فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 79 (پاییز 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/07/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
|
  • فریده آفرین*، معصومه شکوری صفحات 5-16

    بی علاقگی یکی از ویژگی های اساسی تجربه زیباشناختی قرن هجدهم بریتانیا و آلمان است. در این پژوهش با روش تحلیلی-تطبیقی، چیستی مولفه ها و وجوه بی علاقگی در شاخه آلمانی آن مورد بررسی قرار می گیرد. هدف از شناخت وجوه بی علاقگی، ایجاد تمایز میان تجربه ی زیباشناختی و سایر تجارب شناختی، اخلاقی و نیز ذوقی است. قائل شدن به چنین تفکیکی، از جستجو در آرای کانت حاصل شده است. اما آیا دیدگاهی به این سرسختانه که در مرحله اول به خودمختاری و جدایی تجربه و امر زیباشناختی از سایر تجارب می انجامد، در تفکر شوپنهاور و نیچه هم قابل پیگیری است؟ این پژوهش با تامل در زیباشناسی سه متفکر یعنی کانت؛ شوپنهاور و نیچه، بی علاقگی را در سه دسته نظری، عملی و حسی قابل تقسیم می بیند و بر این نکته تاکید می کند که کانت در هر سه شاخه با رادیکال ترین نحوه نگاه، زمینه اساسی اندیشه شوپنهاور و نیچه را فراهم آورده است. نتیجه اینکه شوپنهاور با تغییراتی در این رویکرد، همچنان نوکانتی باقی می ماند، اما مسیر حرکت نیچه به منزله یک متفکر پساکانتی در بخش بی علاقگی حسی (به ویژه در تبارشناسی اخلاق)، به جهت رویکرد و تاکیدات متفاوت، از تفکر کانت فاصله می گیرد. از این رو، این پژوهش رویکرد کانت را سرسخت، دید شوپنهاور را منعطف و نگاه نیچه را در بحث بی علاقگی، ضعیف ارزیابی می کند.

    کلیدواژگان: زیبایی، امر زیبا، بی علاقگی، تجربه ی زیباشناختی، زیباشناسی آلمانی
  • آزیتا شکوهی *، اصغر فهیمی فر صفحات 17-22

    برخی از ا لگوها مانند مادینه روان (آنیما) و نرینه روان (آنیموس)، جنبه فعال تری دارند. منظور از آنیما، توصیف جنبه های زنانه ضمیر ناخودآگاه یک مرد است و همچنین آنیموس، برای توصیف صفات مردانه یک زن به کار می رود. این کهن الگوها می توانند در قالب یک فرم بصری بروز کنند و به طور مستقیم یا غیر مستقیم، در طراحی آرم یا نشانه تاثیر داشته باشند. پژوهش حاضر، به روش توصیفی - تحلیلی است. گردآوری داده ها با استفاده از اسناد و منابع کتابخانه ای انجام شده است. هدف از این پژوهش، بررسی و نقد کهن الگویی دو آرم آب و فاضلاب و آتش نشانی، بر اساس دو کهن الگوی آنیما و آنیموس است. طراحی آرم به عنوان یک بیان تصویری که سابقه ای کهن دارد، خود نیز بیان نمادینی است که می تواند نمادهایی را به همراه داشته باشد که برگرفته از اسطوره ها، کهن الگوها و افکار اجدادیمان است. به موازات این امر، وجود کهن الگوهایی همچون آنیما و آنیموس، ممکن است در طراحی آرم ها تاثیر گذار باشد. ضمن تجزیه و تحلیل کهن الگویی آرم های آب و فاضلاب و آتش نشانی بر اساس تئوری یونگ، می توان نتیجه گرفت که در آرم آب و فاضلاب، تاثیر کهن الگوی آنیما و آرم آتش نشانی، تاثیر کهن الگوی آنیموس مشاهده می شود.

    کلیدواژگان: کهن الگو، آنیما، آنیموس، آرم، آب فاضلاب، آتش نشانی
  • فاطمه رحیمی* صفحات 23-30
    مطابق با نشانه شناسی امبرتو اکو، نشانه ی تصویری در هنر نقاشی، تنها بازسازی شماری از مشخصه های موضوع است که پس از گزینش برخی از آنها بر اساس رمزگان شناسایی و مطابق با قراردادهای گرافیکی، در یک بستر فرهنگی ایجاد می شود و همین امر باعث دریافت اثر از سوی مخاطبین می شود. اکو با رد واقع نمایی بازنمایی های تصویری به موضوع «ابداع»: «ابداع معتدل» و «ابداع رادیکال» می پردازد. او در تحلیل های نشانه شناختی خود در حوزه ی نقاشی، ضمن توجه به آثار کلاسیک و مدرن، ترفند ابداع در این گونه آثار را، نه به معنای خلاقیت زیباشناسانه، بلکه صرفا به عنوان یکی از شیوه های تولید نشانه معرفی می کند. با این حال، در اینجا مواردی نظیر زبان فردی، ابهام و پوشیدگی معنا، خود انعکاسی رمزگان و ایجاد نقش های نشانه ای جدید، بحث را به سمت یک نشانه شناسی ادراکی و همچنین تحلیل زیبا شناختی اثر هنری و هرمنوتیک مدرن سوق می دهد. نگارنده در این مقاله با روش توصیفی - تحلیلی، ضمن بررسی نشانه شناسی تصویری اکو، وجه پیوند نشانه شناسی ادراکی و هرمنوتیک مدرن را در آرای این اندیشمند ایتالیایی مورد واکاوی قرار داده است. نتایج پژوهش بیانگر آن است که در نشانه شناسی هنر اکو، نشانه ی تصویری، یک واحد روایی است که در نسبت با جهان متن معنا می یابد؛ از این رو در تحلیل های نشانه شناختی، نه بر وجه قراردادی نشانه ها بلکه باید به کاربردشناسی روایت توجه نمود.
    کلیدواژگان: «هنر نقاشی»، «ابداع»، «نشانه تصویری»، «هرمنوتیک مدرن»، «نشانه شناسی ادراکی»
  • شقایق چیت ساز*، احمد ندایی فرد، بهمن نامور صفحات 31-42

    خوانش آثار هنری، با بهره گیری از روش های نقد اسطوره ای در ایران، یا بسیار ناشناخته باقی مانده است و یا به چند روش معروف نظیر سرنمونی یونگی، تک اسطوره ی کمبلی و نقد گونه شناسانه ی نوتروپ فرای، محدود شده است. روش های دیگر نظیر اسطوره سنجی، اسطوره کاوی و اسطوره متن که از جمله روش های کاربردی در تحلیل آثارهنری است، هنوز در سطح کشور کم شناخته باقی مانده است. از سوی دیگر، طیف های متنوع آثار هنرهای تجسمی و کاربردی با روش های مختلف نقد اسطوره ای، بارها مورد واکاوی قرار گرفته است. اما هنر زیورآلات؛ به مثابه ی هنرهای صناعی و کاربردی، نه تنها از حوزه ی نقد مغفول مانده، بلکه در حوزه ی نقدهای اسطوره ای نیز مطرح نشده است. جستار حاضر، به روش توصیفی - تحلیلی و تاریخی، با بهره گیری از روش اسطوره سنجی ژیلبر دوران انجام شده است. بررسی روش نقد اسطوره سنجی، سپس خوانش و واکاوی "زیورآرایه های باغ ایرانی" با استفاده از این روش، از جمله اهداف پژوهش حاضر است. جستار حاضر، به دنبال پاسخگویی به این سوال است که اسطوره ی کلان مستتر در "زیورآرایه های باغ ایرانی" که در ارتباط مستقیم با زندگی شخصی مولفان آثار است و نگارندگان را در یافتن اسرار مستتر در این مصنوعات، همراهی کرده است، چیست؟ توجه در مضمون کلی و همچنین جزئیات در خور پیکره ی مطالعاتی مورد نظر نوشتار - زیورآرایه های باغ ایرانی-  نگارندگان را به این نتیجه رهنمون کرد که تمام موتیف ها و مضامین مستتر در ساختار مصنوعات، هرکدام به نحوی با اسطوره ی کلان "آرمان شهر" در ارتباط است.

    کلیدواژگان: اسطوره سنجی، ژیلبردوران، زیورآلات، زیورآرایه ی باغ ایرانی
  • فرزانه فلاحی، بهزاد سلیمانی* صفحات 43-50
    نگرش به برند، یک مفهوم مهم مرتبط با رفتار مصرف کننده است که می تواند به عنوان یک ارزیابی نسبتا پایدار از یک نام تجاری، منجر به تقویت رفتار مصرف کننده بشود. با توجه به اینکه لوگو ازجمله دارایی های ارزشمند یک برند است، در صورت طراحی مناسب، می تواند تاثیری مثبت در نگرش مشتریان به برند ایجاد نماید. هدف این پژوهش، بررسی تطبیقی تاثیر لوگوها از منظر نشانه شناسی چارلز سندرس پیرس بر نگرش افراد به برند با تمرکز بر مشتریان سه بانک مسکن، کشاورزی و پست بانک ایران بوده است. روش تحقیق توصیفی پیمایشی و جامعه آماری، مشتریان سه بانک مذکور با تعداد 380 نفر و دسته بندی لوگو بانک ها بر مبنای سه گانه های شمایل، نمایه و نماد بوده است. تحلیل داده ها نشان داد که طرح لوگوی بانک ها، بر نگرش مشتریان به برند این سه بانک اثربخش است و لوگوی بانک مسکن، با رابطه شمایلی میان دال و مدلولش، بالاترین رتبه را در ایجاد نگرش مثبت کسب کرد. لوگوهای بانک کشاورزی و پست بانک با رابطه های نمایه ای و نمادین میان دال و مدلول خود در مراتب بعدی قرار گرفتند. به عبارتی؛ کاربست نشانه های شمایلی در لوگوهای تجاری، می تواند نگرش مثبت تری نسبت به یک برند ایجاد نماید که عواملی چون وفاداری مشتری به برند، ایجاد حس تمایل در انتخاب و تداوم در بهره مندی از آن برند و... را درپی خواهد داشت.
    کلیدواژگان: لوگو، نشانه شناسی، نگرش به برند، بانک مسکن، بانک کشاورزی، پست بانک ایران
  • سعید اخوانی، فتانه محمودی* صفحات 51-64
    فالنامه های مصور دوره صفوی از چند جنبه دارای اهمیت فراوانی هستند. با توجه به این که فالنامه از نخستین نسخ موجود مکتب قزوین به شمار می رود، نگاره های آن از جنبه ی سبک شناختی دارای ارزش مطالعاتی بسیاری است. اهمیت دیگر آن به ارتباط بینامتنی نگاره ها با متون چندگانه ی عصر خویش که شکل دهنده ی مضامینی مختلف در یک راستای مشخص است، بازمی گردد و دیگر این که هنر نگارگری برخلاف کارکرد معمولش در سنت کتاب آرایی و تصویرسازی متون ادبی، این بار در کارکردی متفاوت ظاهرشده است. بدین ترتیب نگاره های فالنامه به لحاظ معنامندی، از ساختاری چندلایه تشکیل شده اند. مسئله این است که چه لایه های معنایی آشکار و پنهانی در نگاره های فالنامه های عصر صفوی حضور دارند؟ در این مقاله تلاش شده است تا با روش توصیفی-تحلیلی، نگاره های فالنامه نسخه طهماسبی (پراکنده) طبق الگوی آیکونولوژی، خوانش و در مراحل سه گانه ی آن مورد تحلیل قرار بگیرد. نتیجه این پژوهش نشان داد که وجود مضامین دینی و قرآنی و همچنین فراوانی این مضامین نسبت به دیگر مضامین در نگاره های فالنامه طهماسبی (پراکنده) در جهت ایجاد این تلقی بوده که فالنامه کتابی منطبق بر سنت استخاره و در نتیجه از نظر شرع بدون اشکال است و در کنار آن نیز دیگر باورها از طریق مضامین غیردینی نگاره ها فرصت حیات یافته اند.
    کلیدواژگان: نگارگری، مکتب قزوین، فالنامه طهماسبی (پراکنده)، نقد هنری، آیکونولوژی
  • سعید خودداری، الهام اکبری* صفحات 65-76

    مطالعه بر روی نسخه های خطی نشان می دهد یکی از عواملی که باعث گردیده تا شیوه ی تازه ای از نگارش و به دنبال آن چینش های مختلف و متنوعی از خطوط و تزیینات در صفحات یک نسخه شکل بگیرد، مورب نویسی است. اما مطالعاتی که سیر تحول و تکامل این شیوه نگارش را نشان دهد، تا کنون انجام نشده است. نگارندگان در این پژوهش برای یافتن پاسخی به این پرسش ها که: مورب نویسی از چه زمانی و درکدام نسخه ها آغاز شد؟ چگونه به عنصری برای صفحه آرایی تبدیل شد؟ و چگونه بر دیگر عوامل تزیینی صفحه تاثیر گذاشت؟، نسخه هایی با موضوعات مختلف و پیش از سده نهم را در کتابخانه های داخل و خارج از کشور به روش تحلیلی- توصیفی مورد مطالعه قرار داده اند. در نتیجه ی این پژوهش، قدیم ترین مورب نویسی متعلق به نسخه های علمی سده چهارم شناخته شده است، همچنین مورب نویسی در صفحه آرایی، موجب ایجاد تنوع در نحوه چینش سطور در جهت ممانعت از یکنواختی صفحات و استفاده بهینه از تمامی فضای پیرامونی یک صفحه گردیده است و علاوه بر آنها، مورب نویسی عاملی شده است برای اضافه شدن عناصر جدیدی همچون سرلوح مورب و لچکی ها به آرایه های تزیینی یک نسخه.

    کلیدواژگان: نسخه های خطی اسلامی، مورب نویسی، صفحه آرایی، سده چهارم تا نهم قمری
  • علیرضا شیخی*، زینب خلوصی راد صفحات 77-88

    مسجد جامع گناباد، یکی از سه مسجد باقیمانده ی دو ایوانی خراسان به سبک رازی و از یادگارهای عصر خوارزمشاهی است. تزیینات این مسجد، شامل آجرکاری در تزیینات هندسی، کتیبه و گچ بری در تزیینات گیاهی است. مقاله حاضر به تببین تزیینات آجری و گچ بری و مطالعه آرایه ها و تحلیل بصری کتیبه های ایوان جنوبی مسجد پرداخته است. حروف و کلمات کتیبه های مسجد جامع گناباد در قالب چه ساختار و نظامی و بر چه مبنایی طراحی شده اند؟ روش پژوهش توصیفی- تحلیلی و در این راستا از منابع میدانی و کتابخانه ای بهره برده شده است. در طراحی این کتیبه ها، یک دستی حروف و آرایه ها در سطح کتیبه نسبت به تزیینات حاشیه وحدت در کتیبه ایجاد نموده است. در این سیر، سادگی عناصر نوشتاری در شکل حروف، حضور عناصر ریزاندام در قسمت بالای کتیبه برای تعادل بهتر در تمام سطوح کتیبه، ضخامت یکنواخت حروف، تناسب حروف با نوار کتیبه، فواصل متناسب حروف در هرسه کتیبه به این وحدت و هماهنگی یاری رسانده است. از سویی دیگر با بررسی کتیبه ها، مجموعه ای از الفبای کوفی مسجد جامع گناباد بدست آمده که هنر معاصر ایران می تواند از این میراث ارزشمند هنری و معنوی، در آثار سنتی و ملی بهره گیرد.

    کلیدواژگان: خوارزمشاهیان، مسجدگناباد، کتیبه، آرایه
  • محمد ستاری*، محمدحسین سیگارچیان صفحات 89-96
    مقاله ی حاضر، پیش از هر چیز، با هدف ابهام زدایی از یکی از مهم ترین و تاثیرگذارترین حوزه های عکاسی ایران یعنی عکاسی جنگ، ارائه شده است و سعی در تبیین نحوه ی بازنمایی جنگ در مجموعه کتاب های "جنگ تحمیلی" دارد؛ مجموعه ای که با توجه به انتشار شماره های مختلف آن طی 27 سال و حضور بیش از 1500 عکس جنگ در آن، به عنوان یکی از غنی ترین آرشیوهای عکس جنگ تحمیلی شناخته می شود. در این راستا، ابتدا جهت آشنایی بیشتر خوانندگان با داده های مورد بررسی، مجلدات مختلف مجموعه ی مذکور معرفی و سپس به اهمیت متون نوشتاری در آنان اشاره می شود. در ادامه، عکس های این مجلدات، بر اساس مشاهدات نگارنده و با توجه به مضامین تکرارشونده شان، به چهار گروه اصلی، یعنی: ویرانگی و آوارگی، مرگ و احتضار، اتحاد و همبستگی، خط مقدم و نمایش قدرت، تقسیم و به طور اجمالی توصیف و تحلیل می شوند. در پایان نیز، بر مبنای این تحلیل، نگارندگان به این نتیجه می رسند که انتخاب عکس های این مجموعه که بر پایه ی روایتی خطی از مراحل مختلف جنگ ایران و عراق است، بیش از همه بر حق ملت ایران در دفاع از خاک کشورشان، صحه می گذارد.
    کلیدواژگان: عکس، عکاسی، مستند جنگ، &quot، جنگ تحمیلی&quot
  • مریم حبیبی*، سید محمد فدوی صفحات 97-106
    مدرسه باوهاوس یکی از پیشتازان هنر مدرن بود که بین سال های 1919 تا 1933 میلادی در آلمان فعالیت می کرد نقش مهمی در برقراری پیوند میان هنر و صنعت ایفا کرد. آثار گوناگونی در رشته های مختلف هنر و طراحی از این مدرسه بر جای مانده است؛ از جمله ی این آثار، طراحی گرافیک باوهاوس، در دوران خود، جزء آثار پیشتاز محسوب می شده است. نگارندگان در این مقاله در پی آن هستند تا ویژگی های بصری آثار طراحی گرافیک شاخص مدرسه باوهاوس را بررسی نمایند. در این راستا، آثار در حوزه های طراحی مهر مدرسه، طراحی حروف، طراحی جلد، صفحه آرایی، پوستر، بروشور، گرافیک محیطی، چاپ و صحافی کتاب، طراحی کارت پستال، دعوتنامه و اوراق اداری، با استفاده از منابع کتابخانه ای جمع آوری و مطرح گردیده است. با بررسی این آثار به روش توصیفی-تحلیلی، مهم ترین ویژگی های بصری مشترک آنها از جمله طراحی و استفاده از حروف بدون سریف، استفاده از حروف کوچک لاتین، رنگ های اولیه چاپی، ساختار هندسی، ایجاد نظم در قالب نامتقارن، گریدبندی و پرهیز از تزیینات مشخص شد. آثار باوهاوس و سبک آن در طراحی گرافیک، دستاورد قابل توجهی در حوزه تایپوگرافی نوین پدیدآورد و زمینه ساز پیدایش جنبش های مدرن طراحی گرافیک مانند سبک سوئیس در طراحی پوستر شد که تاکنون نیز آثار آن مشاهده می گردد.
    کلیدواژگان: ساختار هندسی، طراحی گرافیک، مدرسه باوهاوس آلمان، هنر مدرن
  • طوفان شریفی*، علیرضا اژدری صفحات 107-114

    در این مقاله، به ماهیت نوآوری بنیادین معنا، نتیجه بخش در خلق بازارهای جدید پرداخته می شود و اساس این نوع از نوآوری، برپایه تئوری های هرمنوتیک به عنوان بیان کننده ی تفسیر مولد، برانگیزاننده ی نوآوری معانی در طراحی، مورد بررسی قرارداده می شود. این مقاله ذاتا مفهومی بوده تا جایی که هدف آن تامین یک ساختار تئوری است تا سایر تحقیقات بر اساس آن قرار گیرند. مقایسه روش های نوآوری تحلیلی و تفسیری، آشکار می سازد که نوآوری موفق، نیاز به پردازش در دو مرحله تحلیل و تفسیر به طور موازی دارد؛ از این رو تلاش می شود مسیر یا روشی درکنار نوآوری تحلیلی به وجود آورده شود. مقایسه این دو روش نوآوری نشان می دهد که مدل تفسیری، در تلاش برای رسیدن به معناهای  جدید است ولی اغلب مدل های تحلیلی، به حل مشکل می اندیشند. بنابراین شرکت هایی که در جستجوی معانی بنیادین جدید هستند، می توانند به نوآوری های تفسیری روی آورند. در ادامه، رصدکردن روشی از نوآوری تفسیری در کارگاه نوآوری یک شرکت مطرح و موفق روز، و بازخوانی مراحل آن با مفاهیم هرمنوتیک، روشن می سازد زیربنای این ساختارها، عمدتا مبانی و مفاهیم مطالعات هرمنوتیک هستند. بنابراین اگر مسئولین و سازمان هایی که در بخش نوآوری فعالیت می کنند، پژوهش های بیشتری در این حوزه انجام دهند، به موفقیت های بیشتری در این نوع نوآوری، دست می یابند.

    کلیدواژگان: روش طراحی، نوآوری طراحی محور، نوآوری بنیادین معنا، هرمنوتیک
  • بهمن فیزابی*، ساسان سامانیان، اصغر حاجی محمدی صفحات 115-122
    علیرغم عادی بودن بررسی دوره ای نتایج تحقیقات علمی در بیشتر رشته های علمی، متاسفانه این مهم در میان تولیدات علمی شاخه هنر، بسیار ناچیز است. بررسی مقالات نشریه هنرهای زیبا-هنرهای تجسمی (هنرهای زیبا سابق)، به عنوان یکی از قدیمی ترین نشریات علمی-پژوهشی حوزه هنرهای تجسمی، می تواند نمودی از فعالیت های علمی این حوزه را به نمایش بگذارد. هدف از این پژوهش، ارائه تصویری از وضعیت «مطالعات تطبیقی هنر» برای برنامه ریزی بهتر پژوهش های آینده در این حیطه است. سوال اصلی این است که وضعیت مقالات علمی-پژوهشی در حوزه «مطالعات تطبیقی هنر» مندرج در نشریه هنرهای زیبا-هنرهای تجسمی، چه نتایجی را نشان می دهد؟ روش تحقیق از نوع بررسی کمی و توصیفی-تحلیلی مقایسه ای است. جمع آوری اطلاعات با استفاده از منابع متنی و تصویری انجام شده است. جامعه آماری، کلیه مقالات چاپ شده در نشریه هنرهای زیبا-هنرهای تجسمی از سال 1390 تا 1396 می باشد. براین اساس، از مجموع 244 مقاله چاپ شده در 7 دوره و 28 شماره این نشریه طی 7 سال، تعداد 173 مقاله در دسته مقالات مطالعات تطبیقی قرار گرفتند. نتایج این پژوهش حاکی از این است که سیر موضوعی این گونه مقالات روندی روبه رشد و دارای نوعی ثبات قابل قبول است. این پژوهش، نشان دهنده بستر خام تحقیقات بین رشته ای است و به پژوهندگان پیشنهاد دارد که به مقالات بین رشته ای توجه بیشتری نشان دهند.
    کلیدواژگان: مطالعات تطبیقی، نشریه هنرهای تجسمی، مقالات علمی پژوهشی، تحقیقات میان رشته ای
|
  • Farideh Afarin *, Masoumeh Shakori Pages 5-16

    Disinterestedness is one of the main concepts in the aesthetics of the eighteenth century in Britain and Germany. In this research, the whatness of necessary and sufficient conditions for different aspects of this concept in its German branch is investigated. The purpose of recognizing different aspects of the concept of Disinterestedness is to make a distinction between the aesthetic experience of others like empiric, epistemic, moral, and physical ones. The aesthetic experience seems to be different from the cognitive one, Such an idea is supported by Kant's view. Can it (autonomous aesthetic experience) be a continuous view in the thinking of Schopenhauer and Nietzsche? This study, with the comparative-analytic method, concludes that disinterestedness can be divided into theoretical, practical, and sensational divisions, and Kant, in the three divisions, provided the fundamental context for others. Theoretical disinterestedness in Kant is related to the concept of understanding, the cause and effect relation in the world and its teleological mechanism, the purposiveness of the form of the object. in the practical part, towards the teleological practice, in rapport to the morality and the good, in sensational part the personal intentions desires, purposes & interests toward objective determination lead to various aspects of Disinterestedness. Schopenhauer took on the concept of disinterestedness from Kant and describes its aspects in his philosophical system, in a recent way different from Kant. The aesthetics of Schopenhauer lies in the heart of his metaphysics. He believed that the “will” is the origin of the universe underlying ground of the world as representation. Schopenhauer took a delicate distance from Kant by emphasizing on subject of cognition with suspended Will, and also on the body. He distances from Kant by these accentuation. On the other hand, Schopenhauer's “will” is similar to the Kant's “thing- in -itself, but it is perceptible through Ideas which are mediation between the will and the tangible world.  In order to understand ideas through ordinary objects, It should become a disinterested observer and ignore the individuality and personal will. it should be independent of any forms of space, time and causality through the suppression of the individual will. That means through the asceticism & aesthetic contemplation. Nietzsche challenged Kant's tenacious approach in the Birth of Tragedy with ignorance of objectivity and subjectivity. He relied on the two fundamental forces of nature, namely the Apollonian and the Dionysian which are active in art. With an accentuation on dionysian forces which is irreducible to two forces, Nietzsche believed that both qualities of two forces, in addition to disinterestedness and desires will drive art. Nietzsche` s concentration On the Genealogy of Morality is on physiology & physiology of art that required, some concepts like bodily states, sensuality and sexuality in order to enhance the life. So, art is an affirmation and apprehension of life with an emphasis on aesthetic experience. As a result, it seemed that Kant's approach in the definition of disinterestedness is stronge and radical. Schopenhauer's view is flexible and two-sided, and Nietzsche's approach especially in On the Genealogy of Morality is evaluated different or weak in comparison to Kant.

    Keywords: Disinterestedness, beauty, aesthetic experience, German aesthetics
  • Asghar Fahimifar, Azita Shokoohi* Pages 17-22

    In Yung's system, the entire personality or psychology of man consists of several distinct structures, which include self-conscious, unconscious and unconscious. In this system, there are two levels of unconsciousness: a higher surface and a deeper and more strongly penetrating surface. The most insolent and unattainable level of mental, collective consciousness, or subconscious metaphysical is the most unusual and controversial aspect of the Yung system. In a collective consciousness, man as a whole maintains human and pre-human experiences and transmits these congruent experiences to later generations. Therefore, the collective consciousness is the repository of all human-type experiences that have been transmitted to each of us. The collective subconscious has two main aspects: 1. Ancient patterns: these are mental patterns that help one to understand subconscious thoughts. 2-instincts. The old patterns are not real and completely transformed memories, but the old one is a pre-prepared pattern that remains to be seen in the face of a person's life before its contents are revealed. "Their old patterns are a system of images and emotions that give birth to the mind, and indeed the legacy of its psychological aspects. The background of the ancient patterns of dreams, myths, epics, mystical and folk stories, and generally literary works, are artistic, which are somehow associated with the unconscious and unconsciously involved in their creation. Some ancient patterns are more transformative than others are, so they constantly affect our psyche; these ancient patterns include: Anima, Animus. These ancient patterns can be visualized in a form. Symbolist history shows that anything can have a symbolic meaning; such as natural objects (rocks, plants, animals, humans, mountains, valleys, the sun, the moon, wind, water and fire) or what the hand An instrument is a human being (such as a house, a ship and a car) or even abstract forms (such as numbers, triangles, quadrangles, and circles). Symbol design, for example, is one of the most common and unique specialties in graphic design, and the design of the sign is very far away, where early humans for the transfer of concepts related to Hunting at one point recorded signs on the walls of the caves, and wherever it was seen, it transmitted a single concept to the audience and viewer. The preent study was conducted using descriptive-analytical method and data collection method in the form of a library. The purpose of this study is to investigate and analyze the pattern of two logos of sewage and firewall, recognizing the importance of the pattern of ancient patterns. Designing a logo as a visual expression that has an old background is itself a symbolic expression that can bring symbols that are derived from myths, ancient patterns and thoughts of our ancestors. For this, ancient patterns such as Anima and Animus can affect the design of logos. As can be seen in this research, it can be said that in designing the sewage logotype, the ancient effect of anima pattern and firewall logo, the ancient effect of the animus pattern is observed.

    Keywords: Archetype, Anima, Animus, Logos, Sewage water, Fire
  • Fatemeh Rahimi * Pages 23-30
    Umberto Eco (1932 - 2016) founded and developed one of the most important approaches in contemporary semiotics, usually referred to as interpretative semiotics. The main books in which he elaborates his theory are La struttura assente (1988), A Theory of Semiotics (1976), The Role of the Reader (1979), Semiotics and Philosophy of Language (1984), The Limits of Interpretation (1990), Kant and the platypus (1997), and From the Tree to the Labyrinth: Historical Studies on the Sign and Interpretation (2014). Eco’s Semioticsis a critique of the theory that the meaning of signs is determined by the objects (i.e. things or events) to which they refer, and is a rejection of the notion that ‘iconic’ signs must be likenesses of their objects. Eco argues that the meaning of signals or signs is not necessarily determined by whether they refer to actual objects, and he explains that the existence of objects to which signals or signs may correspond is not a necessary condition for their signification. Eco also criticizes the notion that a typology of signs may clarify the nature of sign function, arguing instead that any typology of signs may fail to explain how different kinds of signs may share the same modes of production. Eco thus argues that the correct approach to developing a unified semiotic theory should not be to propose a typology of signs but should be to provide a method of investigating how sign-vehicles may function as signs and to provide a means of understanding how sign-vehicles may be produced and interpreted. Eco’s theory of modes of sign production provide many insights into the ways in which the meaning of signs may be culturally defined. He rejects what he calls ‘naïve iconic’ as a theory which falsely assumes that so-called 'iconic' signs must be similar or analogues to their objects, and he argues instead that the iconicity of any particular mode of sign-production is a matter of cultural convention. He explains, however, that to say that the iconicity of any particular mode of sign-production is a matter of cultural convention is not to say that it is a matter which is decided upon arbitrarily. To the contrary, the degree of iconicity of any particular expression may be determined by the degree to which the expression is correlated with its content, and may not be determined by the degree to which the expression is similar or analogous to some object to which it may refer. Iconicity may therefore be a property of a particular mode of producing ‘sign-functions,’ but may not be a property of any particular kind of sign. In his semiotics, Eco has studied the "invention" and the production of signs in Painting. He refers to the works of artists such as Raffaello Sanzio and Francesca in the classical style as well as artists such as Pitet Mondrian and Kandinsky in modern art, to "modest invention" and " inventions radicles". The important note here is the same process production of signs and their interpretive capability that is central point in the modern Hermeneutics.
    Keywords: &quot, painting&quot, 'image code', invention, interpretative semiotics, modern Hermeneutics
  • Shaghayegh Chitsaz *, Ahmad Nedayifard, Bahman Namvar Pages 31-42

    Surveying works of art with the use of mythological critique in Iran is either very unknown or by some famous methods such as Jung’s Archetypal Phenomenom, monomythic of Joseph Campbell, Archetype typological critique of Northrop Frye are limited. Other methods, such as myth critique, myth analysis, which are some of the applied methods in the analysis of the artwork, are still unknown in the country. A glance at the numerous kinds of the critiqual art research provided, various spectrum of works of visual and synthetic arts have been repeatedly examined by various methods of mythological critique, But the arts of jewelry, as applied arts, has not only been neglected from the field of critique, but in the field of mythological critique also have been neglected. The Persian Garden collection has been created by Bahram Dashtinejad and Toktam Fazel, a jeweler couple that always draws inspiration from the Iranian garden for their artworks. “Persian garden”, has been gathered by images and designs used in the Persian miniatures have more benefits through visual attraction. also pointed to the Persian motifs used in the collection and added, “designers of “Persian garden’s jewelry” have gained a precious treasure preserved in our Persian images and miniatures over the years. Any design they make opens the door to a new design some of which can become the purpose for a new exhibit. For example, the simorgh (the mystic Persian bird), the life tree, and the cypress bird are some of the clear concepts we used in the works, while the maps of Persian gardens and architectural designs of the structures are the hidden concepts which have been regarded in the backgrounds of the works. The compositions and ideas used in the works give a visitor a new feel for the jewelry. In this way, they have taken the hidden and obvious concepts of the Persian garden into consideration in the artworks. The present study was carried out using the descriptive-analytical and historical method using the myth- critique of Gilbert Durand. The aims of this study are to survey of Durand’s myth – critique method, and then have analyzed the "Persian garden’s Jewelry" as a case study by using this method. The present article is seeking to answer this question of what is the clandestine great central myth of Persian garden’s jewelery are referring to, which is directly related to the personal lives of the designers and which has led the authors to find the secrets concept are contained in these artifacts. In conclusion, attention to the general theme and motives as well as to the details of the descriptive article of the study, the Persian garden artifacts, led the authors to the conclusion that all the motifs and themes contained in the artifacts of each one is in dephth of relation to the central myth of the great "utopia". This archimythe is obviously related to the personal life of designers (Toktam & Bahram). In all pieces of jewelery we have seen vgreat impact of archimyth of Utopia.

    Keywords: Myth critique, Gilbert Durand, Jewelry, Persian garden’ jewelry
  • Farzane Fallahi, Behzad Soleimani * Pages 43-50
    Brand attitude is a basic concept pertaining to consumer behavior, which may reinforce that behavior as a relatively stable characteristic of a trademark/brand. Considering a logo is a branded asset, proper logo design will have a positive effect on customer brand attitude. Quality and design serve as distinguishing factors for a logo. Logotype is a graphic inscription used by business owners, institutions, real individuals, etc. to distinguish their name from others. Logos are among the major assets of each brand and play a decisive role in the fate of that brand and business Graphic designers use various methods to improve logo quality and design; the semiotics-based design is a method largely overlooked by designers, and, even, brand managers. Semiotics is turning into a vast science encompassing a number of other sciences and is, in fact, changing to a meta-theory. Semiotics has a broad scope including all areas of human activities. Semiotics defines ‘sign’ as an entity which refers to something else, manifesting in words, images, sounds, smells, flavors, things, movements, and manners; theses become signs when they are assigned meanings. Semiotics deals with the meaningful usage of signs. This paper was an applied, descriptive survey which used the sign classification system of Charles Sanders Peirce, the famous American semiotician, who classified signs into icon, index, and symbol. The population included the customers of the Bank Maskan, Bank Keshavarzi, and Post Bank of Iran in Tehran, 380 of whom were selected through simple random sampling. The data was collected using questionnaires. Reliability and validity were measured using the following tests: factors loading coefficient, combined reliability, Cronbach’s alpha, convergent validity, and divergent validity. The overall fitting of the research model was also assessed. Smart PLS and SPSS were used to analyze the data. The results showed that there was a significant, positive relationship between logos of these banks and their customer brand attitude. Bank logo variable, with a t statistic of 8.563 and a path coefficient of 0.502, had a significant relationship with customer brand attitudes of Bank Keshavarzi, Bank Maskan, and Post Bank of Iran. In other words, logos can foster a positive brand attitude. Logos had the highest effect on brand attitude in the customers of Bank Maskan and had the lowest effect on brand attitude in the customers of Post Bank of Iran. This indicates that the customers established a stronger connection with Bank Maskan’s logo thanks to its iconic nature. This connection was less strong in regard to Bank Keshavarzi’s logo because it was indexical. The symbolic logo of Post Bank of Iran established the weakest connection, showing that this logo was not designed properly and could not make a meaningful connection with the customer mindset. This weak connection may be caused by the symbolic nature of this logo; many customers might have not possibly grasped the meanings hidden beneath this logo and could not establish the proper connection with the design of this logo.
    Keywords: logo, semiotics, brand attitude, Bank Maskan, Bank Keshavarzi, Post Bank of Iran
  • Saeid Akhavani, Fattaneh Mahmoudi * Pages 51-64
    The paintings of Falnama in Safavid period are important in several different aspects. Considering the fact that Falnama is one of the first manuscripts of Qazvin painting school, its paintings has great research value in terms of stylistics. Another important point is related to the intertextual relation of paintings with their multitude texts of their age, which shapes different themes in certain direction. In addition, the art of painting in contrary to its traditional function, in book designing and illustrating literary texts, used for a different function. Therefore, the paintings of Falnama, in terms of semantics, composed of multi-layer structures. What are the implicit and explicit semantic layers in paintings of Safavid’s Falnamas? This is the main issue here. Dispersed Falnama are the most widely reproduced and recognizable of all extant illustrated versions. Of its thirty known folios, one was published as early as 1913, but it remains unclear how any of them arrived in Paris, where they initially came to the attention of collectors. The Belgian dealer George Demote seems to have been responsible for disseminating several, if not most, of the folios among private and public collectors in the first decades of the twentieth century. Except for Four Lions Devour Zaynab, the folios of the dispersed Falnama represent some of the largest known Persian paintings and measure about 59x44.5 cm. By or before 1913, they were removed from their surrounding margins, which would have further increased their size. The varying degree of Surface damage suggests not only the illustrations were frequently used but also perhaps they have been separated for some time. The text-image relationship of the dispersed Falnama, however, demands an ordered sequence, since each illustration is linked conceptually to a facing text, and viewing the pair side by side is critical for understanding the full meaning of the augury. Furthermore, all pictorial Falnamas with related textual auguries appear in codex form, even if the text and images are not Contemporaneous, as is the case of the Ahmed I Falnama and the Dresden volume. Although it is impossible to determine at this time when the folios of the dispersed copy were separated and the reasons for this alteration, circumstantial evidence suggests that they, too, originally were bound, allowing the seeker to view text and image together. The style of the illustrations indicates that the dispersed Falnama probably was created between the mid-1550s and early 1560S, The Scale and treatment of the figures, the more simplified compositions, and the looser, more spontaneous brushstrokes depart from Works created in Tabriz. This paper tried to analyze Falnama’s images (Tahmasbi version, dispersed) with an iconology approach. A discriptive-analytic method used to analyze the images in three steps. The result of this study showed that the existence of religious and Qur'anic themes in the paintings of dispersed Falnama, and their abundance compared to other themes, is intended to make the perception that this book is in accordance with the tradition of Istikhareh, and therefore it is unobstructed in Sharia law. Along with that, other beliefs revived through non-religious themes of images.
    Keywords: Iranian painting, Qazvin painting school, Tahmasebi Falnama (dispersed), Art criticism, Iconology
  • Elham Akbari *, Saeed Khoddari Pages 65-76

    Studying Islamic manuscripts and different art, which enriched them as masterpieces show that different factors and elements are employed to obtain artistic vision and composition. Calligraphers, painters and illuminators works of art are unified in a pleasant and beautiful appearance. The Islamic manuscripts are written in different types of scripts, languages but almost all of them are written in Arabic alphabet, which is written from right to left. A ruler called Mastar is used to adjusting text rows in the pages. However, sometime the text is written diagonal. One of the factors, which caused to develop a new form of writing and as its consequence, a new form of combination in calligraphy and painting in Persian manuscripts, which is writing texts diagonally. Writing diagonally started at first in the scientific manuscripts and it developed in the 9th century while Nastaliq script selected for writing artistic manuscripts. Then in Safavid (1501-1721 A.D) and Qajar (1796-1925 A.D), periods writing texts diagonally became more complicated somewhere it is heard to read the text. Writing text diagonal resulted in a variety in page layout and also it resulted in using all the page space for writing. Writing text diagonally in Islamic manuscripts at first was appeared in scientific manuscripts. In Addition, some necessaries such as lack of enough space for writing, comments, corrections or translations caused to write text diagonally. Writing diagonally at first was appeared inevitable but Muslim artist used it as a decorative element in the page layout. The diagonal texts in first poetry books are special words, which separate prose text from poems. In scientific manuscripts, the words, which were written in the tables, were diagonal due to   the length of the words and limited spaces for writing. Writing diagonally then appeared in the last part of text, in the end of manuscripts or before a painting or illumination in the manuscripts. The oldest manuscripts which have diagonal writing in the text is a work of Saadi belongs to 721 Hijri .Writing texts diagonally then was extended to margins and made a different type of layout. This enable copyist to write different works in a codex, but also it created a diagonal illumination:  Diagonal Tazhib, on top of diagonal text, which became a usual ornament in Shiraz manuscripts .The oldest manuscript which have some complete works in margins, which are written diagonally, is a collected work from 754-756 Hijri. Making texts diagonal are often seen in literary texts and became a main factor in manuscript layout .There is not a study on the origin of diagonal writing and its improvement. The authors here try to find the early manuscripts with diagonal writing, how it became a decorative factor and how it influenced other elements in manuscript decoration. Diagonal writing both as artistic calligraphy or usual handwritings are studied here .Some early manuscripts studied and the oldest diagonal writing were identified from 10th century, which appeared in scientific manuscripts before literary works.

    Keywords: Islamic manuscripts, diagonal writing, layout, 11th-15th centuries
  • Alireza Sheikhi *, Zeinab Kholousi Raad Pages 77-88

    Gonabad mosque is one of the three remaining mosques of Khorasan's two monasteries, the Razi style and the memorials of the Kharazmshahi era. Two other buildings are Foroumad and Sangan mosques. The decorations of this mosque include bricks, a little brickwork and stucco, most of which were related to the Qajar era, works that fit in the altar and the head of the mosque. The present article aims to clarify the decorations of brick and gypsum and study arrays and visual analysis of the inscriptions of the southern porch of the mosque. The letters and inscriptions of the mosque are based on the structure, military structure and basis. The research methodology is descriptive and analytical and in this regard it has been used for field and library resources in designing these inscriptions, the uniformity of the letters and arrays at the inscription level has created unity in the inscription in relation to the lateral factors. In this course, the simplicity of writing elements in the form of letters, the presence of finite elements in the upper part of the inscription for better balance at all levels of inscription, the uniform thickness of letters, the proportion of letters to the inscription, the appropriate intervals of the letters on each inscription, to this unity and harmony. On the other hand, by examining the inscriptions, a collection of Kofi alphabet of the Gonabad Mosque has been obtained that contemporary Iranian art can use this valuable artistic and spiritual heritage in traditional and national works. The text of the arrays of writing from the Qur'an and religious texts has been selected and has spiritual significance. The mosque's Kofi's line is very simple and is therefore close to the "Kofi simple" line. One of the special features of this line is the lack of use of inspirational designs around the inscription, and the designer did not use decorative arrays and put simplicity in the first place. The accompaniment of three geometric, slalomic and written arrays is seen in many of the scrolls of this era, and it has a graphic tradition in the inscriptions. This tradition is also observed in the inscriptions of this mosque, and the inscription for the harmonization of these arrays has made innovations in the structure of all three categories of arrays, in particular written arrays. Preserving the beat at the specified intervals of the inscription, the inscription allows the inscription to be appropriate to the shape of each letter, the ability to use the versatility of the letters. The accompaniment of three geometric, slalomic and written arrays is seen in many of the scrolls of this era, and it has a graphic tradition in the inscriptions. At the end of the decoration, the mosque's architecture, along with the presentation of physical beauty, was a manifestation of religious and ritual attitudes and the physical and physical facial beauty has led to the sanctity of the architectural location of the Muslim people of the region in the historical period to the present.

    Keywords: Khwarazmshahian, Gonabad, mosque, inscriptions, arrays
  • Muhammad Sattari *, Muhammad Hossein Sigarchian Pages 89-96
    During Iran-Iraq's war, in which a great demand for depicting the scenes of war inevitably triggered, countless pictures by numerous photographers were captured. A period that is considered as one of the most prolific ages of Iran's photography and has led to the publication of more than 75 photography books up to now. Among them, "The imposed war, defense vs aggression" is one of the best photography book collections, which has been praised by many photographic scholars. The first six volumes were annually published during the war and its last three volumes were biennially published after nearly 17 years, all by governmental publishers. An archive that contains more than 1500 pictures of both amateur and well-known photographers such as: kave Golestan, Bahman jalali, Alfred yaghobzade etc, exposing a variety aspects of the lives of those who are involved in Iran-Iraq's war. Hence, considering different features of this collection, the main objective of this study is to enlighten the representative approach of publishers in the above mentioned books. With regard to this intention, based on the author's observation of all the pictures in this archive, four principal visual themes [destruction and displacement, death and decease, unison and integrity, battlefronts and spectacle of power] have been recognized, which every one of them is briefly described and analyzed in this paper. Accordingly, it's demonstrated initially that how each book begins by depicting those Iranian residential areas which were destroyed by means of bombardment or the people whose homes were wrecked. Subsequently, it continues by scenes of the dead bodies which belonged to children or other civilians or combatants. An outlook in which Iraqi forces are clearly represented as the ruthless party of the war and Iranians as the oppressed. Compellingly justifying Iranians military defense, the books are continued by some sights of Iranian demonstrations or bereavements in multitudinous, which are obviously representative of a national solidarity in support of the Islamic republic of Iran. A collective will which is deemed the foundation of Islamic republic's power and its many triumphs in battlefronts and is embodied in pictures of maneuvers and battlefields magnificently. Such a structure, from the author's perspective, despite some superficial differences between nine volumes of this collection, is predominance. Thus, it is drawn to conclusion that both selection and arrangement of the pictures in these books are based on a narrative, describing how cruelly Iraqi forces invaded Iran's territory and how Iran's Muslim nation defended their lands against them. moreover, noting documentary values of "The imposed war" collection, based on carried out comparisons between different volumes of it, the author has reached to conclusion that in the eighth volume, the above mention structure is organized far better than others; since, sloganeering and usage of symbolic indicators have been limited in this book and the burden of representation is totally borne by means of indexical signifiers. At the end, the writer should admit that this work is a summarized research and further studies need to be accomplished in order to address the knowledge gap in terms of this photographic collection.
    Keywords: &quot, Photography&quot, War documentary, The imposed war, Iran-Iraq's war
  • Maryam Habibi * Pages 97-106
    The Bauhaus school was one of the pioneers of modern art in the years 1919 to 1933 in Germany. A school of architecture and applied arts that worked on various fields of art and design. Bauhaus played an important role in nurturing artists and was famous for the approach to design that it publicized. One of the main objectives of the Bauhaus was to unify art, craft, and technology, and this approach was incorporated into the curriculum of the school. Bauhaus, which means “house of construction” in German literature, existed for a period of fourteen years in three German cities (Weimar from 1919 to 1925, Dessau from 1925 to 1932 and Berlin from 1932 to 1933), under three different architect-directors: Walter Gropius from 1919 to 1928, Hannes Meyer from 1928 to 1930 and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe from 1930 until 1933, when the school was closed by its own leadership under pressure from the Nazi-led government. After closing the school, one of the teachers named Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, made efforts to continue the Bauhaus way by establishing the “New Bauhaus” school in Chicago, the United States, which was, however, closed only a year after it was opened, in 1938. In Bauhaus teaching, the theory and practical workshops were taught together. Practical issues were taught in workshops of different fields of art and design. Some workshops were related to graphic design such as commercial art workshops (including advertising and typography), bookbinding workshops, and printing workshops. Graphic works were produced by students, artists and craftsmen, often to meet the graphic and printing needs of the school. According to Hans Wingler, German scholar and author of several books about the Bauhaus, Bauhaus graphic services, printing and advertising was a pioneer in its time. Wingler’s view seems to be right as in the second and third decades of the twentieth century, graphic design in its present form was standing at the beginning of its way. The Bauhaus graphic works in its time were remarkable and impressive in diversity and creativity to the extent that they served as the inspiration to a significant number of graphic works in this century. This article introduces visual characteristics of the most significant graphic design works of the Bauhaus in various fields, including school’s stamp design, typeface design, cover design, layout, poster, brochure, environmental graphic design, printing and bookbinding, greeting card, invitation card, and official paper design. These works have been collected using secondary resources. The analytical investigation of the works reveals their most common features and characteristics to be the use of lowercase Latin letters, design and use of sans-serif letters, printed primary colors, geometry, and photography, creation of asymmetric and non-decorative order, and use of grid in layout. The graphic design and style prominent in the works of Bauhaus school led to important achievements in the field of new typography and facilitated the rise of modern graphic design movements such as Swiss style in poster design, which is also in use.
    Keywords: Bauhaus School, Geometric Structure, Graphic Design, Modern Art
  • Alireza Ajdari Pages 107-114

    In this article, the essence of the Radical innovation of meaning, the resultant part of the new markets, is discussed, and the basis of this type of innovation based on hermeneutic theories is expressed as a reflection of the interpretive and inspiring innovation of the meanings of design. This article is conceptual in nature since it aims at providing a theoretical platform which other scholars may build on.The study of two approaches to innovation management, namely, innovation as problem-solving and innovation, as an idea, both of which is of analytical innovation, does not fully reflect the nature of radical innovation, hence the need for a richer perspective it feels like a complete understanding of the real dynamics of this type of innovation. The radical innovation of meaning, as related to change the meaning, has become the focus of innovation in the field of design-driven innovation, which is itself in the category of interpretive innovations. Comparison of analytical and interpretative innovation methods shows that successful innovation requires processing in two stages of problem-solving through analysis and interpretation in parallel. Since analytical innovation is a kind of information simplification that cannot cover the complexity of problem-solving. Comparing these two methods of innovation shows that the interpretive model is in the effort to reach new meanings, but most dominant analytical models are thought to be solving the problem, so companies that are looking for radical innovations of meaning can turn into interpretative innovations. In conclusion The study of ”the design direction workshop” at Barilla and the hermeneutic revising of its stages as a method of design innovation showed All the steps used in this workshop are equivalent  to the same concept in hermeneutical thinking: "metaphor and narration" in the literary hermeneutic of Ricoeur, " The reflective turn "in the process of interpretation in the hermeneutic of Ricoeur  is the base of the" envisioning "," fusion of horizons "in  Hans Robert Jauus’s  thinking  equivalent to the" share and connect "phase in the "design direction workshop", which shares the insight in the meetings of the team and finds the link between the proposals By participants. An observation suggests that if people understand this level of knowledge of hermeneutics, they would be more successful, meaning that knowing hermeneutic concepts can make people more creative. The studies in this paper were the initial field studies to justify the hypothesis mentioned. And it was attempted to provide the context in which other concepts of genetics were used to create other innovation processes and to explore future developments in how to use these methods in design. The observation of this method of interpretive innovation, and a refreshing of its stages with hermeneutical concepts, makes it clear that the underlying structures of these structures are mainly the basis of the study of hermeneutics. Therefore, if the authorities and organizations involved in the innovation sector do more research in this area, they will achieve more success in this type of innovation.

    Keywords: Design Methodology, Design-driven innovation, Radical innovation of meaning, Hermeneutic
  • Bahman Feizabi *, Sasan Samanian, Asghar Hajimohammadi Pages 115-122
    Today, in most scientific disciplines, the issue of examining the results of scientific research in certain periods is almost normal, unfortunately, this is not very important among the scientific productions of the branch of art. Comparative studies of art is a new branch and, at the same time, welcomed by researchers in the field of visual arts. Being young of this type of research in this field has led to no specific categories for it. In order to develop and organize the process of research in the field of comparative art studies, it is necessary to quantitatively study and evaluate in this regard. One of the most useful activities in this field is the evaluation of research published in the scientific and research publications of this field. The Visual Arts (formerly fine arts) is one of the senior scientific journals in the field of art and in particular, the field of visual arts that is still in operation. A review of the comparative articles published in this journal can provide an overview of the scientific activities of this field. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the scientific essay situation in the field of comparative studies for better planning of future research in this area. The main question is that "How is the status and trend of the subject of scientific-research articles in the field of comparative studies of art published in scientific publications; here is an example of the case of the journal of visual arts? and what are the results?" The answer to this question can provide mid-term and long-term perspectives to policy makers and researchers in the field of comparative studies. The research method is quantitative and descriptive-analytic. Comparative articles are categorized in terms of nature and method in five groups: Chronological, Slice, Thematic, form, and interdisciplinary. The data collection is done using text and pictorial resources. The statistical population of the present study is all articles published in the Journal of Visual Arts from 2011 to 2017. Based on the statistical population, 244 articles published in 7 periods and 28 issues of this publication over 7 years, 173 articles were categorized into comparative study papers.  The present study demonstrates the cooperation and interaction of the associate professors and undergraduate students, associate professors and Ph.D. students.  The results of this study indicate that the subject matter of such articles is a growing trend and has a certain degree of stability. The subject matter of such articles is a growing trend with some degree of stability. Out of 173 comparative studies papers, 23 items are Chronological papers and 23 items Slice articles, 54articles are subject-based reviews, 65 papers have been reviewed for form and 8 are interdisciplinary studies .Most of the comparative articles in this publication have been shaping form and role matching. The least of these were interdisciplinary articles. The study suggests that interdisciplinary research is Less noticeable and, at the same time, widespread, and suggests researchers suggesting more interdisciplinary articles
    Keywords: Comparative Studies, Visual Arts Jurnal, Scientific Articles, Interdisciplinary Research