فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:16 Issue:4, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/08/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Zahra Unesi, Azar Sajed *, Gholam Reza Sharifzadeh Page 1
    Background

    Vaccination is the main cause of iatrogenic pain, stress, and anxiety for children and parents.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to assess the effects of manual pressure on vaccination pain among infants.

    Methods

    This two-group clinical trial was conducted on 60 infants, four months old, conveniently recruited from a primary healthcare center in Birjand, Iran. The participants were randomly allocated to the control and intervention groups by block randomization. In the intervention group, the participants were provided with manual pressure applied using the thumb on the injection site for ten seconds immediately before vaccination until the injection. The participants in the control group did not receive any pre-vaccination manual pressure. Vaccination pain intensity and post-vaccination crying length were assessed using the face, legs, activity, cry, and consolability (FLACC) scale and a digital stopwatch, respectively. The chi-square, independent-sample t-test, and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for data analysis at a significance level of 0.05.

    Results

    The mean of pain intensity in the intervention group was significantly less than the control group (P = 0.012), while no significant difference was found between the groups respecting the length of crying (P = 0.61).

    Conclusions

    Manual pressure on the injection site is effective in significantly alleviating vaccination pain among infants. Further studies are still needed to produce firm evidence in this area.

    Keywords: Pain, Vaccination, Infant, Manual Pressure
  • Sobhan Heravian, Nima Nouri, Mojtaba Behnam, Seyed Mohammad Hossein Seyedkashi * Page 2
    Background

    People with severe disabilities, especially spinal cord injury (SCI), encounter many difficulties in communicating with computer systems, because their problem is generally not addressed in computer programs.

    Objectives

    With the advent of technology and the move toward Internet of Things (IoT), a new technique has been developed by combining an eye tracking system with IoT to create a platform for the use of SCI patients.

    Methods

    Eye tracking methods include invasive, non-invasive and semi-invasive techniques. A non-invasive method in which the eye movement is traceable in visible or infrared light is used in this research. An algorithm is designed and developed that allows an IoT-based connection providing higher speed and precision compared with previous algorithms. Therefore, this technique is novel in application of eye tracking for issuing control commands in an IoT-based smart home by individuals with SCI or other physical disabilities. The total command receipt, confirmation, and execution time in this system is less than 10 seconds. The optical conditions in this research were 5 ~ 300 lux and 2 ~ 6 lux in invisible and infrared light processing, respectively. It produced 97% correct responses with the help of statistical weighted averaging and elimination of bad data. This system uses the Arduino Mega 2560 board in IoT part, and MATLAB software in feature-based face detection processing.

    Results

    This methodology improved the quality and accuracy of gaze tracking due to the following reasons: enhanced image clarity, use of two-eye processing, and use of statistical weighted averaging, as well as the use of both visible/infrared lights to reduce the sensitivity to the ambient light. This system has the advantage of having no sensitivity to age, gender, hairstyle, beard, mustache, and veil, and the possibility of producing output for several devices.

    Conclusions

    The proposed system is reliable for designing a smart home for SCI patients.

    Keywords: Rehabilitation Software, Eye Tracking Method, Gaze-Based User Interface, Smart Home, Internet of Things, Spinal CordInjury
  • Karvan Bekmaz, Hamid Hojjati *, Golbahar Akhoundzadeh Page 3
    Background

    Hospitalization of children is one of the main causes of anxiety and concern for families. Mothers of sick children need emotional support to provide effective care and adequate support for their children.

    Objectives

    Thus, the present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between parental concerns and nursing support of hospitalized children.

    Methods

    This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 mothers of children admitted to the Pediatric Ward of Baqiyatallah Al-Azam Hospital in Ali Abad Katoul, Golestan province, Iran, in 2018. The children were hospitalized for at least 24 h, and were selected by the convenience sampling method. Concerns of mothers were measured by the Parental Concerns Questionnaire and nursing support was assessed by the Nursing Support of Parents Questionnaire through individual interviews. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 21 software at a significance level of 5%.

    Results

    The mean scores of mothers’ concerns and nursing support were 16.6 ± 5.6 and 72.01 ± 16.52, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficient showed a significant relationship between nursing support and mothers’ concerns (r = -0.22, P = 0.004).

    Conclusions

    Mothers’ concerns are decreased by increasing nursing support. By identifying factors effective in decreasing mothers’ concerns, the treatment team members, especially nurses, can play an important role in providing nursing care and support for mothers of hospitalized children. Therefore, increasing self-confidence of mothers and providing nursing support for them will increase the quality of care and satisfaction of patients and their caregivers, especially the mothers

    Keywords: Support, Nursing, Parents, Hospitalized Children
  • Simin Sharafi *, Ali Bazzi, Hamid Chamanzari Page 4
    Background

    Caring for patients undergoing hemodialysis is very critical because of the disease’s complications. In the context of hemodialysis, the essential duty of nurses is to reduce the inflammation resulting from the vascular access.

    Methods

    This clinical trial was conducted on 101 hemodialysis patients in Montaserie and Imam Reza hospitals, Mashhad, Iran, for one month. Sampling was done by non-probability convenience method. Using random allocation, patients were placed into three groups including those who received a combination of alcohol and betadine to disinfect the vascular access site (n = 37; henceforth, group 1), those who underwent a concurrent application of alcohol after betadine (n = 33; henceforth, group 2), and the control group (n = 31). In group 1, the vascular access site was disinfected with betadine solution and alcohol mixed with a ratio of 2:1 before the dialysis initiated. In group 2, alcohol and betadine were used separately for disinfection. In the control group, the routine method of disinfection was performed using betadine, while antiseptic precautions were taken into account. During 12 sessions in four weeks, the vascular access sites of patients were evaluated for inflammation criteria postulated by the Iranian Nurses Association. Data were analyzed by SPSS16 software (significance level of P < 0.05).

    Results

    Mean inflammation severity was lower in group 1 than in group 2 (P = 0.039). No significant difference was observed between group 2 and the control group (P = 0.079).

    Conclusions

    The betadine and alcohol combination can be used in similar studies because this combination is simple, inexpensive, and most importantly, effective to reduce the inflammation of the vascular access site in hemodialysis patients.

    Keywords: Alcohol, Betadine, Inflammation in Hemodialysis, Vascular Access
  • Mohammad Osmani, Freshteh Osmani *, Mohammad Amin Pourhoseingholi Page 5
    Background

    Different procedures can be used to develop predictive models for medical data with binary response. In this study, we aimed to probe the process of developing common predictive models, including decision tree (DT) and logistic regression (LR). Also, we investigated how to set the model parameters, how to develop accurate models efficiently, and how to determine the prediction efficiency.

    Objectives

    The main purpose of this study was to find the prevalence and risk factors associated with functional dyspepsia (FD) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GRED) in a sample of the Iranian population.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was conducted in Tehran, from May 2016 to December 2017, on 18,180 participants who were selected randomly and interviewed using a reliable questionnaire.

    Results

    The areas under the ROC curve (AUC) of DT and LR were 0.93 and 0.94 for GERD and 0.98 and 0.95 for FD, respectively. Generally, 63.8% and 37.2% of the participants had FD and GRED, respectively. The results of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that men had a higher risk of FD than women. The prevalence of FD increased with increasing age.

    Conclusions

    This study showed a low rate of FD and GERD among urban people of Tehran. Also, the prediction results of both models were approximately similar. Therefore, when we deal with multiple independent variables and a binary response variable in data from a large sample, more statistical techniques and strategies should be considered in developing a prediction model.

    Keywords: Functional Dyspepsia, Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease, Outcome Assessment
  • Leila Momeni, Hadi Fathi *, Seyed Ali Hosseini, Masoud Nikbakht Page 6
    Background

    Cadmium is a toxic metal, which can cause damage to the renal tissue. Various studies have suggested the protective role of training and selenium as a cofactor involved in the production of antioxidants in acute and chronic kidney disease, although the molecular-cellular mechanism of these two interventions is still not fully understood in the renal tissue.

    Objectives

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of training and selenium consumption on the renal tissue of cadmium-poisoned rats.

    Methods

    In this experimental study, 40 rats were randomly assigned into eight groups of five rats, including: (1) control, (2) sham, (3) cadmium, (4) cadmium + selenium, (5) cadmium + continuous training, (6) cadmium + high intensity interval training (HIIT), (7) cadmium + continuoustraining + selenium, and (8) cadmium + HIIT + selenium. During eight weeks, rats in groups 3 - 8 received 2 mg/kg of cadmium peritoneally daily and rats in groups 4, 7, and 8 received 0.23 mg/kg of selenium per day, peritoneally. Also, rats in groups 5 - 8 were given three sessions of HIIT (with 80 - 110 percentage of maximum speed) and continuous training (with 50% to 75% of maximum speed) for three sessions per week. Shapiro-Wilk, one-way ANOVA, two-way ANOVA, and Bonferroni’s post hoc tests were used to analyze the findings. The significance level was considered at 0.05.

    Results

    Continuous training had a significant effect on reduction of albumin (ALB) (P = 0.001) and total bilirubin (TBIL) (P = 0.001), in addition, HIIT had a significant effect on reduction of ALB (P = 0.001) and TBIL (P = 0.04). The results of the two-way ANOVA test showed that selenium had a significant effect on the reduction of ALB (P = 0.001), TBIL (P = 0.001), and histidine ammonia-lyase (HAL) (P = 0.001). In addition, training with selenium had interactive effects on the reduction of TBIL (P = 0.004) and HAL (P = 0.001).

    Conclusions

    It seems that continuous training and HIIT, along with selenium consumption, have protective effects on the renal tissue of cadmium-poisoned rats.

    Keywords: Training, Selenium, Cadmium, Kidney
  • Shima Heydari, Sedigheh Taherpour, Azadeh Abbasimoghaddam, Amir Tavakoli * Page 7
    Introduction

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important zoonotic disease between humans and mammalians that causes remarkable economic loss and public health problem in different regions of the world.

    Case Presentation

    We present the case of a 43-year-old male patient living in Nehbandan city, Iran. He referred to the Nehbandan Hospital with sudden dyspnea. Two days before admission, he had suddenly suffered from the shortness of breath and had admitted to the Nehbandan Hospital to receive penicillin, but was discharged. The next morning, due to the exacerbation of the shortness of breath, he returned to the hospital. Pleural effusion in the left lung was observed in radiography. The patient was transferred to Valiasr Hospital in Birjand city for CT scanning. The anti-Echinococcus specific total IgG antibody was positive.

    Conclusions

    Hydatid disease should be considered as one of the differential diagnoses in every patient with respiratory symptoms and in those who are living in endemic areas. The early identification of the cyst and its surgical removal will improve the patient’s symptoms. In the present case, following the definitive diagnosis, a surgery was done while treatment with albendazole had started one week before surgery that continued after discharge from the hospital.

    Keywords: Echinococcosis, Hydatid Cyst, Lung, Surgery, Birjand