فهرست مطالب

مجله زبان و ادبیات عربی - پیاپی 19 (پاییز و زمستان 1397)
  • پیاپی 19 (پاییز و زمستان 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/08/02
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • احمد رضی، آرزو ابراهیمی* صفحات 1-33

    آدونیس علاوه بر اینکه شاعری پرمایه و تحول‌آفرین است، منتقد و اندیشمندی است که دیدگاه‌های او درباره شعر و شاعری همواره در نقد ادبی مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. بازتاب این نظریات شاعرانه را می‌توان در اشعار او نیز بازیافت. اثرپذیری آدونیس از متون عرفانی و صوفیانه از موضوعات مهمی است که اندیشه وی را با مکتب سوررئالیسم در دوره معاصر نیز پیوند می‌زند؛ اما تاثیر کتاب "المواقف" تالیف محمدبن عبدالجبار نفری بر اندیشه و نظرگاه انتقادی آدونیس در شعر، رویکرد شعری او را تا حد زیادی به نگرش‌های عرفانی نفری نزدیک می‌کند؛ چراکه محتوای این اثر عرفانی با نگرش شاعرانه او در هم می آمیزد. این مقاله بر آن است تا با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی تاثیر المواقف را بر دیدگاه شاعرانه آدونیس نشان دهد. این اثرپذیری نشانه های مختلفی دارد؛ ازجمله تاسیس مجله‌ای به نام "المواقف" توسط آدونیس، استناد به عبارات متن "المواقف" در آثار و اقتباس تعابیر آن کتاب در اشعارش. این تحقیق با هدف آشکار ساختن ریشه برخی اندیشه ها و آرای آدونیس در کتاب المواقف نشان می دهد که بیش از همه سه عامل زبان، مضمون و روش، اندیشه های آن دو را به هم پیوند می زند: آدونیس تحت نفوذ نحوه نگرش نفری نسبت به زبان، زبان منحصربه‌فرد خویش را می‌آفریند. در مضمون نیز، دیدگاه‌های او با در بر گرفتن عمده‌ترین درون‌مایه‌های عرفانی، یعنی وحدت‌گرایی، پویایی و معرفت با سرمنشا عرفانی کتاب "المواقف" گره می‌خورد و عامل سوم، روش سنت‌شکنی است که از یک سو تحت تاثیر قوی "المواقف" و از سوی دیگر زیر سیطره نگاه سنت‌شکنانه مکاتب غربی، شعر را خرق پیوسته عادات زبانی و محتوایی تعریف می‌کند.

    کلیدواژگان: شعر عرب، ابهام، آدونیس، المواقف، نفری
  • مریم بخشی، پرویز احمدزاده، محمد پاشایی، محمدرضا اسلامی* صفحات 35-69

    شعر مدرن را شعر تصویر می نامند؛ زیرا یکی از جلوه های هنر شاعری در عصر معاصر، تخیل بدیع و خلق تصاویر نو همراه با کشف رابطه ای جدید بین پدیده هاست. واکاوی تصویر، جهان کوچکی از دنیای بزرگ شاعر است و پرده‌برداری از آن، پرده برداشتن از ذات و وجود هنرمند است و شیوه تعامل او را با این جهان نشان می دهد. تخیل عرصه وسیعی برای تصویر است چون در لحظه ای کوتاه، زمانی بیکران و در مکانی محدود، سرزمینی پهناور را به تصویر می کشد. در پژوهش حاضر، به علت بعضی تمایلات خاصی که خلیل حاوی، شاعر معاصر لبنانی، در تصویر گری داشته و خصوصیات تصویرهای دقیق و ملموس و عینی او را با رویکرد تحلیلی - توصیفی مورد بررسی قرار خواهیم داد تا با واکاوی مهم ترین علل این ابداع شاعرانه و سازه های اصلی شکل‌دهنده آن، بتوانیم با فضایی که بازنمود جهان بینی و نگرش خاص این شاعر تصویرگراست، آشنا شویم. بررسی این خصیصه و کارکرد آن در شعر حاوی به‌عنوان یکی از بن‌مایه‌های شناختی در شعر عربی، انتقال دهنده مفاهیمی چون فلسفه زدگی، ابهام، اضطراب و سرگشتگی به مخاطب است، مسلما کشف و بیان این شاخصه ها در فهم بهتر مضامین ژرف فلسفی شعر این شاعر تاثیر زیادی دارد. نیز به‌کارگیری تصویر در شعر او که اغلب نمادین و رمزآلود است، به‌عنوان محوری اصلی برای بیان بزرگ ترین تجربه های حسی و ذهنی شاعر مورد استفاده قرار می گیرد.

    کلیدواژگان: تصویر، تخیل، اشارات معنایی، خلیل حاوی
  • امید ایزانلو صفحات 71-92

    رمان فلسطین همچون رمان سایر کشورهای عربی، زاییده نهضت ادبی است. در این بررسی تلاش شده است تا با شیوه توصیفی- تحلیلی و لحاظ کردن شرایط سیاسی، اقتصادی و اجتماعی فلسطین، محتوای رمان این سرزمین، از آغاز قرن بیستم تا 1948 مورد بررسی قرار داده شود. در ادبیات فلسطین، عوامل نهضت ادبی نیرو محرکه رمان فلسطین گردید. رمان های غربی، ترجمه و در روزنامه ها و مجلاتی که در چاپخانه هایی که در فلسطین تاسیس شده بودند، چاپ می شدند. با توجه به گسترش تاسیس مدارس و افزایش سطح سواد عمومی تمایل به خواندن مطبوعات و آثار ترجمه شده نیز افزایش یافت و همین امر مترجمان را ترغیب به ترجمه آثار بیشتری می کرد. وقتی برخی مترجمان به سطحی از مهارت و آگاهی رسیدند، دست به تالیف زدند و آثاری را خلق نمودند که سنگ بنای رمان فلسطین به شمار می رود. گرچه بسیاری از آثار از میان رفته اند و نمی توان به شکلی دقیق در محتوای آن وارد شد، اما بررسی ها نشان می دهد که موضوع مقاومت مردم علیه مهاجران یهودی، موضوع فروش زمین ها و تلاش یهود برای سیطره بر فلسطین از موضوعات اصلی اغلب این آثار به شمار می رود. بررسی محتوایی رمان این دوره نشان می دهد موضوع فلسطین و مهاجرت یهودیان به این سرزمین و مشکلات ناشی از آن، تا پیش از 1948 نیز وجود داشته، اما چندان جدی و مهم نبوده است. حتی از لحاظ کمی نیز، رمان های چندانی نوشته نشد که بتواند بیانگر آلام و آمال مردم فلسطین باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: رمان، فلسطین، مقاومت، نکبه، سال 1948
  • صغری فلاحتی، معصومه ربیعی، علی پیرانی* صفحات 95-114

    «هالیدی و رقیه حسن» در سال 1976 نظریه انسجام متنی را مطرح کردند. آن ها انسجام را یک مفهوم معنایی می دانند که از طریق نشانه های انسجامی (عناصر دستوری، واژگانی و پیوندی) میان اجزاء متن، ارتباط معنایی ایجاد می کند و ادات پیوندی یا ربط به‌عنوان یکی از مهم‌ترین ابزارهای انسجامی که عبارت است از: «وجود ارتباط معنایی و منطقی بین جمله‌های یک متن»، نقشی به‌ مراتب مهم تر از عناصر واژگانی و دستوری دارد؛ چون این ارتباط بر پایه منطق استوار است و خواننده باید رابطه منطقی بین مطالب را تحلیل نماید تا پیوستگی معنایی و ارتباط بین جملات را دریافت کند. مقامات یکی از فنون نثر داستانی به شمار می آید که عده ای ازجمله زکی مبارک معتقدند، مقامات به خاطر هنرنمایی ادبی نویسنده از انسجام لازم برخوردار نیست. در این مقاله تلاش شده است تا با روش توصیفی_تحلیلی یکی از عوامل انسجامی یعنی، انسجام پیوندی با زیر شاخه های اضافی، سببی، تقابلی و زمانی مورد بررسی قرار گیرد و تعیین نماید کدام‌یک از این زیرشاخه ها بیشترین بسامد را در مقامات حریری دارد. علاوه بر آن، تسلط نویسنده در بهره‌گیری از توانایی های زبان و ایجاد نثری آهنگین چه تاثیری در زیبایی انسجام پیوندی متن گذاشته است؟ ازجمله نتایج مهم تحقیق این است که بسامد بالای ارتباط پیوندی به ویژه اضافی و سببی در سراسر داستان مشهود است و رابطه زمانی بعد از رابطه اضافی مانند زنجیره ای، رویدادهای داستان را که اشاره به مرگ و جدایی دارد به هم متصل می کند، کارکرد ادوات پیوندی، علاوه بر جنبه زیباشناختی، انسجام‌بخشی معنایی در مقامه است.

    کلیدواژگان: زبانشناسی متن، هالیدی و رقیه حسن، مقامه ساویه حریری، انسجام پیوندی، جلوه های زیبایی مقامه
  • صدیقه حسینی، مهین حاجی زاده* صفحات 115-143

    گوتیک پسامدرنیستی، با محوریت وحشت و مرگ، تعریف جدیدی برای این دو عنصر ارائه می‌دهد. این نوع درواقع تغییر گوتیک در پارادایم ادبیات پست‌مدرن است و تفاوت ریشه‌ای با گوتیک قبل از این دوره ندارد که درواقع تحت تاثیر فلسفه دریدا، بودریار، لیوتار و ژیژک قرار دارد. اصول گوتیک که بر اساس ترس و وحشت استوار است، در رمان پست‌مدرن تشدید می‌یابد و حاصل وحشت از حالت سرگرمی خارج می‌شود. نتیجه تجربه چنین ترس و دلهره‌ای اکتشاف هستی شناسانه و اثبات فردیت است. رمان «فرانکشتاین فی بغداد» اثر احمد سعداوی، رمان‌نویس عراقی نیز در ردیف رمان‌های گوتیک – پست‌مدرن قرار دارد؛ این رمان با مرکزیت دادن به ترس و مرگ، بحران هویت و سوژه ازهم‌گسیخته را توصیف می‌کند و با فضاسازی ترس به بازآفرینی وحشت می‌پردازد. پژوهش حاضر با تکیه بر روش توصیفی-تحلیلی به بررسی عناصر رمان گوتیک – پست‌مدرنیسم در رمان مذکور می‌پردازد. سعداوی در این رمان تجربه سیاهی، آشفتگی و بی‌معنایی حاکم بر سرزمین خود را به تصویر می‌کشد و دست به خلق شخصیتی(هیولایی) می‌زند که هویتی تکه‌پاره دارد و درواقع بخشی از خود انسان‌هاست که پس رانده شده است. خلق موجود تخیلی که سعی در اجرای عدالت دارد، خود باعث دامن زدن به ترس و وحشت بیشتر می‌گردد و از سویی بخش سرکوب شده از انسان‌هایی را به نمایش می‌گذارد که در عین بیزاری از خشونت، خود خالق خشونت و وحشت می‌گردند و به‌این‌ترتیب مرگ در آن حضوری برجسته می‌یابد. دستاوردکلی بررسی نشانه‌ها مبین آن است که تمامی عناصر پست‌مدرنیسم و گوتیک به‌صورت تشدید یافته در این رمان قابل مشاهده است که حضور فانتزی، وحشت والا و امر غیر قابل بازنمایی، مرگ نمادین، سوژه ناپایدار، سیالیت مکان و بازی واقعیت حاد با سوژه، اثر سعداوی را یکی را از مصادیق رمان گوتیک – پست‌مدرنیسم قرار می‌دهد.

    کلیدواژگان: گوتیک، پست مدرنیسم، وحشت والا، فرانکشتاین فی بغداد، احمد سعداوی
  • محمدرضا عزیزی، عبدالرحیم حق دادی* صفحات 145-166

    یکی از زمینه های تاثیرگذاری و تاثیرپذیری میان زبان و فرهنگ فارسی و عربی، پدیده قرض گیری و بده بستان واژه است که به‌ منظور بیان معانی و مفاهیم جدید، در دوره های مختلف تاریخ دو زبان انجام گرفته است. ازآنجاکه ساخت آوایی، تعداد حروف الفبا و مبانی دو زبان مورد نظر، متفاوت است، بسیاری از واژه های فارسی که به زبان عربی وارد شده، ساخت آوایی متناسب با زبان عربی یافته است. از سوی دیگر، زبان فارسی در طی دوره های گذار از پارسی باستان به پهلویی و از پهلوی به دری دستخوش دگرگونی های بسیار – به‌ ویژه در حوزه واژگانی- شده است. امروزه یافتن اصل فارسی بسیاری از واژه های عربی شده، کاری بسیار دشوار است و درعین‌حال از زمینه های پژوهشی است که پرداختن به آن ضروری می نماید. نگارندگان این مقاله برآنند تا با بررسی و تحلیل نمونه هایی از این "معربات" که از فارسی به عربی وارد شده و تغییراتی یافته و سپس در دوره های بعد به همان شکل تغییر یافته زبان عربی، دوباره در زبان فارسی رواج یافته است، بپردازند. بیشتر به بررسی نمونه هایی پرداخته شد که شواهدی از آیات قرآن کریم و شعر عربی قدیم برای کاربرد آن وجود دارد و شکل عربی شده آن در متون فارسی به کار رفته است.

    کلیدواژگان: بده بستان واژه ها، معرب و دخیل، زبان فارسی، زبان عربی
  • سمیره خسروی، وحید سبزیان پور* صفحات 167-193

    ژرار ژنت، داستان را به عنوان یک «پیام روایی» در نظر می‌گیرد و با رویکردی نظام‌مند به مطالعه داستان‌ می‌پردازد. وی با طرح الگوی زمان و تعیین عوامل موثر در تعلیق و شتاب یک داستان از منظر زمانی، سعی می‌کند تا میزان دخل و تصرف راوی در نقل یک داستان را مورد ارزیابی قرار دهد و از این طریق، معانی برجسته و زمان‌های مرده داستان را مشخص کند. داستان کوتاه «مرتا البانیه» جبران خلیل جبران با هدف ترسیم عواقب زیان‌بار فقر و محرومیت در زندگی دختران و زنان بی‌سرپرست با رمزپردازی از طبیعت نوشته شده است. این مقاله سعی دارد تا سرعت روایت و حرکت های زمانی این داستان را بر اساس چهار تکنیک الگوی زمان مند ژنت یعنی «خلاصه، حذف، وقفه توصیفی و نمایش صحنه» مورد بررسی قرار دهد و با استفاده از روش تحلیلی توصیفی و با استناد به نمونه‌هایی از داستان، میزان تاویل‌پذیری معنایی داستان را با استفاده از بررسی ساختاری نشان دهد و به این سوال پاسخ دهد که شتاب و کاهش سرعت داستان، تا چه میزان متاثر از اغراض معنایی آن بوده است و مهمترین تکنیک‌های کاهش و افزایش شتاب آن کدامند؟ در پایان مشخص شد که زمان در این داستان به دو بخش تولد تا نوجوانی قهرمان داستان، و شب پایانی زندگی وی قابل تفکیک است. حرکت زمانی داستان در بخش اول از سرعت و شتاب بالایی برخوردار بوده و دو تکنیک حذف و خلاصه بیشترین کاربرد را داشته اند؛ اما در بخش دوم که نقطه اوج داستان به حساب می‌آید، دارای شتاب منفی است و دو تکنیک وقفه توصیفی و نمایش صحنه سبب کاهش سرعت گفتمان نسبت به داستان شده‌اند

  • علی نظری، سید محمود میرزایی، نعمت عزیزی* صفحات 195-219

    تصویر سازی یکی از اصطلاحات متداول در نقد قدیم و جدید عربی است که در آن شاعر می کوشد تا موضوعی را با تکنیک‌های مختلفی به تصویر بکشد. شعر معاصر فلسطین، سعی نموده تا آینه تحولات کشوری باشد که بعد از اشغال آن، دشمنان زیادی به مداخله در آن پرداخته اند. یکی از کشورهایی که در قرن گذشته و حاضر به حمایت از اشغال فلسطین برخواسته، آمریکاست که این امر سبب شده است تا شاعران فلسطینی، به‌طور وسیعی به ترسیم چهره آن کشور بپردازند. این شاعران با تکنیک‌های مختلفی ازجمله نماد و نقاب به این تصویر سازی پرداخته اند و تمساح، سگ، کلاغ، گرگ، افعی و طناب پوسیده را نمادهایی از آمریکا قرار داده اند تا ماهیت و ویژگی های اصلی آمریکا همچون ریاکاری، نجاست، شومی، وحشی گری و هرزگی، جهان خواری ظالمانه و فروپاشی زودهنگام آن را به تصویر بکشند. هلاکو، نرون، مارس و شیطان از مهم‌ترین نقاب هایی به شمار می روند که مفاهیمی همچون توحش، جنون قیصری، جنگ‌افروزی و اغواگری آمریکا را به تصویر می کشند. مقاله حاضر می کوشد تا نماد و نقاب را به‌عنوان مهم‌ترین تکنیک‌های تصویرسازی آمریکا در شعر معاصر فلسطین با روش توصیفی – تحلیلی، مورد نقد و بررسی قرار دهد.

    کلیدواژگان: تصویرسازی، آمریکا، فلسطین، نماد، نقاب
  • علی نوکاریزی، حسن مجیدی* صفحات 221-243

    احمد صافی نجفی - شاعر معاصر عراقی- با ادب فارسی و شعرای ایران آشنا بود و بیش از همه به خیام علاقه‌ مند بود؛ بنابراین، در طی اقامت هشت‌ساله خود در ایران، سه سال را صرف ترجمه رباعیات خیام نمود. این نکته و مطالعه اشعار وی، نشان می دهد که صافی از اندیشه های خیام تاثیر مستقیم پذیرفته است؛ بدین‌جهت می توان به سهولت تابش جهان بینی خیام را در سروده های وی یافت. مقاله حاضر بر آن است تا با روش مکتب فرانسوی در ادبیات تطبیقی، به بررسی و تحلیل تجلی برخی افکار خیامی بر یکی از شاعران برجسته و معاصر عرب؛ احمد صافی نجفی بپردازد. همچنین علاوه بر اشاره به نشانه های تاثیرپذیری صافی از رباعیات خیام، نگارندگان با چشم اندازی تطبیقی و تحلیل و بررسی شواهد شعری روشن می سازند که این شاعر عراقی، در مواردی همچون دم غنیمت شماری، طمع نورزیدن و دوری از دلبستگی به دنیا، حسرت بر ایام جوانی، باده ستایی و شکایت از روزگار، تحت تاثیر اندیشه های تابناک خیام نیشابوری در سروده هایش بوده است.

    کلیدواژگان: خیام نیشابوری، احمد صافی نجفی، دم غنیمت شماری، طمع و دلبستگی به دنیا، جوانی، باده ستایی، شکایت از روزگار
  • بلاسم محسنی صفحات 245-273

    جستار پیش رو به بررسی بخشی از ادبیات شفاهی در زبان عربی می‌پردازد که از دو بخش تشکیل شده است. نخست ریشه های شکل گیری ادبیات شفاهی عربی و عوامل گسترش این ادبیات در بین کشورهای عربی بررسی‌شده است؛ عواملی مانند شهرنشینی و آشنایی با ادبیات ملل دیگر، فروپاشی خلافت عباسی، دولت مشعشعیان، زمینه های تاریخی مختلف کشورهای عربی و ملی گرایی. در ادامه به بررسی ژانرهای ادبیات شفاهی عربی می پردازد. قالب های کلاسیک ادبیات شفاهی عربی، مانند موالیا و زجل و همچنین قالب های نو مانند مربع، موشحات عامیانه و اشعار کوتاه و نیز انواعی مثل حداء و رکبانیه مواردی است که در این بخش مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. همچنین برای نخستین بار دسته بندی تازه ای از ادبیات شفاهی عربی ارائه شده است. در انتها چنین نتیجه گیری شده که ادبیات شفاهی عربی سه دوره مهم تاریخی دارد که مراحل سه گانه پیدایش ادبیات شفاهی عربی را شکل می دهد. به‌ منظور ادامه بحث و مطالعه در زمینه ادبیات شفاهی عربی، پیشنهاد‌هایی نیز مطرح شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: ادبیات شفاهی عربی، انواع شفاهی عربی، فولکلور
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  • Arezoo Ebrahimi *, Ahmad Razi Pages 1-33
    1.Introduction

    Adonis in Arabic literature is one of the most remarkable poets who created a new poetic style with the special features in poetry in terms of form and conception. His thoughts about poetry have been affected by a strong background of mystical views and also surrealistic thoughts. That is why he defines the origin of true poetry as mystical or surreal believes. His poetic ideas can be seen in his poems clearly. In addition, Adonis's impression of mysticism texts is an important topic which correlates his opinions to Surrealism school in the contemporary century. However, Mavaqef and Mokhatebat’s effect, written by Mohammad M. Abdol Jabbar Neffary, on Adonis’s critical ideas about the poem makes close his poetic approach to Neffary’s mystical attitudes. Mavaqef va Mokhatebat has been effective on his ideas generally and his points of view on poetry and position of poets specifically more than every other text.

    2. Review of Literature

    The researches that has been done so far about Adonis has been mainly focused on the study of his views and poems, either in the context of research books on Arabic poetry or in independent work such as “Poetic Development of Adonis” (Ahmad Yusuf Davud); In addition to his poetic thoughts and views, Adonis has been the subject of researches that compare him with other poets which attempt to express his ideas by establishing similarities or differences between their views. For example: "Adaptation of Sohrab and Adonis Sufis" by Mohammad Sadiq Sepehrinia, "Myth in Adonis and Shamlou's Poetry" by Sayed Babak Farzaneh, and "Comparative Study of Myths in Shamlou and Adonis's Poetry" by Seyed Fazlullah Mirqaderi. Also "Adonis in the Field of Contemporary Arab Poetry and Criticism" by Abbas Arab is one of the works written about his position in poetry. But a reviewing all the researches done so far on Adonis, shows no independent research has yet been published on the impact of the "Mavaqef" on Adonis's language, thought and method.

    By scrutinizing and carefully reviewing Adonis' views and his attitude towards the poetry and poets, not only is it possible to explain his poetry in depth and doctrine, but also his poetic views can be generalized to contemporary poetry and, in general, to true poetry and be a poetic criterion for poems. This paper has tried to show Adonis's impression of “Mavaqef” in his poetic ideas by using a descriptive- analytic method. Some of the indications of Adonis’s impression of Neffary are establishing “magazine of Mavaqef” by him and citations taken from Mavaqef in his works. But that is not all; we can see more important influences from Neffary’s thoughts on Adonis’s view about poetry, regarding closeness between poetry and mysticisms in some basic aspects. Language, theme, and method are the basic aspects which based on, Adonis’s impression of Neffary in mystical views will be examined. Since interpretation and explanation of poetry is based on not only its conception but also poet’s ideas about poetry, understanding the Adonis’s poetry themes somehow is possible through understanding his points of view about the poetry.

    3.Method

    This is a descriptive-analytical research. First, the related ideas of Adonis are descripted and then, their roots in Mavaqef va Mokhatebat, followed by the analysis of the examples, will be analyzed.


    4.Results and Discussion

    This paper shows that there are three items (language, theme, and method) which correlate Neffary and Adonis’s opinions together. Adonis has been influenced by Neffary's attitude towards language and what we call Shat’h in Neffary’s language can be called Ebda’a in Adonis’s language. Adonis has been influenced by Mavaqef in some important mystical themes such as unification, dynamism and cognition. His own poetry was influenced by powerful effect from both Neffary's Mavaqef and western schools views.

    5.Conclusion

    For Adonis, Mavaqef is the most significant representation of true mysticism and mysticism is the most important presentation of tradition. Adonis combines the tradition of mysticism with his modern ideas about poem and creates a new poetic style in his poetries. For language, he follows a kind of ambiguity which has already been used in Mavaqef. Regarding theme, Adonis tends to link poetry to universe with a mystical view in the way Abdol Jabbar Naferri particularly had done in Mavaqef. Regarding method, he tries to follow Abdol Jabbar Neffary as a mystic has already gone with the special individual experiences during the composing a new poem. Adonis, by establishing a strong link between tradition and modernity, places particular attention on the approach of the traditional mysticism to the universe, and places Mavaqef as the main representative of his tradition in connection with modernism. Adonis's poetic view can be a blend of tradition and modernity.

    Keywords: Adonis, Mavaqef, Neffary, Arabic poem, Ambiguity
  • Mohammad Reza Eslami*, Maryam Bakhshi Bakhshi, Parviz Ahmadzade, Mohammad Pashaie Pages 35-69
    Introduction

    The literary images indicate entrance to various imaginary domains and enrichment of the language via different styles using simile (the simile that has no external scope), metaphor or allegory and generally by including the expression of figurative aspects. An artistic image is a kind of subjective image that reflects the external reality in the light of its affective reflection. The role of poetic imagery in conveying experiences (thoughts and feelings) and reflecting on its elements is a reflection of the poet's worldview. The poet can reflect on his poetry through his image, any knowledge of the universe and life. “Khalil Havi” is a prominent poet who has imagines the profound ideological themes in his poems. His poem includes philosophical references and symbols, so that his existentialistic and mystical contemplation distinguishes his poems from other poems. Image in poetry makes the job of the poet difficult, since he should imagine his experiences by his subjective processes and transfer them to the reader by new solutions The researcher must also have a deep understanding of the nature of each image and to know how the thought and emotion move in the representation of that structure; On the other hand, the broadness of poet’s imagery domain and his great cultural background and innovation in poetry show his genus and greatness of his work. For this reason, examining the profoundness of poetry becomes difficult. But the best way to visualize the poet's experience and the way of conveying it to the audience is the best result that can be gained from this study.


    Review of Literature

    The research focuses on new researches that have been studied in the literary criticism and particularly, the criticism of image. This research investigates the issue of image from aesthetic, technical, and critical perspectives. Since, this study examines the description and artistic imagination of a known poet, the generalities have been avoided and only some issues including tradition, myths, and symbols have been mentioned.
    Khalil is one of the most innovative Lebanese poets who has published many articles and books on his life and works.
    Imagery is the basic concept of aesthetic theory, and art cannot overlook imagery because it is its essential spirit and essence. The image is directly related to the imagination, and some consider the imagination one because they are both literal and idiomatic; so it is not limited to visual representations. The artist uses the power of imagination to create metaphors, similes, and … (dastgheyb, 1994: 174)
    Image is to create harmony and proportion between thought and style, or language and senseIt is by imagery that a subjective and abstract concept can be explained to the audience, so the examination of any literary text must be in the context of the relationships that the language of the text constructs in terms of structure, images, and codes. The media's role in the literary context of the image is more than other elements and the function of the image in the context of meaning making.(Seyyedi,2011 : 347)
    Among the poets of the late nineteenth century, Khalil Al-Hawi is distinguished by his distinctive tendencies for image because of his particular tendencies in image-painting, which distinguishes him from his contemporaries. He is the only poet who deals with the deep themes of thought in poetry and his poetry is full of deep symbols and philosophical vocabulary.(Asvar, 2006: 355))

    Method

    This research is descriptive-analytical. At first, the content of image has been studied in general and then a brief biography of Khalil Havi and also being influenced by the western poets have been cited. The content of his poems and illustration in these poems have been considered and at the end, the constituents of a poetical image and the visual content of these poems and also the criticism of image as the main pivot of this research have been investigated.

    Results and Discussion

    In general, imagination and imagery occur when an incident occurs in rational logic and in the general sense of the word and somehow permits its place (Soltani, 2005). In this way, the constituent elements of an imagination or image in the word must be sought beyond the general truth and rational logic of the word that represented as simile, identification, combination of contrasts, unity and sensation and etc. The poetical images according to their contents are real images, movable images, symbols and codes, partial codes and general codes and obnoxiousness includes explicitness, direct references and emphasis on sensual similes.

    Conclusion

    It can be concluded by examining the image in the context of the present study that Khalil Havi with his formal and varied imagination, through his illustrations in poetry, has been able to realize the aesthetic and literary aesthetic benefits of his poetry. In that way, he avoids direct addressing by using high-profile images, making his poetry more effective and persuasive. He has also been able to change the poetry by With boldness and insight and Concise expression of contemporary concerns. Certainly, in his poems, image is a direct reflection of the social reality of the poet’s era. He has represented desires, fears, and horrors through myths, religions, traditions, and beliefs in an obvious way. Images in his poems are mostly symbolic and mysterious. They have been used as a main pivot for expressing the most important sensual and subjective experiences of the poet. He has expressed briefly the philosophical and abstract concepts and themes in the form of subjective and objective images, so he could have effect on the reader by the technique of description. Also, in image examining of these poems, it can be stated that substitution as using image instead of common and simple words in the poetical text, depicts the genus for application of the new language. He has done more in his poetry through metaphorical and symbolic substitution in a way that with one sensory or emotional action or several sensory or emotional actions can be substituted for images that sit on the poet's own history or life experience. Most of Khalil's tales are based on the same act of visual substitution. He would throw a flick through the laws of linear sentence, linear time, linear location, moving it, time to time, space to space.

    Keywords: Image, Imagination, Semantic references, Khalil Havi
  • Omid Izanloo Pages 71-92
    Introduction

    Palestine literature is intensively political and affected by events happened in the country over the last century. Dominance of Ottoman empire on Arab countries including Palestine, being ruled by Britain, and then occupied by Israel have deprived the country from experiencing an independent era; all the country has gone through was fighting with foreigners. It is therefore normal for the literature of the country, especially for fiction, to have fighting and resistance as the main themes. The high status of the themes in fiction has to do with the nature of the fiction, as it attracts common people seemingly as it is close to real happening of the society. Fiction could have a direct relationship with daily events of society and reflect the real problems of society.

    Review of Literature


    Investigating related literature, the researches came out with no specific and independent work to focus on novels of Palestine in the era before 1948. The related works have huge limitations and are not deep enough. For example, Omar Shahin (1988) studied the historical trajectory of Arab novels from early 1900 to 1967. Vadi (1981) explored the same, but he focused on signs of novel formation from early 19th century to 1948. Abu Matar (1990) in a book that exactly deals with novel in Palestine investigates modern novel of Palestine from 1950 to 1975. He points out briefly to novel 1948 and identifies that the flourish of phenomenon is parallel in other countries. Yaghi as well on his works on Palestine literature, deals with poetry and prose of Palestine in contemporary period, He just deals briefly with novel in Palestine before 1948.

    Method

    This is a descriptive-analytical research. First, the political, economic and social situation of Palestine were studied. Then, we examined the factors leading to the literary movement. Finally, the history of development of Palestinian novel from 1900 to 1948 was explored.

    Results and Discussion

    We could not see any novel that had been written in this period. Moreover, as there was disagreement about the first novel and its author, we could not do a precise analysis. There are some works that have studied Palestinian novel from 1900 to 1948, but this article explored all the novels, written from the beginning of the 20th century to 1948. The works show the responsibility of writer for his/her society, although most of them could not analyze the universal situation and colonial policies.
    Outline of the

    discussion

    Overall circumstances of the society and movement factors
    Palestine was socially under Ottoman regime`s tyranny, in which Turkish was officially recognized and Arabic discounted. Since 1920, immigration of Jews to Palestine began, an event that changed the future of the Palestinians dramatically. Economically, at the time of the Ottoman`s ruling, more than 70% of the Palestinian people were engaged in agriculture. It was not industrially developed either. Cultural and scientific status was in bad conditions too. It was only Seminaries that managed to make an important step in learning, by changing their approaches in purely religious teachings to modern teachings. In spite of these circumstances, there were changes in the community that were considered as movement factors, including press publication by the intellectuals and promotion of simplification in writing, expansion of schools for teaching new sciences, getting to know western literature and style of writing by Palestinians using translations of western works and printing houses.

    changing process in the content of the novels


    The close link between fictional literature and people's life and understanding it easily along with factors such as: dominant political conditions, increased awareness and literacy of the people towards the past led to increasing acceptance on this genre of literature. The first half of the twentieth century in the Palestinian fictional literature is the phase of experimentation and testing, since at the beginning, this genre of literary work was the result of the activity of novice novelists who had responded to the influential external factors and were eager to transform the fictional literature. So that the first efforts began with the translation of the western works. Khalil Beidas, Ahmed Al-Shaker al-Karami and Jamil Al-Bahri were the first to introduce translated fictional literature by publishing magazines. They emphasized on paying attention to fictional literature and were pioneers of that. Non-translation works were devoid of the main and technical indicators of this genre of literature, and were mostly imitation. There is a controversy over the first Palestinian non-translation novel, but there is consensus that it started since 1320. The content of the various novels that have been written from 1920 until 1948 is generally about issues like Palestine, the need for caring about community, and Vigilance, concerning the Jews. But the frankness that emerged after 1948`s literature is not to be seen in the fictional literature of this era, which is perhaps due to the conditions of the political community governing the community. Because, on the one hand, the authors did not have much political analytic power to inform the society about what will be happen. On the other hand, the emphasis on immitting them was arrested from their original mission, which is to focus the community on the reflection of the themes Social.

    Conclusion

    Not being independent as a state, disorganization of the independent government in the past in this region and not being able to profit from benefits like other Arab states are factors behind the lack of independence in the literature of this land. One of the characteristics that distinguishes Palestinian literature from other literatures is its relevance to time and place and addressing political issues. As the literature of this country is interwoven with politics, it is difficult to distinguish between literature and politics. But this is clearly the case of the twentieth century, especially after 1948. However, the same literature has its specific features. Content review of novels written before 1948 indicates that writers of this works were not familiar with political issues, superpower politics in the world, and how they interact with colonial, developing, and third world countries. The writers were satisfied with the superficial analysis in their works.

    Keywords: Novel, Palestine, Resistance, Nakba, 1984
  • Ali Pirani*, Soghra Falahati, Masoomeh Rabiee Pages 95-114
    Introduction

    Maqamah is a type of literary text that has enjoyed a broad and pervasive position in certain periods of Arabic literature; a number of notable writers such as Badi' al-Zaman al-Hamadani, al-Hariri, etc. as well as Nasif al-Yaziji in the contemporary era have worked in this area. Since the majority of sciences deal with literature, various aspects of text linguistics have formed a vast portion of linguistic studies. Halliday’s functional approach is one of the prominent theories in this area in which novel dimensions of text linguistics are analyzed based on its role or function. Albeit, there is an ongoing debate among critics regarding the level of cohesion in “Maqamat”. In this study, it was attempted to examine text cohesion factors and their concordance in Maqamah Saviyah al-Hariri in light of Halliday and Hasan’s theory. It is worth mentioning the fact that there has been numerous studies in the area of cohesion and Maqamat, yet there has been no research focusing on “cohesion” and “aesthetics” in “Maqamat al-Hariri”

    Review of Literature

    In their studies in 1976, the founders of text cohesion theory, Halliday and Hasan, examined texts and relations among sentences and named such connections as cohesion. According to the views of these two linguists, cohesion is a semantic concept which highlights semantic relations present in texts and specifies them either as textual or non-textual (Halliday, 1976). They indicated five factors including reference, substitution, ellipsis, lexical cohesion, and conjunction as tools creating cohesion in texts; in this paper, conjunction is investigated.

    Method

    In this study, it is attempted to examine Maqamah Saviyah al-Hariri through the descriptive analytical method regarding conjunction, i.e. one of the factors for text cohesion, so as to provide answers to the following research questions according to statistics and analysis on the functions of conjunctive devices:Which one of these subcategories (additive, causal, adversative, and temporal) are more frequent in Maqamah al-Hariri?
    What impact has the author’s mastery of employing language capabilities and forming a rhythmic prose had on the aesthetics of the text’s cohesion?

    Results and Discussion

    As one of the elements of text cohesion, conjunctions involve the presence of sematic relations between sentences in a text which, according to Halliday and Hasan, can be classified into four types including additive, causal, adversative, and temporal. Being the eleventh “maqamah”, the story of Maqamah Saviyah takes place in Saveh cemetery (of which the name “maqamah” is a derivative) and entails a number of moral points. In the story, the protagonist arrives at the corpse being buried and following a shocking speech often accompanied by Quranic verses and hadith as well as rhetorical devices, similes, allusions and metaphors, he reminds people of bitter truths which persuades them to contemplate; he then fills his sack of gifts from the people and leaves the place.
    In the Arabic language, devices for these conjunctive elements include “واو، فاء، لذا، لان، لکن، ثم…” which play a clear role in Maqamah and even daily spoken language, to the extent that textual imagination appears to be impossible without such devices; this is due to the fact that the presence of a relation between sentences is necessary for the text to become cohesive. It is worth mentioning that the most used additive device is the conjunctive, “واو”, which plays its role within independent sentences throughout the text and contributes to the text’s cohesion. Other devices such as “فاء” involve broader functions, playing a significant role in various areas such as additive, causal and conditionals; on the other hand, in addition to bringing conjunction to the text, conjunctive devices result in grammatical balance and phonetic unity in sentences, inducing certain musicality to the text which has led to the formal aesthetics along with an increased semantic power in the text.

    Conclusion

    According to the important results of the study, additive and adversative devices involved the highest and lowest frequency of use in Maqamah Saviyah with 64.4 and 2.3%, respectively, which is due to the descriptive nature of the text. Causal and conditional relations with 12.3% and temporal relation with a frequency of 18.8% connect the events of the story, denoting death and separation, similar to a chain. In other words, the story begins with death and separation and ends with the separation between the narrator and the protagonist, the former leaving from the right side towards southern winds while the latter, Abu Zeyd Sarouji going left towards the northern wind. In addition to bringing semantic cohesion to the text, the use of conjunctions have also enhanced the aesthetic aspects of Maqamah.

    Keywords: Text Linguistics, Halliday, Ruqayya Hasan, Maqamah Saviyah al-Hariri, Cohesion, Aesthetic Aspects of Maqamah
  • Mahin Hajizadeh*, Sedighe Hosseini Pages 115-143
    Introduction

    Frankenstein fi Baghdad is the novel by the Iraqi novelist Ahmad Saadawi. The setting of the novel is the capital of Iraq in the years 2005-2006, during the American invasion, a time of chaos and terrorism that preceded the start of the civil war. This Gothic-postmodernist novel focusing on fear and death describes the crisis of identity and the fragmented subject and recreates the terror by creating an atmosphere of horror. The novel depicts the black and meaningless experience of its region. It creates a personality (monster) with a fragmented identity and is, in fact, a part of the selfhood that has been repressed. Saadawi’s monster is called Shesmeh. Shesmeh or the creation of an imaginary being trying to enforce justice makes itself more frightened because the Whatsitsname (Shesmeh) must kill others and cut off their organs in order to survive. On the other hand it shows the suppressed section of human which is the creator of violence and horror. Despite aversion to violence, death will be highlighted in this novel in this way.

    Theoretical Framework

    Gothic postmodernist has changed Gothic within the paradigm of post modernism literary and has no significant difference with Gothic before this period. According to studies on Gothic-postmodernism, postmodernist theory can exhibit the same preoccupation and is obsessed with the concepts of terror and haunting: Derrida’s ‘hauntology’, Baudrillard’s ‘symbolic death’, Lyotard’s terror in the sublime/ unpresentable, and Žižek’s interpretation of Lacan and Freud’s ‘Ding’ (Beville, 2009). The Gothic principles based on fear are intensified in the postmodern novel, and the horror comes out of entertainment. The result of such anxiety and fear is the ontological exploration and the individuality proof.
    Accordingly, the main elements of the Gothic-postmodern novel include fantasy, sublime terror and unpresentable and symbolic death, fragmented subject, the fluidity of place and time, hyper-reality and blurring the lines between reality and fantasy.

    Method

    This research uses a descriptive-analytical method to study the elements of the Gothic-postmodernism in this novel. This method describes the characteristics of the Gothic Postmodernism in this novel and analyzes its effects on it by using the data which are available in the text.

    Results and Discussion

    The place and the streets become source of fear and terror because of environmental factors. This novel explores the traumatic realities of a place in which death can come at any minute. For example consecutive explosion in the street, a creature that mutilates humans, wandering ghosts, jinns, old buildings in Batavi alley, spread the unpresentable horror everywhere and create sublime terror experience. Shesmeh as a monster comites the crimes in the middle of night in the lonly streets and alleyes and it becomes impossible to separate innocent from the guilty.
    Another element of Gothic Postmodernism in this novel is the examples of hyperreality due to its creation of a world of fantasy. The media play with reality and instead of reproducing reality, they produce a compact of similar images, so that they are suspended between reality and imagination. In the end of the novel, the media blames Hadi as a criminal instead of Shesmeh.
    For that different interpretations of justice, media, journals, TV, political and security officials cause the loss of reality. As a result the only thing to escape from all these naming is death. It is only death can escape simulation and hyperreality.

    Conclusion

    By creating a gap between morality and knowledge, a suspense and a lack of ontological understanding, the Frankenstein fie Baghdad novel creates the sublime terror that is unrepresentative. Shesmeh or Frankenstein is an imaginary creature haunted by ghosts, and there are pieces of the body of the innocent and sinful human beings in it. This makes it hard to judge who is guilty or innocent. It is enough to turn objective terror into subjective horror. The different beliefs among the Iraqi people and the multiple features of the society are portrayed in the body of Shesmeh, but the result is nothing more than the horror. Fantasy, sublime terror and unpresentable and symbolic death, fragmented subject, the fluidity of place and time, hyper-reality are visible in this novel. The fluidity of the place, the spreading of horror throughout the city, the horror in the alleys and houses, the reality simulation by choosing a name for the monster of the story by characters, makes the author correctly depict the sublime horror, the symbolic death and fragmented subject.

    Keywords: Gothic-postmodernism, Sublime terror, Frankenstein fi Baghdad, Ahmad Saadawi
  • Abdul Rahim Haghdadi*, Mohammad Reza Azizi Pages 145-166
    1.Introduction

    As for their shared geographical neighborhood, Iranians and Arabs have had long-lasting political, commercial and cultural exchanges. In the linguistic arena, they have been borrowing words from each other in order to fill the lexical gaps in their languages and make their languages richer. Arabic has borrowed hundreds of words from Persian although Persian is an Indo-European and Arabic Semitic language, and the morphological systems of the two are very different. Also, because the number of letters in the Persian alphabet does not correspond with the Arabic alphabet, Persian loan-words undergo special changes during the transition to Arabic in order to adapt to its morphological and phonetic system.

    2. Review of Literature

    The theoretical basis of this research rests on the premise that some Persian words making their way into Arabic evolve inside the phonetic system of that language. Later, the Persian origin of these words are forgotten and Persian speakers use their Arabicized (Mu’arrab) forms. In this study, some Persian loan-words along with their Arabic version as an entry were collected, and their meaning was investigated both in Arabic and Persian. At the same time, evidence from the Quranic verses as well as Arabic and Persian poetry was given for each. As Persian words have undergone serious changes during different periods of transition from Old Persian to Pahlavi and from Pahlavi to Dari, the qalb, ebdāl and tashīf processes of these words in the course of the Arabicization have made them more difficult to identify. The novelty of this research lies in the identification of this process in the exchanges between the two languages and also in the examination of some of these lexical units in their original Persian as well as their transformed Arabic version. Although there are many considerable sources for the Arabicized and foreign words in Arabic used in this article, no independent research has been found on the subject of the study. The authors of this paper intend to review and analyze the examples of these Arabicized words which have been introduced from Persian into Arabic and have changed in Arabic and later have returned into Persian in their transformed Arabic forms.

    3.Method

    The research data was compiled from the printed and electronic documents. After collecting the words from different sources, they were examined using a descriptive and analytical method to answer the main question of the research. Identifying the Persian version of the words along with their Arabicized forms required an etymological approach.

    4.Results and Discussion

    The lack of use of the original form of some words in Persian and the widespread use of their Arabic counterparts instead seems a significant lexical phenomenon in Persian. To study this, more than forty Arabicized words were introduced in this article out of which twenty one were thoroughly examined and the remaining ones were considered in brief. Examples include words like gaval, kande, dehgan, talesan, pardis, etc. which are no more used in Persian, or if used, such as abrizeh, andazeh, chang, gohar and piadeh, they convey a different meaning as compared to their Arabic forms. Evidence suggests that the Arabicization of Persian words started from the Age of Ignorance, but grew stronger in the Islamic period and became particularly impressive in some areas. However, it seems that the alteration of foreign words in the course of Arabicization has not been a deliberate or conscious measure to preserve and protect Arabic language, but rather an inherent characteristic of Arabic. This is due to the fact that during the Age of Ignorance at the dawn of Islam, many Persian words were openly introduced and integrated into Arabic. Examples of such words are ebriq, sondos, estabraq, jonah, and sanj etc. Accordingly, if such a process was purposeful, certain rules were expected to be drafted for it over centuries, but the rules of Arabicization have always been founded on usage or custom.

    5.Conclusion

    The re-use of the Arabic form of Persian words among Persian speakers reveals the dynamic and extensive volume of relations between the two cultures. Persian men of letters and literarians of the late periods preferred the Arabic form of the words to their original Persian structure either for the sacredness of the Arabic language, its dominance, or the ease of pronunciation of some of the Arabicized words. Since many of these terms have disappeared in Persian and they are only used in Persian in their Arabic form, they bear a significant importance in the historical studies on Persian language.

    Keywords: Lexical exchange, Mu’arrab, loanword, Persian, Arabic
  • Vahid Sabzianpoor*, Samireh Khosravi Pages 167-193



    Gerard Genette considers the story as a "narrative message" and studies the story with a systematic approach By plotting the time pattern and determining the factors influencing the suspension and acceleration of a story from the point of view of time, he tries to assess the extent of the narrator's involvement in quoting a story and thus highlight the meaningful meanings and timeless times of the story.The story in the form of social Rmantsym with the aim of drawing the harmful consequences of poverty and deprivation in the lives of women and girls orphaned by the symbolism of nature is written.This article attempts to speed up the move by the time this story narrative and temporal patterning technique based on four Gérard Genette"In short, omission, interruption descriptive scenes" consider.The acceleration and inertia story Using a descriptive analytical method and based on examples of the story, the level of semantic interpretation of the story is shown using a structural analysis and answers to this question to what extent it has been affected by semantic intentions and what are the most significant reduction techniques and increased its acceleration? This is the story of two teenage birth to Martha, and the final night of his life is indivisible In conclusion, When the story first section of the high speed and acceleration and removal techniques and briefly had the most applications But in the second part of the culmination of the story counts, has been decelerating and Two techniques are described lag and display the main role in this decline had accelerated.

  • Nemat Azizi*, Ali Nazari, Sayed Mahmoud Mirzaee Pages 195-219
    Introduction

    In the modern era, the United States of America has been the cause of warfare and tensions in various countries through its interventionist policies. Palestine is a country that has been subject to the interference of the US; by providing arms and diplomatic support for the occupying regime of Israel, the US has brought about a variety of sufferings to the people of Palestine. This has led to the reaction of Palestinian poets against the actions and policies of the US. These poets have been striving to offer a comprehensive visualization of the US through their poems.

    Review of Literature

    Visualization is a common term in the old and new Arabic criticism through which poets attempt to visualize a certain subject using a variety of techniques. Techniques derived from old rhetorical sciences including simile, metaphor, and allusion as well as the new techniques such as symbols, niqab, etc. Using these techniques, the poet seeks to convey a subject with maximum influence. Meanwhile, the contemporary poetry of Palestine has been the reflection of developments of a country in which numerous enemies have interfered following its occupation. These poets hold the US accountable for the majority of warfare and global issues, resulting in their attempts to visualize these notions within their poems.
    Examinations showed that there has been numerous studies conducted in the area of visualization in Poetry; in a paper titled, “Visualization Methods and Psychological Implications of Modern Arabic Poetry in Yemen” (2012) written by Khalid Valid Hassan al-Gazali, first the concept of poetic imagery is expressed and then samples of simile, embodiment, mystery, and qena’a in contemporary poetry of Yemen are analyzed. In another paper titled, “The Image of Mayakovsky in the Poems of Abdulwahhab Bayati and Sherko Bekas” (2012), the authors including Khalil Parvini, Hadi Nazari Monazzam, and Kaveh Khezri conducted a comparative examination of poetic imagery within the works of Abdulwahhab Bayati and Sherko Bekas. In his Master’s thesis titled, “Poetic Imagery of Azzedine Mihoubi” (2010), Abdulrazzaq Belqais from Buzaria’a University (Algeria) examined the concept of poetic imagery within the old and new criticism followed by an investigation of the most important poetic imagery including mystery, myth, simile, etc. in poems of Azzedine Mihoubi.
    Subsequently, given the absence of any inquiries on the techniques used in contemporary poems of Palestine to visualize the US, it is a new subject which involves scientific innovations and demonstrates the necessity of conducting the present study.

    Method

    With the purpose of examining and describing how the US is visualized in the works of Palestinian poets, the present study seeks to particularly investigate symbols and niqab as the most important techniques used to visualize the US within the modern Palestinian poetry using the descriptive-analytical method. To this end, samples taken from works of poets including Mahmoud Darwish, Sumaih al-Qasim, Fadwa Tawqan, Shafiq Habib, Raed Salah, Ahmed al-Muflah, Muhammad Siyam, Aref al-Sabah, Abdulhalim Abu Aliya, Yousef al-Khatib, and Ibn Khaniyous.

    Results and Discussion

    In this study, a variety of diwans[1] by prominent Palestinian poets such as Kamal Qanim, Raed Salah, Ahmed al-Muflah, Shafiq Habib, Muhammad Siyam, Aref al-Sabah, Sumaih al-Qasim, Fadwa Tawqan, Abdulhalim Abu Aliya, Mahmoud Darwish, Yousef al-Khatib, and Saleh Farwanah were examined. In the poems written by these poets, the US has a very destructive, negative image which are visualized in a variety of forms using different techniques.

    Conclusion

    These poets have offered such imagery using different techniques such as symbols and niqab; the US is symbolized as crocodiles, dogs, crows, wolves, vipers, and worn ropes so as to visualize the nature and main features of the US as a hypocritical, disgraceful, ominous, brutal, and dissolute nation and to show its tyranny and early collapse. The slaughter of Palestinian children on one hand and the condemnation of such cruelty by American authorities on the other hand are reasons why the “crocodile tears” was used as a symbol of the American hypocrisy. Dogs are regarded as a symbol of disgraceful Americans who have infiltrated the untainted sanctum of certain lands, while the crow symbolizes their ominousness and denotes the destruction caused by these people. The wolf is a symbol of their brutality in mass murders during wars, particularly in the Iraq war. The viper signifies the tyranny of the US who has devoured the entire world. Finally, the worn rope is a symbol of the early collapse of any covenants between the US and the occupying regime of Israel which is soon expected to break down.
    Niqab is another technique employed by Palestinian poets to visualize the US. The US presidents were masked with images of Nero, the tyrant emperor and the insane Roman, in order to demonstrate their war-mongering attitude and Kaiser-like insanity in a broader sense. The Mongol Hulagu Khan is another niqab associated with the US which signifies the barbarity of the US against other nations, especially Iraq. The severity and multitude of the US’s offenses against other nations have resulted in these poets to associate the mask of Mars, the Roman God of War, with America to point out the country’s thirst for warfare, having gathered all of its focus on conflicts and hostilities. The tempting Satan is another mask associated with the US to point out its deceptive policies; policies through which it is attempted to entice Palestinians to leave their own lands.
    Not only did the contemporary Palestinian poets have offered such imagery with respect to the interference of the US in Palestine and its arms and diplomatic support of Israel, but also with regards to the long, destructive Vietnam War, two wars in Iraq, interference in Cuba, the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the slaughter of Native Americans, the slavery and torture of black people, etc.

    [1]. A collection of poems

    Keywords: Visualization, America, Palestine, Symbol, Niqab
  • Hassan Majidi*, Ali Novkarizi Pages 221-243
    1.Introduction

    The most successful and the closest translation of Arabic taste and poem is done by Ahmad Safi Najafi. One of the reasons for his successful translation was his prolonged stay in Iran and his good acquaintance with Persian language. According to Yousef Hussein Bakar, the best translations of the Rubaiyat, the translation of Ahmad Safi Najafi, belongs to the Iraqi poet called Abdul Haq Fadhil, an Iraqi literate (Bakkar, 1957). Safi started learning Persian and began to learn Persian in a short period of time through books and people, and this language gave him the opportunity to become acquainted with the treasures of Persian books (Salehi, 1970). Thus, Arabs named Safi Najafi Khayyam al-Arab because the Khayyam's spirits flow into his chest, and his genius has been transferred to him (Safi, 1961).

    2. Review of Literature


    The main task and function of comparative literature in Arabic language, Aladb al-Muqaren, is comparing the literary works written in different languages and revealing the similarities and differences between them from different aspects. Adaptive literature speaks of the literary relation of different nations and reflects their literature as compared with each other (Fakhr, 2007). In comparative study of the works, the researcher can discover how the thoughts and common points of human thoughts can be influenced in different fields (Nosratzadegan, 2008).

    3.Method

    This study examines similar poems from two poets (Khayyam Neishabouri and Safi Najafi) using the French school method in the comparative literature with semantic similarity to explain the similar and different ideas. The French school in the comparative literature believes in the influence between two literary and linguistic differences.

    4.Results and Discussion

    Both poets express their thoughts openly; sometimes they use ridiculous expressions. Not paying attention to the past and the future are two elements of the philosophy of Khayyam, which Khayyam repeats abundantly and calls on everyone to take advantage of good moments. Safi, like Khayyam, comes to life in the present time. There are similarities in the views of both poets about the passion of the world. Khayyam caused the interest of the world to be distressed, and it was distant from reason and wisdom. Khayyam says that the world and what is in it is going to be destroyed; therefore, it is not worthy of man to be interested in it. These two poets invite human beings to avoid the world and interest in it. The belief in the destruction of the world is considered to be the cause of a tendency towards comfort and beauty. Both poets are sorry for the loss of their young age, and they rejoice in their poems. Both poets spoke of the end of the happy young age. It can be said that the functions and meanings that both poets have used in their poems of wine is very close to each other. And at first glance, the reflection of Khayyam's thoughts and meanings on the issue of wine is evident in Safi's poems as well. Both poets consider wine as a source of goodness and liberation from wisdom and thought. The viewpoints of Safi and Khayyam are shared by this attitude, and both have the same attitude towards time. Najafi regards the era as an enemy that always attempts to perish; he sees the time as a gambler that never wins the game and the gamble.

    5.Conclusion

    The story of Ahmad Safi Najafi and his eight-year-old life in Iran, his knowledge of Persian literature, his interest in Khayyam's thoughts and beliefs about the poet and the philosopher and the translation of his poems, and in some cases, the similarity of the beliefs and spirit of these two poets in their poems reveal the views and thoughts of Khayyam reflected in the thoughts of this Iraqi poet. By studying Safi's poems, it is clear that Khayyam's thoughts are effective in the philosophy of ideology, and the similarities between the two poets are more than their differences. Some of these effects and contributions are evident in some cases, such as missing out on the present, avoiding interest in the world, regretting young days, praising wine, and complaining about the times. Meanings of not losing the present in Najafi's poems are like Khayyam's Rubaiyat. The love of the world in their eyes causes sadness and a lack of greed due to the wisdom and source of happiness. Complaints and protests are used greatly in their poems. They find the way to the sweet, so they both invite wine and use good moments, especially young ones. Safi Najafi's poems have been truly influenced by the structures, words, and sometimes the themes of Khayyam's poems.

    Keywords: Khayyam Neyshabouri, Ahmad Safi Najafi, Boasting the present, loving the world, Youth, Praying wine, Complain of the days
  • Balasem Mohseni Pages 245-273
    1.Introduction

    Oral literature is a part of “folklore”. The word folklore includes words “folk” and “lore”, and refers to “common knowledge”. It also deals with aesthetic aspects present in works of common culture. As a virtue, this term asserts the functional kinship between the written and spoken worlds in which artistic applications of the human language are divided.

    2. Theoretical Framework and Literature Review


    In the Arabic language, the term “Tirath al-Sha’abi” refers to common knowledge which involves a vast knowledge that encompasses folk literature, i.e. “al-Adab al-Sha’abi”. Another term in this field is “al-Adab al-Darij” which refers to “popular literature”. This term is accurately selected since it deals with the oral literature audience. It also points out the language used in these works, which includes local language, i.e. “al-loqah al-Darijah”. In this study, oral, common, or popular literature are regarded as equivalents. The only difference is that each of these terms focus on a particular aspect in this literature; oral literature deals with the oral transmission of information, while common literature is focused on the author and origin, and popular literature pays attention to the audience.
    The term “folklore” was first used in 1846 by the British researcher, William Thomas. Since then, the term was globally accepted. This term deals with the side of the culture that is defined against formal culture; yet, its scope and domain is very extensive. In the field of literature, the term oral literature is much more efficient. The term “oral literature” was used since the beginning of the 20th century. However, it bears a more particular concept compared to folklore. In the field of Arabic literature, oral literature did not flourish during the Umayyad era. In that era, the most prominent form of poetry was ode (qasida); Arab poets of the time would incorporate their poetic concepts, ranging from epics, hymns, and eulogies to descriptions of separation and departure, in the form of odes. The most significant advocate of the Arabic language and literature, the Umayyad caliphate, considerably asserted the conservation of the Arabic dignity, insisting on how this language should not be integrated with other inferior languages. Nevertheless, the beginning of the Abbasid era brought about the emergence of folk literature, while the collapse of this caliphate led to the expansion and flourishing of this type of literature. As the Abbasid caliphate came to an end, its formal and powerful genre of literature, i.e. odes, lost its main advocate, paving the way for the prominence of other genres, particularly oral literature. Subsequently, the Arabic oral literature can be classified into two parts: since 132 to 656, and 656 to the current era (Nak. Alkhaledi, 2010: 49, 57). Since the 7th century, the Arabic literature was significantly oriented towards applying various types of folk poetry other than odes such as al-Dubait, Mawaliyah, and Zajal (al-Rafei, 2001). There are numerous examples of this type of poetry in books such as Wafi al-Wafiyat.

    3.Method

    The present descriptive-analytical study seeks to provide an appropriate answers to the research question: what are the causes behind the emergence and growth of the Arabic oral literature, as well as examining the literary genres in this type of literature? The causes include: urbanization and familiarity with the literature of other nations, the collapse of the Abbasid caliphate, the reign of Musha'sha'iyyah, different historical and geographical contexts, familiarity with the West, religion and ideology, music and singing, books and publications, cultural institutions, and manpower.
    Oral literature genres include classic forms such as poetry, Muwashshah, al-Dubait, Zajal, Qoumah, Makan, and Mawwal. New forms of poetry include long poems such as Murabba’a, Andalusian Muwashshah, Amoudi, Rajodi, and new poetry. Short forms of poetry include short poems of the second branch of new poetry. This type of poems are mostly Do-baytī, and can be classified into two groups, including congruent and incongruent rhymes: the former includes Abuziah, Maimer, Haat, and Attab. The latter group with incongruent rhymes include Nael, Daremi, Houwsah, and Choubiyah.

    4.Results and Discussion

    In this paper, factors including caliphate, the reign of Musha'sha'iyyah, different historical and geographical contexts of Arab countries, and nationalism were investigated. Furthermore, various genres of Arabic oral literature, classic forms of Arabic oral literature such as Mawaliyah and Zajal, new forms such as Murabba’a, folk Muwashshah, short poetry, different types such as Hada’a and Rukbaniyah, and others were examined. Also for the first time, a novel classification of Arabic oral literature is presented in this study. Finally, it was concluded that the Arabic oral literature involves three important historical periods that constitute three stages during which this type of literature was emerged.

    5.Conclusion

    Given the examinations carried out in this study, it can be concluded that the emergence and growth of Arabic oral literature involved three stages; in the first stage, the Arabic literature was introduced to other cultures and civilizations such as Iran and Andalusia. In this era, the emergence of various literary types can be observed for the first time such as al-dubait, Mawaliyah, and Zajal. The second stage took place during the 7th century when the central caliphate was collapsed. In that period, oral genres quickly became pervasive, reaching different Islamic lands through commercial caravans and narrators. The third stage began since the 9th century during the reign of Musha'sha'iyyah in Khuzestan and reached its peak in the 11th century. This is the period where Persian and Arabic literature were combined. In the Musha'sha'iyyah era, poets became familiar with Persian literature through various means such as understanding the Persian language, religious and political commonalities, and geographical adjacency which resulted in a number of innovations in Arabic folk literature; these innovations included reciting Mawaliyah in new structures, presence of Attab poetry, and Abuziyah recitation.

    Keywords: Arabic Oral Literature, Different Arabic Oral Types, Folklore