فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:20 Issue:11, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/08/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Rafat Assarzadeh, Zahra Bostani Khalesi *, Fatemeh Jafarzadeh, Kenarsari Page 1
    Context

    Sexual self-efficacy (SSE) is a key concept in sexual behavior and sexual health. The overall purpose of this research was to review of the factors related to the sexual self-efficacy.

    Evidence Acquisition

    An extensive literature search was performed using PubMed, Web of Science, Social Science Research Network, CINAHL, Psych INFO, Magiran, Iran Medex, Iran Doc, SID and Google Scholar. This review study was conducted according to the PRISMA checklist. Eligible studies were identified from English and Persian databases, published between 1990 and 2018. Studies were screened independently by two researchers who performed the data extraction.

    Results

    Of 128 studies identified, 25 studies met our inclusion criteria. Factors related to SSE were summarized into 4 groups: sociodemographic factors (e.g. age, race, socioeconomic status, parental support, social support, religious obligations, negotiation skills, addicts, working hours, history of delivery, physical problem), marital status factors (e.g., failure in marriage, marital satisfaction, marital quality, marriage duration, intimacy), sexual history factors (e.g. sexual self-concept, sexual experience, confidence in sexual relationships, sexual activity, sexual self-schema, sexual adjustment, childhood sexual abuse, sexual disorders, sexual risk cognition, experiences of abuse or violence, partner’s belief, experiences of sex-therapy training), psychological factors (e.g. obsession, psychosis, anxiety, depression, paranoia, phobia, individual sensitivity, aggression).

    Conclusions

    With regards to the important role of SSE in sexual health, deeper perception factors related to SSE are needed. More comprehension of these agents can acquaint targeted approaches in order to improve SSE and reduce the sexual problems.

    Keywords: Self-Efficacy, Sexual Behavior, Sexual Health, Sexual Self-Efficacy
  • Soheil Saadat, Iraj Alimohammadi, Mojgan Karbakhsh, Hassan Ashayeri, Mahsa Fayaz, Farideh Sadeghian* Page 2
    Background

    Sleep deprivation leads to fatigue and sleepiness among health care workers and can result in road traffic collisions (RTC) after their shift. Planned napping is one of the main solutions proposed to avoid this problem.

    Objectives

    The present study aimed at assessing the effect of two nap times during the night shift on psychomotor driving skills among night shift nurses.

    Methods

    A cohort study was conducted on 19 night shift nurses. The nurses completed the eight tests of the validated traffic psychological assessment battery of Vienna test system (VTS) before the night shift at 6 PM, and they repeated the same set of tests after the night shift at 7 AM. Data were compared based on nap times (00:00 - 03:00 AM versus 03:00 - 06:00 AM), which were chosen by the night shift nurses.

    Results

    Nurses aged 23 to 36 years old participated in this study. Their driving experience was 6.1  3.4 years, and 34% reported RTCs in the previous year. The nurses who chose to take naps from 00:00 to 03:00 showed a significantly improved time-movement anticipation ability in driving compared to those who napped from 03:00 AM to 06:00 AM (P value = 0.005).

    Conclusions

    With respect to the time-movement anticipation test, napping during 00:00 to 03:00 AM provided better

    results

    compared to napping at 03:00 to 06:00 AM. Anticipation is a highly important psychomotor ability for safe driving.

    Keywords: Night Shift, Driving, Nap, Nurse, Psychomotor Performance
  • Saeideh Zareei, Reza Homayounfar*, Mohammad Mehdi Naghizadeh, Elham Ehrampoush, Zohre Amiri, Maryam Rahimi, Lida Tahamtani Page 3
    Background

    Preeclampsia is one of the causes of mortality and high-risk pregnancies that endangers the health of mothers in the developing countries.

    Objectives

    The current study aimed at investigating the nutritional pattern in women with preeclampsia.

    Methods

    The current cross sectional study was conducted on 182 pregnant women (82 patients with preeclampsia and 100 healthy subjects) selected using easy sampling in Fasa Vali-e-Asr Hospital in 2016. The dietary intake was evaluated using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and the intensity of day-night activities by a physical activity questionnaire. Anthropometric indicators were calculated according to standard guidelines, measurement, and body mass index. Dietary patterns were characterized by a factor analysis and its relationship with preeclampsia was investigated by logistic regression method.

    Results

    Two unhealthy and healthy dietary patterns were identified among individuals. In the crude model and after adjusting the effect of confounding variables of unhealthy dietary patterns, no significant relationship was observed between dietary pattern and preeclampsia. In the fourth compare to the first quartile of the healthy dietary pattern, the chance of preeclampsia was 0.219 (95% CI: 0.090 - 0.528, P = 0.001) crude model and 0.178 (95% CI: 0.059 - 0.530, P = 0.002) adjusted model.

    Conclusions

    The findings indicated that choosing a healthy dietary pattern was associated with a reduction in the risk of preeclampsia. Regarding these results, prevention of preeclampsia maybe possible by the healthy diet recommendation. The occurrence of complications in the mother, the fetus, and the baby in the future can also be prevented through the same way.

    Keywords: Preeclampsia, Food Frequency Questionnaire, Dietary Patterns, PregnantWomen
  • Behnam Honarvar, Kamran Bagheri Lankarani, Maryam Azadegan*, Elahe Khaksar, FatemehJafari, Tayebe Rahmani Fard Page 4
    Objectives

    Sleep disturbance is one of the main complaints of the elderly. In this study, we aimed to determine the correlates of sleep disturbance in the elderly population.

    Methods

    In this population-based study, sleep disturbance was assessed by completing the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The collected data were analyzed in SPSS.

    Results

    A total of 386 elderly individuals participated in this study. Overall, 213 (55.2%) participants reported sleep disturbances. The elderly with heart disease, low quality of life (QOL), chronic pain, single marital status, and osteoporosis had the lowest quality of sleep (QOS), followed by non-providers of family’s costs. The elderly with chronic pain and lower QOL suffered from daytime dysfunction more than those with osteoporosis, who mostly suffered from sleep latency.

    Conclusions

    One out of two elderly people had low QOS. Heart disease, low QOL, chronic pain, and osteoporosis should be considered in the elderly QOS improvement.

    Keywords: Sleep Disturbance, Elderly, Quality of Life, Chronic Pain
  • Mahsa Kiani, Mohsen Moghadami*, Mitra Amini, Sina Bagheri Page 5
    Background

    Although infectious diseases are the most common cause of fever of unknown origin (FUO) in many countries, the spectrum of its etiology is changing over time.

    Objectives

    The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical spectrum and the pattern of FUO in Shiraz.

    Methods

    This study was undertaken from 2011 to 2015 in the main hospitals of Shiraz, southern Iran. The data of 60 patients fulfilling the modified criteria for FUO referring to the main hospitals in Shiraz were used for analysis. The data were extracted from the patients’ medical charts and probable etiologies responsible for FUO were assessed. The patients were followed up by further ambulatory and readmission assessment.

    Results

    Of the identified etiologies, infections were the most common cause of FUO in 30% of the patients, followed by collagen vascular diseases with 15% and malignancies with 11.6%. However, 25 patients (41%) remained undiagnosed for their fever causes.

    Conclusions

    The pattern of FUO in the region has changed in recent years and complicated cases are admitted to hospitals. With improving ambulatory tests and diagnostic modalities, most of the patients with FUO are being diagnosed in outpatient settings and it will cause some changes in the classic percentage of FUO etiologies among admitted patients in the future.

    Keywords: FUO, Infection, Malignancy
  • Seyed Ali Reza Mortazavi, Mahdi Faraz, Sahar Laalpour, Azim Kaveh Ahangar, Jamshid Eslami, Sina Zarei, Ghazal Mortazavi, Farshid Gheisari, Seyed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi* Page 6
    Background

    Substantial evidence now indicates that exposure to visible light at night can be linked to a wide spectrum of disorders  ranging from obesity to cancer. More specifically, it has been shown that exposure to short wavelengths in the blue region at night is associated with adverse health effects such as sleep problems.

    Objectives

    This study aimed at investigating if exposure to blue light emitted fromcommonsmartphones in an environment with dim light at night alters human reaction time.

    Methods

    Visual reaction time (VRT) of 267 male and female university students were recorded using a simple blind computerassisted test. Volunteer university students,whoprovided their informed consent were randomly divided intotwogroups of control (N = 126 students) and intervention (N = 141 students). All participants were asked to go to bed at 23:00. Participants in the intervention group were asked to use their smartphones from 23:00 to 24:00 (watching a natural life documentary movie for 60 minutes), while the control group only stayed in bed under low lighting condition, i.e. dim light. Just before starting the experiment and after 60 minutes of smartphone use, reaction time was recorded in both groups.

    Results

    The mean reaction times in the intervention and the control groups before the experiment (23:00) did not show a statistically difference (P = 0.449). The reaction time in the intervention group significantly increased from 412.64105.60 msec at 23:00 to 441.66125.78 msec at 24:00 (P = 0.0368) while in the control group, there was no statistically significant difference between the mean reaction times at 23:00 and 24:00.

    Conclusions

    To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study, which showed that exposure to blue-rich visible light emitted from widely used smartphones increases visual reaction time, which would eventually result in a delay inhumanresponses to different hazards. These findings indicate that people, such as night shift or on call workers, who need to react to stresses rapidly should avoid using their smartphones in a dim light at night.

    Keywords: Blue Light, Smartphones, Digital Screens, Reaction Time
  • Ali Hadianfar, Habibollah Esmaily, Majid Ghayour, Mobarhan, Hossein Aghajani, Azadeh Saki *, Maryam Tayefi, Fatemeh Hosseini, Samaneh Sabouri Page 7
    Background

    Depression is one of the most common mental disorders and it has the third rank of the cause of disability and has been considered to increase the years of life with disability in Iran.

    Objectives

    The purpose of this study was to map the geographical distribution and find hot spots of depression and its relation to demographic and socioeconomic factors in Mashhad.

    Methods

    A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Mashhad in 2010. In this study, 9704 individuals aged 35 to 65 years old were evaluated using Beck’s depression inventory-II. A generalized linear mixed model with a logit link was fitted for the spatial modeling of depression. R and GIS software was used for spatial analysis and disease mapping, respectively.

    Results

    The prevalence of depression was different in geographical areas, ranging from 13.29% to 26.67%. The spatial correlation in the prevalence of depression was significant. The fitted spatial model showed that the spatial adjusted associations between gender (P < 0.001), marital status (P < 0.001), socioeconomic status (P < 0.001), and depression were significant.

    Conclusions

    The significant spatial correlation shows that depression is spatially contagious and it is important to find its hot spots in the population. Thus developing health policy for prevention, early diagnostics, and treatment programs is preferred in these resource-limited areas.

    Keywords: Depression, Spatial Analysis, Generalized Linear Mixed Model
  • Azam Moridi, Mojdeh Banaei *, Sareh Dashti, Nasim Shahrahmani, AsiyehPormehr Yabandeh Page 8

    Implementation of the health reform plan in health centers is offered by health care providers where the quality of services is important as they deal with human lives. The aim of this study is to assess the implementation of health reform plan on health care providers in health, in order to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of this plan. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in the health centers of the city of Bandar-Abbas in 2017. The sample size included 200 health care providers, and they were selected by convenience sampling method. The mean total job satisfaction score among health care providers was 2.430.70, indicating moderate satisfaction. The highest level of satisfaction was related to the area of opportunities for capacity development (3.011.14). The findings of this study can help managers plan to increase health care providers’ satisfaction and to improve their performance and hence to achieve the objectives of the health care reform plan.

    Keywords: Health Reform Plan, Satisfaction, Health Care, Health Centers, Provider