c) and 60 (s) and Melting temperature and time respectively were 50 (c) and 45 (s). The color was transparent. In light of these results yellow fin tuna prospect as an alternative to mammalian’s gelatin.

    Keywords: Rheological, Yellow fin tuna, Fourier transform infrared, Proline, Hydroxyproline
  • Mehrnoush Tangestani*, A Kunzmann Pages 915-923

    Echinoderm diseases have attracted little interest in contrast to the other commercial marine organisms. This study reports the pathogenesis pattern of juvenile Holothuria scabra. 11 pure bacteria were isolated from lesions of juvenile H. scabra with the symptoms of skin ulceration disease. Phylogenetic identification based on 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis revealed that they belonged to the genera Arcobacter bivalviorum, Pseudoalteromonas citrea, Pseudoalteromonas sp., Vibrio azureus, V. fortis, V. owensii, V.  parahaemolyticus, V.  rotiferianus, V. tubiashi and Vibrio sp..This study is the first report which find V. owensii, V. azureus and V. fortis as potential pathogens of holothuroids. All isolated bacteria showed in vitro susceptibility to the common antibiotics imipenem, chloramphenicol and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. These antibiotics might be effective in reducing the incidence of the skin ulceration disease in case of emergency.

    Keywords: Pathogen, Skin ulceration, Vibrio, Sea cucumber, Beche-de-mer
  • S. Pamuk*, G. İnat, B. Sırıken Pages 924-940

    This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in 100 free freshwater common carp samples using the classic culture technique. For the confirmation of the isolates at molecular levels, the invA gene was detected. Serotyping of the isolates was also detected. The presence of invA, class 1 (Cls1) integrons, and integrase (Int1) genes was demonstrated by PCR assay; and the resistance of the Salmonella spp. strains to antibiotics was determined by disk diffusion test.  Salmonella were detected in 3% (n=7 isolates) of the samples. Three different serotypes were detected; S. Panama, Enteritidis and Quinella. S. Panama is predominant. The invA was detected in the isolates. To detect antibiotic susceptibility, 14 different antibiotics were evaluated using the disc diffusion method. The isolates were evaluated for β-lactamase production. All isolates were resistant to erythromycin, penicillin, oxacillin, vancomycin and clindamycin. Multiple resistances were found in all isolates. S. Enteritidis and one S. Panama were the most resistant serovars. The Cls1 were detected in all isolates. In contrast, int1 were detected in 57.14%. In conclusion, the prevalence of Salmonella in the common carp can pose a risk to the public due to  foodborne salmonellosis, multiple antibiotic resistance properties and the potential transfer of drug resistance genes to other members of the Enterobacteriaceae and humans via Cls1 integron.

    Keywords: Salmonella, Common carp, Serotypes, Antibiotic resistance, Integron, integrase
  • D. Mirzabagheri, N. Amrollahi *, M.R. Taheri Pages 941-953

    A general study with the objective to classify ecotoxicity status of macrobenthose associated with dominant toxic zoanthids in Hormuz Island is presented. Hence, a novel model based on hard bottom macrobenthos and the related substrate composition was suggested to be used for testing the accumulated palytoxin (PTX) in macrobenthose exposed to Zoanthus sansibaricus</em>. Direct and rapid assessment index (Dara Index) of accumulated PTX in macrobenthos were re-evaluated for use in this classification. The new proposed ecotoxicity tolerance index (ETI) was tested and calculated based on the data of Dara Index. ETI was compared and evaluated against Dara Index for use in this classification. The macrobenthos groups of species included three categories, namely, sessile, sluggish and mobile species. The distribution of these three macrobenthose groups were grouped according to their presence or absence to associate with zoanthids and were weighted proportionately to obtain a formula rendering a six step numerical scale of ecotoxicity status classification. Its advantage against the former Dara Index lies in the fact that it reduces the clustering number of the sampling sites involved which makes it simpler and easier in its use. The usage of ETI as a classification tool of ecotoxicity status indicates that tolerance of marine animals to the PTX may enable it to enter food chains and to be followed by potential exposure to humans. Hence, the advantages of ETI include high discriminative power and simplicity in its use which make it a robust, simple and effective tool for application in the Persian Gulf.

    Keywords: ETI, Dara Index, PTX, Zoanthid
  • A Anvar, H Ahari*, A Sharifan, A Motallebi, Sh Kakoolaki, S Paidari, Sh Haghighat Pages 954-967

    Effect of nano composite films to prolong the shelf life of Iranian beluga caviar was investigated at different concentrations of silver nanoparticles. In this study 38 caviar packs each containing 5 g of caviar were divided into 6 treatments with 3 replicates. The concentrations of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000 and 6000 ppm of nanoparticles as well as a nano free pack as control were used. The size of nanoparticles was less than 50 nm in treatments number one to four and was less than 10 nm in treatment number five. Packed samples were inoculated with bacteria and fungi and microbiological tests were performed for each sample after 24 hours. Results of gram test and detecting the gram positive bacteria showed the considerable decreases in Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium strains. Moreover, there was a considerable decrease in fungi and bacterial growth in 5000 and 6000 ppm nano-silver packages (p<0.05). The amount of silver nanoparticle released into the caviar samples were also measured by titration method and application of titrazol with concentrated sulphuric acid. There was no silver residual in different concentrations of silver nanoparticle packages. These results suggest using silver nanoparticles in accurate concentrations could be considered as one of the main solutions to further inhibit spoilage caused by pathogenic microorganisms, and to extend the shelf life of the valuable food products.

    Keywords: Sturgeon, Beluga caviar, Silver, Nano composite, Titanium dioxide, Titration
  • M. Yaghoubi*, J. Ghafle Marammazi, O. Safari, E. Gisbert, M. Torfi Pages 968-980

    The effect of dietary partial replacement of fish meal (FM) with soybean protein (SP) alone or in combination with lysine (Lys) and methionine (Met) supplementation were tested in a 60-day feeding trial for silvery-black porgy (Sparidentex hasta) juveniles. Seven isoproteic (ca. 50% crude protein) and isoenergetic (ca. 22.4 MJ kg-1) diets were formulated in which 45% (SP45), 60% (SP60) and 75% (SP75) of FM protein were replaced by SP and the control diet (FM) was prepared with FM as the major source of protein. In SP45+, SP60+ and SP75+ diets, 45 to 75% of FM was replaced by SP with supplementing blends of Lys and Met (98% of purity). The activities of the trypsin, lipase and α-amylase were higher in fish fed SP diets with crystalline amino acids supplementation than in the other groups (p<0.05). Fish fed SP75 and SP75+ diets had the lowest red blood cell count and hematocrit level (p<0.05). The results of the current study indicated that anti-nutritional factors in a soy-protein based diet rather than lysine and methionine deficiencies may have adverse effects on digestive enzymes activities and health condition in silvery-black porgy juveniles.

    Keywords: Soy protein, Lysine, Methionine, Digestive enzymes activity, Hematology, Sparidentex hasta
  • D.M Xiong, Y.X Meng, H.R Yu, X.L Liu, H.X Liu* Pages 981-995

    The aim of this study was to investigate the structure and ultrastructure of the digestive tract of Qinling lenok (Brachymystax tsinlingensis Li, 1966), a cold water Salmonidae fish, an endangered teleost species, with high potential for controlled rearing in Shaanxi Province of China, by light and electron microscopy. Morphological data of the digestive tract are important for understanding fish nutrition, pathological or physiological alterations. The histological structure of Qinling lenok consists of four layers: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis and serosa. Taste buds were found in lips and esophagus. The esophageal mucosa consists of undifferentiated mucous cells and surface epithelial cells. The U-shaped stomach was divided into cardiac, fundic and pyloric region. There are numerous gastric glands in the submucosa layer of the cardiac and fundic stomach, but none of them are present in the pyloric region. The convoluted tube-shape intestine is lined by simple columnar epithelial cells with microvilli at the apical surface, with an intestinal coefficient of 0.61. There are numerous goblet cells in the intestine. Finger-like pyloric caeca were found in the front of intestine tube, with number ranged from 42 to 88. In ultrastructural level, mucous and glandular cells in the stomach were found, the glandular cell with well-developed tubulovesicular system, a great amount of pepsinogen granules, mitochondria and Golgi apparatus. The enterocytes with abundant microvilli contained mitochondria and lysosome, and mucous granules of goblet cells were apparent in the intestine. High density of lipid droplets of pyloric caeca might be concerned with fat-absorption. The present study suggests that the digestive tract of Qinling lenok is similar to other carnivorous fishes, in relation to its feeding habits.

    Keywords: Digestive tract, Brachymystax tsinlingensis, Histology, Ultrastructure, Salmonidae
  • M.R. Fatemi, M. Khoda Bakhshi, R. Mousavi *, M. Tavol Pages 996-1013

    The cosmopolitan oligochaete worm, Nais elinguis, is common to fresh and brackish water habitats. This species was found while investigating the limnology of two rivers alongside the Iranian coasts and has not been reported in the Iranian freshwater fauna and Caspian Sea before. N. elinguis was collected bimonthly from Cheshmehkileh and Sardabrood estuaries using a Van Veen grab (0.03 m2) and Surber (0.1 m2, 0.2 mm-mesh size) with three replicates from 6 stations from November 2014 through September 2015. The results of temporal distribution showed that the highest and lowest density and biomass of this species were in January (242.2±84.45 ind m-2 and 0.105±0.035 g m-2) and in September (33.35±23.5 ind m-2 and 0.010±0.006 g m-2) respectively which were significantly different (p<0.05). Among the sampling stations,  station (S1) within the river with freshwater showed higher density and biomass (273.5±87.35 ind m-2 and 0.116±0.036 g m-2) than riverine brackish station (S2) within the mouth (39.8±22.6 ind m-2 and 0.013±0.006 g m-2) and marine brackish station (S3) (0±0 ind m-2 and 0±0 g m-2) which were significantly different (p<0.05). Density and biomass of this species in Cheshmehkileh River and estuary were more than that in Sardabrood. A significant correlation (p<0.05) between the density and biomass of N. elinguis with environmental variables was found.

    Keywords: Cheshmehkileh, Sardabrood, Estuaries, Nais elinguis, First record
  • A. Bildik*, G.S. Asıcı Ekren, G. Akdeniz, F. Kıral Pages 1014-1024

    Ambient temperature is one of the most important environmental factors affecting physiological mechanisms and biochemical reactions of living organisms. Thus the effect of ambient temperature on HSPs and IGF-I gene expression levels in the liver and muscle tissues of Sparus aurata were investigated in this research. The levels of HSPs, and IGF-I gene expression of the liver and muscle of Sparus aurata were analyzed in by qRT-PCR. The experiment was done   in July (27 ◦C) and  January (18◦C). HSP70 mRNA relative expression levels in the muscle on January were significantly higher than July (approximately 1.7 fold), whereas HSP30 gene expression in the liver on July was increased by 2.0 fold (p<0.05). Transcription of other heat shock proteins and IGF-I were not affected by water temperature changing. The HSP findings of the research show that these proteins are important and sensitive in the average adaptation.

    Keywords: Sparus aurata, Temperature, IGF-I, HSPs, Gene expression
  • S GÖRGÜN*, M.A Akpınar Pages 1025-1035

    In this study, seasonal variations in the fatty acid profiles of the liver and muscle of Squalius cephalus</em> from Tödürge Lake were determined by Gas Chromatography (GC). C22:6 n-3, C20:5 n-3, C20:4 n-6, C18:1 n-9, C18:1 n-7, C16:1 n-7, C18:0 and C16:0 were the principal fatty acids showing the highest levels in the muscle and liver of Squalius cephalus</em> in all seasons. Although C22:6 n-3, which is regarded as the most important polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), were found to be high in the spring (17.37%) and summer (20.45%) in the liver, the percentages of this acid changed between 15.10% (winter) and 17.77% (spring) in the muscle. In all seasons, total unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated plus monounsaturated fatty acids) of the muscle tissue were found to be between 60-70%. Based on these results, S. cephalus</em> is a good food resource in terms of feeding with unsaturated fatty acids in all seasons, especially C22:6 n-3.

    Keywords: Squalius cephalus, Season, Fatty acid variations, Tödürge Lake
  • S Keivanloo, M Sudagar*, M Mazandarani Pages 1036-1045

    In the present study, cryopreservation of common carp (Cyprinus carpio</em>) embryos was studied using a stepwise cooling protocol. Embryos at heartbeat stage were selected, placed in 15- ml plastic tubes and stored at -2 °C for 1, 7, 14, and 21 days in 2 different cryopreservation solutions: S1 (methanol + dimethyl sulfoxide + sucrose) and S2 (methanol + propylene glycol + sucrose). Embryo viability was assessed by survival rate, counting live larvae and number of failed eggs under a stereomicroscope.  The results showed that storage of common carp embryos was possible for up to 7 days at -2 °C, while the survival did not occur when storage period were 14 and 21 days. The combination of methanol with propylene glycol (S2) gave higher survival rate after 1 and 7 days stored at -2 °C. Further studies are needed in order to extend the storage time and to improve the survival rate for this species.

    Keywords: Cryopreservation, Common carp, Cryoprotectant
  • S Aminzadeh*, A.A Karkhane, J Alikhajeh, A Ghoroghi, Z Emruzi Pages 1046-1059

    Thermostable chitinases are useful for industrial and biotechnological applications. This paper reports the stabilization of chitinase from Serratia marcescens B4A through rational mutagenesis. Changing of Ser 390 to Ile in S. marcescens. The stabilization was enhanced through entropic stabilization by reduction of the loop length and also by increasing of the beta chain length. With this replacement, polar uncharged residue changed to non-polar one and increased the hydrophobic interactions. Furthermore Isoleucine has branched β-carbon that restricts the backbone conformation more than non-branched residues. Finally all of these factors lead to entropic stabilization and thermal stabilization. The results exhibited that the optimal temperature and pH for enzyme activity of native chitinase were not changed by mutagenesis which showed that mutation didn’t affect the original characteristics of the enzyme, the Km values of native and mutant chitinase were different very little, showing that the affinity of enzyme towards the substrate and also the natural flexibility of chitinase did not change by mutation. Besides the Vmax value of the mutant chitinase was decreased, while its pH stability was increased briefly, but its thermal stability was increased remarkably. Mutation made chitinase to tolerate high temperatures up to 90°C. In addition its activity was increased at 50°C, 60°C for 120 min and up to 2 hours of incubation period and the mutant chitinase demonstrated a high level of activity at 60°C. These results show that entropic stabilization works well for chitinase and this approach may be generally applicable for stabilization of other proteins.         

    Keywords: Chitinase, Thermal stability, Serratia marcescens B4A, Loop, β chain, unfolding
  • G Naser Alavi, A. Bani*, S Bagheri Pages 1060-1067

    This study aims to enlist Rotatoria in the Anzali wetland (southwest Caspian Sea), a wetland which is listed as an international wetland in Ramsar convention (1975) and is an important ecosystem for spawning and early rearing of larvae of anadromous fishes. Samples of rotifers were collected in three regions of the Anzali wetland between  June 2015 and May 2016. A total of 29 genera of rotifers belonging to 17 family are listed and most of species was observed in this study was cosmopolitan. The most diverse genus was Brachionus, comprising 8 species which compared to previous study, have been seen some changes that may be due to change in quality of inlet water from rivers to the Anzali wetland. Overall, Many reasons could have contributed to the changes in the rotifers composition of the Anzali wetland, notably the serious environmental degradation since the early 1990s.

    Keywords: Rotifera, Taxa, Abundance, Anzali, Wetland
  • T Ahmed, M.H. Faruque*, M.A Kabir, M.G. Mustafa Pages 1068-1075

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of stocking density on growth, production and profitability of farming Labeo bata fry in earthen rearing ponds for a period of 60 days. Labeo bata, fry (mean initial length, 3.42 ± 0.07cm and weight,  1.02 ± 0.06 g) were stocked at 750, 1000 and 1250 decimal-1 in treatment-1(T1), treatment-2 (T2) and treatment-3 (T3) respectively, each with two replicates. Growth performance in term of final length and weight, net length and weight gain, specific growth rate were significantly higher (P<0.05) in T1 than those of T2 and T3. Feed Conversion Ratio followed the opposite trends as specific growth rate. Production in terms of weight was found to be higher in T2 followed by T3 and T1, because of higher stocking density compare to T1 and higher weight gain in comparison to fish reared under T3 as well as insignificance variation in survival rate between T1 and T2. Consistently higher net benefits were found from treatment T2, which could be recommended to adopt. Moreover, further studies are also required to find out suitable culture technique that could enhance the production experimenting with different feeding frequencies as well as by manipulating culture systems.

    Keywords: Stocking density, Labeo bata, Earthen pond, Yield, Cost-benefit analysis
  • G Pala, Z Selamoglu*, M Caglar Pages 1076-1082

    In this study, the epiphytic algae of Lemna minor collected from its natural habitat or grown in aquarium were analyzed for a period of six months from April 2016 to September 2016. While a total of 15 taxa, 1 belonging to Cyanophyta and 14 belonging to Bacillariophyta, were recorded for L. minor grown in aquarium, a total of 36 taxa, 3 belonging to Cyanophyta, 5 belonging to Chlorophyta, 1 belonging to Euglenophyta, and 27 belonging to Bacillariophyta, were recorded for L. minor collected from its natural habitat. While no monthly differences were detected among those species emerging in aquarium, differences were observed among species emerging in the natural habitat.

    Keywords: Lemna minor, Aquarium, Natural habitat, Epiphytic algae
  • E Rahimzade, A.H. Bahri*, S Moini, D Nokhbe Pages 1083-1092

    In this study rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets were vacuum packed, frozen and stored at -18°C and  the effect of this packaging method on proximate composition, fatty acids and amino acid profile and their changes compared to control conditions during 9 months of storage were studied. The results showed that 18 fatty acids were identified. The unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) were 56.77 and 57.23 % in control and vacuum packed samples in zero time and oleic acid and linoleic acid had high amounts among the UFA. The saturated fatty acid (SFA) were 29.51 and 29.31 in control and vacuum packed samples, respectively and stearic acid and palmitic acid were the most among the SFA. As a result of a frozen storage period of 9 months, a marked content decrease was found in the fatty acid groups such as MUFA, PUFA and ω -3 PUFA, as well as in the ω -3/ ω-6 ratio. However, a preserving effect on such fatty acid parameters could be observed due to the vacuum packed treatment. Results showed that moisture, ash, protein and fat content were 72.1, 2.27, 20.78 and 7.1 g/100g in fresh fillets. At the end of storage time moisture and protein content were decrease and fat and ash were increase in control and vacuum packed samples. On the other hand, the most abundant amino acids in rainbow trout fillets were glutamic acid, aspartic acid, arginine and leucine. The results indicate that vacuum packaging treatment, in all measuring factors had significantly reduced than those in control samples. Thus, vacuum packaging retain quality of fatty acid and amino acid of  rainbow trout fillets within the cold storage and utilization of this method is recommended.

    Keywords: Rainbow trout, Fatty acid, Amino acid, Freezing, Vacuum packaging
  • S Gurkan*, E Taskavak Pages 1093-1100

    In this research, gut lengths and numerical occurrence of gut contents (NO%) of Syngnathus acus, Syngnathus typhle and Nerophis ophidion were examined. The specimens were captured with beach seine net in different habitats (vegetated and sandy-vegetated etc.) at the coasts of Aegean Sea between 2006-and 2008. The zooplanktonic preys were mostly consumed by Syngnathus acus and Nerophis ophidion, whereas, Syngnathus typhle showed the most prey diversity. Thus, zooplanktonic organisms and other vegetative materials were consumed by three pipefish, however, vegetative tissues were mostly preferred by Syngnathus typhle. Feeding habits of three pipefish species are associated with gut lengths that show differences in increases or decreases depending on fish size and shape. In this study, S. typhle that has longer gut length than the other pipefish species explains the situation of being rich in organic gut content such as benthic zooplankton. Accordingly, probable presence or absent of the relationships between gut length and prey groups for three pipefish were discussed. The obtained results have supported low index values explaining the exact feeding habits of the pipefish.

    Keywords: Gut length, Gut content, Prey preference, Pipefish
  • J Pongsetkul, S Benjakul*, P Sumpavapol, K Vongkamjan, K Osako Pages 1101-1114

    Chemical compositions, volatile compounds and sensory property of Kapi produced from two shrimp species, Acetes vulgaris and Macrobrachium lanchesteri, were comparatively determined. Kapi produced from M. lanchesteri (KM) had the higher protein content but lower fat content, compared with that from A. vulgaris (KA) (p < 0.05). However, KA showed higher browning intensity (A420) and fluorescence intensity than KM, indicating browner and more yellowish color of the former. Both KA and KM contained varying volatile compounds, but N-containing compounds were predominant. Based on principal component analysis (PCA) of KA, KM and commercial Kapi, the intensity of N-containing compounds correlated well with sensory property. KA generally contained higher N-containing compounds and had higher flavor and overall likeness scores, compared with KM. Thus, A. vulgaris could serve as a potential alternative raw material for Kapi production.  Chemical compositions, volatile compounds and sensory property of Kapi produced from two shrimp species, Acetes vulgaris and Macrobrachium lanchesteri, were comparatively determined. Relationships between the volatiles and sensory scores of the samples, compared with commercial Kapi samples, were also investigated using principal component analysis (PCA). Kapi produced from M. lanchesteri (KM) had the higher protein content but lower fat content, compared with that from A. vulgaris (KA) (p < 0.05). However, KA showed higher browning intensity (A420) and fluorescence intensity than KM, indicating browner and more yellowish color of the former. Both KA and KM contained varying volatile compounds, but N-containing compounds were predominant. Based on PCA of KA, KM and commercial Kapi, the intensity of N-containing compounds correlated well with sensory property. KA generally contained higher N-containing compounds and had higher flavor and overall likeness scores, compared with KM. Thus, A. vulgaris could serve as a potential alternative raw material for Kapi production.

    Keywords: Acetes vulgaris, Macrobrachium lanchesteri, Kapi, Volatile compounds, Sensory properties