- Volume:8 Issue: 3, 2019
- تاریخ انتشار: 1398/07/22
- تعداد عناوین: 8
Is Inclusion of a Dummy Drug Necessary for Estimating Perceived Prevalence of Substance Use by Classmates?Page 1Background
Substance abuse among students is a worldwide concern. As a widely applied method, nominative technique is employed to estimate the prevalence of a specific behavior among a population by questioning informed people.Objectives
The current study aimed at examining the necessity of including a dummy drug (i.e., relevin) in the list of drugs that are requested via nominative technique.
Totally, 12 schools were selected using a stratified cluster sampling method in Kerman city, Southeastern Iran, and all their grade 10 students were recruited in the current study. A well-validated questionnaire was also used to ask students about the frequency of using six substances among their classmates, in addition to the items associated with risk-taking tendency and self-report substance use by themselves. To analyze the data chi-square, Cramer’s V, multiple logistic regression tests was used.Results
The mean age of the students recruited in the current study was 16.2 ± 0.6 years (n = 830) and approximately 53% of them were female. The consumption of relevin by classmates was reported higher in females (10.2%) than males (6.1%), in urban areas (10.6%) than rural ones (4.0%), and in subjects with a higher tendency toward substance abuse (17.6%) (P < 0.05). The belief in the use of relevin by classmates was not correlated with perceived use of any drugs by classmates. Frequency of self-reported substance use in subjects choosing the use of relevin by classmates was also comparable to those who did not declare the use of relevin by classmates.Conclusions
It was concluded that there might be no need for the inclusion of a dummy drug as an indicator of reliability to the list of substances that are being asked of students in the nominative techniqueKeywords: Drug-Related Side Effects, Adverse Reactions, Substance-Related Disorders, Iran
Fetuin-A is a glycoprotein known as a biomarker for diabetes risk. Adipsin or complement factor D (CFD) plays a role in glucose tolerance, and metabolism.Objectives
This study aimed to investigate the concentration of fetuin-A and adipsin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and healthy subjects.
This case–control study was carried out on 43 patients with T2DM and 41 healthy subjects. Biochemical parameters were determined. Fetuin-A and adipsin levels were measured using ELISA kits. Lipid profile and biochemical factors were measured by spectrophotometric methods.Results
The results showed a trend toward lower fetuin-A and CFD concentrations between the two groups (P < 0.05). There was a significant correlation between the levels of fetuin- A and adipsin (P < 0.0001), FBS and HbA1C (P = 0.02), FBS and creatinine (P = 0.03), and BUN (P < 0.001).There was significant differences according to biochemical levels between the two groups (P < 0.001).Conclusions
The findings suggest that fetuin-A and adipsin levels were decreased in T2DM. It seems that the result of fetuin-A and adipsin levels in the diabetes depends on numerous vague factors. Nevertheless, in comparison with published data the changes of fetuin and adipsin levels in patients with T2DM indicate a complex but not complete role of fetuin-A and adipsin in the pathogenesis of T2DMKeywords: Fetuins Complement Factor D_Human Biomarkers Diabetes Mellitus_Type 2 (T2DM)
Homeless women are at high risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) due to their adverse early-life experiences.Objectives
This study aimed to examine the association between adverse early-life experiences and the risk of acquiring STIs among homeless women in Tehran.
A descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study was carried out in 2014. The study recruited 241 homeless women through quota sampling from the drop in centers and shelters affiliated to a local welfare organization in Tehran, Iran. Data were obtained using questionnaires on demographics and adverse early-life experiences. Blood and urine samples were tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), syphilis, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhea. Descriptive statistics including frequency were calculated for all variables. To analyze the data at a significance level of 0.05, binary logistic regression was used.Results
The prevalence rates of HIV/AIDS, HSV-2, syphilis, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhea were 8.29%, 23.65%, 14.93%, 11.61%, and 6.63%, respectively. The results of logistic regression showed that the risk of acquiring STIs increases by factors such as sexual abuse (OR = 4.06; 95% CI = 1.21 - 13.6, P = 0.02), running away from home (OR = 4.46; 95% CI = 1.67 - 12.89, P = 0.03), drug use (OR = 3.93; 95% CI = 1.13 - 13.58, P = 0.03), alcohol use (OR = 4.12; 95% CI = 1.38 - 12.24, P = 0.01), imprisonment and criminal records (OR = 2.72; 95% CI = 1.01 - 7.52, P = 0.04), premarital sexual activity (OR = 4.71; 95% CI = 1.06 - 13.84, P = 0.05), divorce (OR = 3.47; 95% CI = 1.06 - 11.32, P = 0.03), Nikah mut’ah (OR = 4.33; 95% CI = 1.39 - 13.49, P = 0.01), having multiple sex partners (OR = 5.2; 95% CI = 1.81 - 14.96, P = 0.02), and having unprotected sexual relationships (OR = 3.69; 95% CI = 1.00 - 13.62, P = 0.05).Conclusions
Homeless women had high rates of adverse early-life experiences and overall 41.49% of them were affected at least by one STI. Future interventions should focus on the reduction of adverse early-life experiences, especially during adolescence, including the promotion of adolescent empowerment, promotion of condom use, and improvement of awareness of STIs.Keywords: Adverse Childhood Experiences, Adolescence, Homeless Persons, Women, Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Currently, methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is a well-known method, for treating opiate dependence in many parts of the world. Despite being in MMT programs, craving has an important role in relapses. Substance abusers are at high risk of suicide, and suicidal ideation is a key factor for predicting suicide attempts.Objectives
This study was conducted to determine suicide ideation and drug craving and their predictors in patients under MMT.
This cross-sectional study was conducted on 234 patients under MMT at Baharan Psychiatric Center of Zahedan, Iran. Participants completed a set of self-report standard questionnaires, including Beck’s Depression Inventory, Beck’s Anxiety Inventory, Borderline Personality Scale, Social Support Appraisals Scale, the Communication Skills Inventory, and Craving Inventory. Bivariate correlation analyses and linear regression model were employed to identify the predictors of suicide ideation and craving.Results
Occupational status, suicide attempts, suicide in the family, symptoms of borderline personality, and communication skills were significant predictors for suicide ideation. The duration of MMT and borderline personality symptoms were also important determinants of craving.Conclusions
Since people under MMT have high suicide ideation and it can be a risk factor for suicide attempts, it is suggested to focus on early detection of suicide ideation. Mental health staff must pay attention to the risk factors for craving because it could become the cause of drop-out during treatment.Keywords: Suicide, Craving, Methadone, Substance Related Disorders
Prevalence of Self-Medication with Analgesics Among People Referring to Outpatient Dental Clinics in an Iranian PopulationPage 5Background
Self-medication is a behavior in which a person, without the use of professional advice, resolves his health problem. Self-medication is common in the world and considered as a growing public health problem.Objectives
The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of self-medication with analgesics for dental problems over a two-year period among a population in Shiraz, Iran.
This cross-sectional study recruited 1,203 people. They were randomly selected from among men and women older than 12 with a mean age of 36.2 years, attending outpatient health clinics in 10 districts of Shiraz. A researcher-made questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic variables, dental pain, and self-care remedies utilized to combat dental pain. SPSS version 22 software was used for statistical analysis by the chi-square test and one-way ANOVA. The values of P < 0.05 were considered significant.Results
The prevalence of self-medication was 56.1% and the most common reasons for self-medication were having severe pain (35.3%), having prior experience (15.9%), and the high cost of dental visits (13.5%). The most common self-used drugs were Ibuprofen (29.42%) and Acetaminophen (21.61%). Self-medication was not significantly related to variables such as educational level, gender, and marital status and was related to age and salary.Conclusions
As found in our study, the high prevalence of self-medication is a major concern. There is a need for health education on indications and risks of self-medication.Keywords: Self Medication, Toothache, Analgesics, Prevalence
High-risk behaviors are potentially harmful and threaten health and well-being of adolescents.Objectives
This study aimed to establish a causal relationship between mindfulness and high-risk behaviors mediated by social-virtual networks.
This descriptive correlational study utilized structural equation modeling (path analysis). The statistical population comprised all senior high school male students in Zahedan in the academic year 2017 - 2018. Based on the Krejcie and Morgan’s table, 370 students were selected using a cluster random sampling method. Data collection tools included Brown and Ryan Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (2003), Moghimi and Latifi Questionnaire on Effects of Being a Member of Social Networks (2015), and Zadeh Mohammadi et al. Risk-Taking Scale (2011). Data were analyzed using SPSS V. 22 and Amos with the path analysis method.Results
Model fit indices indicated that the causal model between mindfulness and high-risk behaviors mediated by social-virtual networks fitted sufficiently well. Additionally, the results of the path analysis demonstrated a negative relationship between mindfulness and high-risk behaviors and a positive relationship between the individual, social, and cultural-moral effects and high-risk behaviors. Thus, mindfulness affected high-risk behaviors via social-virtual networks.Conclusions
The results obtained from the current study showed the importance of the mentioned variables in having a tendency toward high-risk behaviorsKeywords: Mindfulness, Health Risk Behaviors, Social Networking
The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes of the students of Medical Sciences and Technical Sciences Universities toward HIV/AIDS. This cross-sectional study was performed on 950 first-year Medical Sciences students and first-year Technical Sciences students between May 2017 and June 2018 in Tehran, Iran. The students were selected using the census-sampling method to fill out the International AIDS Questionnaire-Persian version (IAQ-P). SPSS version 21 was used to analyze data by the chi-square test and nonparametric tests. There was a significant difference in the mean score of AIDS attitude between the two groups (P < 0.001). Confounding factors including age, gender, and marital status had a significant effect on students’ AIDS attitude between the different groups using regression models (P < 0.001). There is an increasing trend in sexual activity among students and young people while it is not true about its attitude and awareness. Therefore, we need to improve attitude toward AIDS in developing countries.Keywords: Attitude, HIV, AIDS, Students, Sex