فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:7 Issue:3, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/04/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Gholamreza Tajbakhsh *, Mohammad, Reza Hoseini, Farahnaz Noruzian Pages 140-144
    Recently, environmental crises have become important challenges for humans. Many scientists have made efforts to reduce or prevent these crises by technological solutions. However, some researchers have emphasized on the necessity of new interactions between human and nature and the need for a new environmental culture. The present study aimed to assess the environmental culture and its influential factors in the citizens of Noor Abad in Delfan, Iran. The participants were selected randomly, and 385 questionnaires were completed. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 24. The correlation between environmental awareness and environmental behaviors was 0.524, while it was estimated at 0.542 for individualism, 0.573 for social capital, 0.533 for social norms, 0.642 for life satisfaction, and 0.750 for the general influential factors. These values were considered significant at 0.99. In addition, the positive correlation indicated that higher values of the influential factors enhanced environmental behaviors.
    Keywords: Environmental awareness, environmental behavior, life satisfaction, Individualism, social norms
  • Aliakbar Babaei, Iman Parseh *, Davod Jalili, Majid Hashemi, Hamed Mohamadi, Saeid Fallahizadeh, Ruhollah Khodadadi Pages 145-154
    Thepresent study aimed to investigate the description and determination of municipal waste management in seven cities located in Shadegan wetland region, Iran. Some parameters were evaluated, including the waste generation rate, weight density rate, moisture content, pH, and carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio. In addition, the current status of waste management in the region was assessed using a simple questionnaire and via interviews with households and field surveys. According to the findings, the generation rate of solid wastes was 0.55-0.8 kg/capita/day. The wastes contained approximately 70% of corruptible materials, more than 12% of plastic, and approximately 9% of paper and paperboard. The density, moisture content, pH, and C/N were estimated at 3,242 kg/m, 72.7%, 5.6, and 23.4, respectively. In Shadegan wetland region, recycling was active through the informal sectors, while there was no definite program for source reduction and recycling. Daily collection operations were carried out with no specific programs and prioritization in determining the route of the vehicle and performed manually in optimal conditions. Moreover, the final disposal was observed to be poor and in the dumping form. The obtained results indicated that the wastes in the region had considerable potential for recycling and composting. Therefore, it is recommended that integrated waste management be applied through the improvement of the regulations, environmental education, development of source reduction programs, organized recycling, mechanization of waste collection, establishment of central composting plants, and selection and design of safe landfills in order to achieve optimal outcomes.
    Keywords: Waste characteristics, Waste composition, Waste Management, Shadegan wetland
  • Hamze Salehzadeh, Farzad Aala, Mohammad Mahdi Soori, Khorosh Javan, Mohammad Salimi, Shahram Sadeghi, Sumrand Nazazi, Fatemeh Mohebbinia, Parisa Mozaffari * Pages 155-161
    The present study aimed to assess the surface contamination of indoor swimming pools in Sanandaj city, Iran and the influential factors in this regard. This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on nine active swimming pools in Sanandaj, which were selected via simple random sampling. Sampling was performed in the spring and summer of 2017 twice per season using the sterile carpet measurement method. In total, 180 samples were assessed in the study, including nine swimming pools, five surfaces, and two seasons (data collection performed twice per season in spring and summer). According to the findings, 96.7% of the samples were infected with one or more fungi. The isolated fungi were saprophytic, and no dermatophyte contamination was observed. The highest and lowest incidence of saprophytic contamination belonged to yeast species (100 positive samples) and Ulocladium (four positive samples), respectively. Furthermore, the number of the fungi isolated from the surface water of the swimming pools in summer was higher compared to spring. However, no significant correlations were observed between temperature, humidity, remaining chlorine, and pH with the presence of the isolated fungi. Due to the presence of various saprophytic species in swimming pool surfaces, it is strongly recommended that proper sanitary measures be taken in these environments (e.g., disinfection and complete washing of the body with water and soap by swimmers) in order for the effective monitoring and control of health.
    Keywords: Swimming Pool, Fungal contamination, Sanandaj
  • Amir Hossein Baghaie *, Mehran Keshavarzi Pages 162-168
    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is among the main concerns regarding human nutrition. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the changes of Zn concentration in the corn plant grown in the soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and lead (Pb). Treatments consisted of applying 0% (Zn0) and 1% (w/w) Zn oxide nanoparticles (Zn1), soil pollution with zero (Pb0), 400 (Pb400), and 600 (Pb600) mg Pb/kg soil and 0% (P0), 1.5% (P1.5), and 3% (W/W) of crude oil (P3) in the presence (AMF+) and absence of AMF (AMF-). After the corn harvesting, plant Zn and Pb concentrations were measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Also, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHS) degradation in the soil was measured via gas chromatography. The least significant difference (LSD) test was used to determine the statistical differences between the mean values. According to the findings, the presence of AMF in soil containing 1.5% (W/W) crude oil and polluted with 400 mg Pb/kg soil caused a significant increase in plant Zn concentration by 52%. However, increasing soil pollution to petroleum hydrocarbon or Pb caused a significant decreasing in the plant Zn concentration. The highest TPHS degradation has belonged to the soil treated with 1% (W/W) ZnO nanoparticles nanoparticle in the presence of AMF that containing 1.5 % (W/W) crude oil. The results of this study showed that regardless of pollution type, application of AMF in soil treated with ZnO nanoparticles nanoparticle can increase plant Zn concentration.
    Keywords: Environmental pollution, Lead, zinc, Soil
  • Ramin Sarikhani, Ali Moradpour, Moslem Amiri, Artimes Ghassemi * Pages 169-177

    Oil products are considered to be life-threatening factors in the ecosystem due to their contents of organic compounds, sulfide, sulfur, heavy metals, and various circular hydrocarbons, organic solvents, aromatic compounds, linear formaldehyde, fats, and grease. The present study aimed to investigate the soil surrounding Kermanshah Refinery, Iran and estimate the density of various heavy metals and their pollution sources, including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), scandium (Sc), and vanadium (V). The geoaccumulation index indicated that the intensity of the refinery soil had variable degrees of pollution, ranging from no pollution to average pollution with chromium and nickel. In addition, the enrichment index showed average enrichment for cadmium (station 14), copper (stations two, 11, 13, and 14), lead (stations six and 13), zinc (stations two, six, 11, and 13), and chromium (stations 6-15). On the other hand, the pollution bar index of chromium, copper, nickel, zinc, and lead was estimated to be higher than one, which confirmed unacceptable soil quality and the presence of soil pollution in the region. According to the results of Pearson's correlation-coefficient, nickel pollution was significantly correlated with chromium and scandium pollution, while cobalt pollution was associated with vanadium and chromium pollution. Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between zinc and copper pollution, which indicated the equal pollution source or similar geochemical behaviors of these elements toward each other. Since vanadium is considered to be an oil pollution index, it could be concluded that high pollution with this element and chromium may arise from petroleum in the studied region.

    Keywords: heavy metals, Pollution bar, Kermanshah refinery, Soil, Pollution Index
  • Somayeh Amini, Maryam Rafati *, Mojtaba Sayadi Pages 178-186
    The present study aimed to evaluate the quality of well water in Lavasanat region, Iran in order to achieve a comprehensive zoning map in a geographical information system (GIS) environment and improve the efficacy of water use during July-November 2016. To this end, samples were collected from the water wells in the villages of Kond Olya, Kond Sofla, Amin Abad, Anbaj, Zard Band, and Barg Jahan for chemical and physical analyses, including the measurement of hardness, acidity, electrical conductivity (EC), and turbidity, as well as the presence of anions (e.g., NO3 and HCO3) and cations (Ca and Mg). The obtained results indicated that the EC of the well water samples in Kond Olya and concentration of magnesium in the samples collected from Kond Olya and Anbaj were higher than the standard level of 1053 (1800 μs and 30 mg/l, respectively). Moreover, the turbidity of the samples collected from Kond Olya was slightly higher than the standard value during the humidity period. According to the results, the pH, total hardness, and concentrations of calcium and nitrate in all the studied water wells were below the standard level of 1053 during humid and dry periods. Therefore, it could be concluded that the water quality in Lavasanat (especially Kond Olya region) has been affected by human activities (e.g., release of household and agricultural sewage). It is strongly recommended that the water wells in Kond Olya village be purified in order to prevent the possible health damages in the residents of this area.
    Keywords: Physico-chemical quality, GIS, Nitrate, Total Dissolved Solids, Turbidity
  • Midhun G, Shivaraju H. Puttaiah * Pages 187-196
    Technical advancement is urgently required for the degradation of micro-pollutants in municipal wastewater. The present study aimed to describe the preparation of a filter-bed Mn-TiO2/ZnO nanocomposite and degradation of micro-pollutants in real-time municipal wastewater obtained from Kesare wastewater treatment plant in Mysore district, India. Activated carbon and sand were used for the preparation of the filter bed, and activated carbon was prepared using agricultural wastes (coconut shells). Meanwhile, the visible light-responsive Mn-TiO2/ZnO composite was prepared using the mild sol-gel technique. The composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and photocatalytic techniques. High crystallinity, considerable shift in the band gap energy, and adequate photocatalytic activity under the visible light range were observed. In addition, the filter bed coupled with the Mn-TiO2/ZnO nanocomposite functioned efficiently in the degradation of the common pollutants under LED irradiation as the driving source of energy.
    Keywords: Sol-Gel, Composite, Sewage, Filter bed, Photocatalysis, Adsorption
  • Sima Zamand, Hossein Alidadi, Vahid Taghavimanesh * Pages 197-202
    Corrosion is a physical and chemical reaction between materials and the surrounding environment, which causes changes in the properties of the material and may lead to the financial loss of pipes, as well as other transmission and distribution facilities. In addition, corrosion may be associated with the entry of heavy metals into water sources, threatening the health of the users. The present study aimed to evaluate the corrosion and scaling potential of the drinking water sources in Neyshabur city, Iran in 2017. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted on the water sources in Neyshabur city. In total, 50 samples were randomly selected from the water distribution network to evaluate the corrosion and scaling potential based on the Langelier, Ryzner, aggressive, and Pokurious indices. The mean values obtained for the Langelier, Ryzner, Aggressive, and Pokurious indices in the samples collected from the distribution network were -0.91, 9.58, 11.69, and 8.57, respectively. According to the results, the drinking water sources of Neyshabur had the potential of corrosion and could cause damage to the water supply facilities, causing long-term adverse health effects on the users. Considering the health and economic damages caused by corrosion and scaling in water facilities, the quality monitoring of water is always necessary.
    Keywords: corrosion, scaling, Water sources, Neyshabur