فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:13 Issue:4, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/07/09
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Fidelis Ifeakachuku * Pages 1-4
    Background

    Crude oil is a very toxic chemical. Recently, the search for protective substances is attracting attention. This study aimed to investigate the hematoprotective potentials of oil palm leaves against the toxicity induced by crude oil.

    Methods

    Male Wistar albino rats (n=36) were divided into six groups of rats (n=6). Group 1 (controls) were fed with normal rat food.  Groups 2 and 3 were fed with diets combined with a predetermined quantity of Elaesis guineensis (E. guineensis) leaves. Group 4 were given crude oil contaminated diet. Groups 5 and 6 were fed with tainted diet, mixed with a predetermined quantity of powdered E. guineensis leaves.

    Results

     
    Pre-treatment of the diet with oil palm leaves restored lipid peroxidation, the activities of various types of superoxide dismutases (SODs), and catalase compared to those obtained for the control group. Treatment of crude oil-tainted diet with oil palm leaves significantly increased hemoglobin concentration and red blood cell indices, and significantly decreased white blood cell count compared to those noted for the rats fed crude oil-tainted diet.

    Conclusions

    This study found that the treatment of crude oil contaminated diet with oil palm leaves reduced the hemotoxicity as experimented in Wistar albino rats.

    Keywords: Crude Oil, Elaesis Guineensis Leaves, Hemotoxicity, Oil-Tainted Rat Diet
  • Thomas Inomisan Ofuya, Kayode David Ileke, Yallappa Rajashekar, Jacobs Mobolade *, Titilayo Elizabeth Pages 5-10
    Background

    In recent years, plant materials have been widely explored as sources of insect pest control agents with little or no study on their toxicity. The present study aimed to detect the biochemical alterations in liver and kidney associated with acute oral toxicity of the extracts of B. micrantha and M. villosus in albino rats.

    Methods

    Twenty seven albino rats, weighing between 150-180g were used and divided into nine groups of three rats each, administered with different doses of each extracts (0, 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000mg/kg). The plasma and homogenates of liver and kidney of the rats were investigated for the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALT), total protein, urea and creatinine, using standard laboratory kits.

    Results

    The administration of either extract did not cause death or any hazardous symptoms of acute toxicity, nor resulted in any evident changes in the body weight. However, the extracts caused significant decreases in the levels of ALT, AST, ALP and total protein, urea and creatinine in biochemical parameters. They also caused a significant decrease in the serum parameters of treated rats’ liver and kidney at all doses.

    Conclusions

    The results demonstrated that the oral administration of B. micrantha ethyl acetate extract and of M. villosus petroleum ether extract may be considered as moderately free of toxicity. This was based on our findings that two compounds were moderately safe with respects to their effects on the liver and kidney functions at concentrations of up to 2000 mg/kg body weight of the rats.

    Keywords: Biochemical agent, Creatinine, Extracts, Homogenates, Plasma, Serum
  • Maryam Fatemi, Tahoora Shomali*, Saeed Nazifi, Mehdi Fazeli Pages 11-16
    Background

    Acetaminophen-induced toxicity is a common cause of acute liver failure. This study investigated the hepatoprotective effects of Eryngium bungei Boiss (EB) extract against the hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Methods

    Thirty adult male rats were randomly assigned to five groups, with free access to water and food. They were treated as follows: Group 1 (negative controls): distilled water (DW); Group 2 (positive controls): DW for 7 days and a single dose of 500 mg/kg BW acetaminophen orally on day 8th; Groups 3, 4 and 5 (experimental groups): received EB extract mixed in DW at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/day orally for 7 days plus 500 mg/kg acetaminophen on the 8th day. On the 9thday, blood and liver samples were collected from all rats.

    Results

     The EB extract improved the adverse histological changes in the rats’ livers and resulted in reduced serum ALT and ALP enzymes. Oxidative stress was noted in the liver tissue in Group 2. Pretreatment with EB extract reduced MDA concentration and increased GSH levels, compared to that for Group 2. The extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg/day significantly increased SOD activity, compared to that for Group 2. The IL-1β and TNF-α levels increased significantly in Group 2, compared to those in Group 1. Administration of EB extract in Groups 3, 4 and 5 significantly decreased the IL-1β and TNF-α parameters.

    Conclusions

    The hepatoprotective effects of EB extract appears to be linked to its glutathione-mediated detoxification, free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory properties.

    Keywords: Acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity, Eryngium Bungei Extract, Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, Rats
  • Chandra Prakash, Sunil Kumar Srivastav* Pages 17-20
    Background

    Previous studies have been reported on the toxicity of Microcystin-LR, which is produced by cyanobacterial growth in fish, such as Heteropneustes fossilis (H. fossilis). However, no studies have been conducted on the effects of Microcystin-LR on the prolactin cells of H. fossilis.

    Methods

    H. fossilis fish were intraperitoneally injected with Microcystin-LR (2.5μg/25g) and sacrificed after 1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 days. The blood samples were analyzed for the calcium levels. Histological slides of the pituitary prolactin cells were stained with Herlant’s tetrachrome and Heidenhan’s azan techniques, and examined under light microscopy.

    Results

     The prolactin cells exposed to Microcystin-LR exhibited no structural changes on day 1. However, hyperactive prolactin cells exhibited cellular degranulation from day 3 to day 5. On days 10 and 15, degenerated and vacuolated prolactin cells were also observed. The nuclear volume of prolactin cells exposed to MC-LR increased progressively from day 3 to day 10 but on day 15 the nuclear volume returned to normal. The serum calcium level of MC-LR injected specimens showed hypocalcemia from day 3 to day 10. On day 15, the level became normal.

    Conclusions

    Our results indicated that the serum calcium levels and prolactin cells were altered after exposure to microcystin-LR.

    Keywords: Blood Calcium Level, Heteropneustes Fossilis, Microcystin-LR, Prolactin Cells, Prolactinemia
  • Zohreh Parang, Davood Moghadamnia* Pages 21-25
    Background

    Silver nano-particles have anti-fungal properties. In the present study, silver nano-particles were synthesized by electrochemical method and its effects on the serum levels ofT3 and T4 hormones were investigated in adult male rats.

    Methods

    In this experimental study, 28 adult male Wistar rats weighing approximately 180-220g were divided into 4 groups of 7 rats. The control group (no treatment).  The experimental groups 1and 2 received silver intraperitoneal nano-particle doses of 25 and 100 mg/kg, respectively, for 14 days. The nano-aprticles had been synthesized at 75 seconds interval. The experimental group 3 received silver nano-particles that were synthesized at 300 seconds interval with an intraperitoneal dose of 25 mg/kg for 14 days. At the end of this period, blood samples were obtained from the rats’ hearts, and the serum levels of T3 and T4 hormones were measured. The results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Duncan tests.

    Results

     At the completion of the study, there was no significant difference in the mean body weights in all experimental groups compared to control group. The results showed that the mean serum levels of T3 hormone in the experimental group1 increased significantly relative to the control group. However, there was no significant difference in the mean serum levels of T4 hormone in all experimental groups compared to that in the control group (P < 0.05).

    Conclusions

    Silver nano-particles increased the serum T3 hormone level in male Wistar rats.

    Keywords: Adult Male Rats, Silver Nano-Particles, T3, T4 Hormones, Thyroid Gland
  • Reza Sharafati *, Zahra Jadi Pages 27-32
    Background

    Consumers may be contaminated by various food intakes as one of the most important sources of organic and inorganic pollutants associated with agriculture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and nitrate contaminations in watermelon and carrot samples and the associated risks to human health.

    Methods

    In this cross sectional study, 108 samples of watermelon and carrot samples were collected randomly from the supermarkets in Kashan, Iran, from October 2017 to September 2018. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and spectrophotometry were used to analyze Pb, Cd and nitrate in the collected samples, respectively.

    Results

     
    The results showed that the carrot samples had the most concentrations of Pb, Cd and nitrate than those for watermelon (p<0.001). All of the samples except for some watermelons and carrots had lower contaminants than the permissible standard limits. The results of the target hazard quotient (THQ) and total THQ for the compounds were within the safe range (<1) and were not detected at harmful levels. The excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) of Pb and Cd were in the safe and unsafe range, respectively. However, the total cancer risk was higher than the standard level and was; therefore, unsafe to the consumers.

    Conclusion

    The study showed that the concentrations of the compounds in carrot and watermelon may potentially be hazardous to the health of Iranian consumers.

    Keywords: Cadmium, Health Risk, Lead, Nitrates, Seasons
  • Shima Tahery, Mahmood Ahmadi*, Keivan Keramati, Abbas Javaheri, Saeideh Naeimi Pages 33-37
    Background

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the most important causes of death worldwide. The effect of flunixin meglumine (FM) on MI is unknown. We investigated the protective effect of FM on the serum biochemical profile, malondialdehyde (MDA), and heart histology changes induced by isoproterenol (ISO) in adult male rats.

    Methods

    Rats were randomly divided into four groups of six each as follows: Group 1, control. Group 2, was administered ISO subcutaneously at 85 mg/kg for 2 days. Group 3 was administered FM intraperitoneally at 2 mg/kg/d, for 3 days; and Group 4 was administered FM 2mg/kg/d intraperitoneally for 3 days and ISO 85mg/kg subcutaneously for two consecutive days. Blood samples were collected after anesthesia, 24h after the second ISO administration. The heart tissue was immediately removed for histopathological examination. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine and serum MDA levels were measured on an autoanalyzer and spectrophotometer.

    Results

     In Group 4 (FM+ISO) the levels of AST, LDH and MDA decreased compared with those for Group 2 (ISO) (P< 0.05). Histopathologic tests revealed that ISO induced myocardial injury in Group 3 rats, whereas the alterations of the heart architecture were improved by FM in Group 4 (FM+ISO).

    Conclusions

    The results suggest that FM has a potential cardioprotective effect against an experimental model of MI in rats.

    Keywords: Cardioprotective Effect, Funixin Meglumine, Isoproterenol, MDA, Myocardial Infarction
  • Sheriff Itopa Umar, Bashir Lawal*, Bala Alkali, Cyril Ifeanyi, Stephen Damaola, Shukurat Bisola, Abdulsalam Hassan Adewuyi Pages 39-44
    Background

    Maytenus heterophylla (M. heterophylla) is commonly used in African traditional medicine for the management of various ailments. The present study evaluated the antioxidant, antimicrobial and safety properties of the Flavonoid extract of M. heterophylla in Wister rats.

    Methods

    The Flavonoid was subjected to antibacterial study via agar well diffusion method, and antioxidant study using 2, 2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant properties (FRAP) assays. Subacute toxicity were carried out by the oral administration of the extract at a daily dose of 50 or 100mg/kg for 28 days.

    Results

     The extract produced significant antioxidants activities with IC50 of 33.07±0.84 µg/mL & 38.08±0.89 μg/mL in DPPH and FRAPS models respectively. It produced a dose-dependent inhibition of S. aureus, E.coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumonia and S. Typhi with MIC between 12.5µg/mL to 25µg/mL. The flavonoid was safe on acute exposure to rats (LD50> 5000 mg/kg). However, the  chronic exposure significantly (p<0.05) decreased the creatinine, bilirubin concentrations and increased  aspartate transaminase (AST) activities while the total protein, albumin, alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatise (ALP), urea, chloride, potassium and sodium concentrations were comparable with those in the controls. The organs-body weights ratios also compared well with the controls (p<0.05).

    Conclusions

    The findings showed that the Flavonoid extract of M. heterophylla was relatively non-toxic following acute or chronic exposures at 50-100 mg/kg. The flavonoid extract may potentially serve as a candidate agent for the development of an anti-microbial drug and to enhance the antioxidant capacity in rats.

    Keywords: Antibacterial, Anti-Oxidants, Flavonoids, Maytenus Heterophylla, Toxicity