فهرست مطالب

Nutrition and Food Security - Volume:4 Issue:4, 2019
  • Volume:4 Issue:4, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/08/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Farideh Afkhami, Abbas Fattahi Bafghi*, Hamid Abbasi Bafghi Pages 218-224
    Background

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an eight-week combined exercise training program with sweet almond supplementation on plasma levels of leptin and orexin in overweight women.

    Methods

    This research was a quasi-experimental study. The statistical population consisted of 60 overweight women with a body mass index (BMI) of 25-30 kg/m2 who were randomly divided into four groups of training, training-sweet almond supplement, supplement, and control. The participants participated in three training sessions weekly and consumed sweet almond supplementation for eight consecutive weeks. The participants' blood samples were taken 24 hours before the first session and after the last session, in a 12-hour fasting state. Liptin concentrations were measured using Pishtaz Teb Inc. kits. Orexin levels were determined through enzymatic method using the Virro Inc. kit. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to analyze the inter- and intra-group variance. The overall alpha significance level was set at P ≤ 0.05 for all the statistical analyses.

    Results

    Eight weeks of combined exercise training with sweet almond supplementation Showed a significant reduces in serum level leptin concentration and increased the plasma orexin levels.

    Conclusion

    According to the results of the present study It can be used from combined training and sweet almonds to reduce appetite and lose weight in overweight women.

    Keywords: Combined exercise training, Sweet almond supplementation, Leptin, Orexin, Overweight women
  • Fatemeh Rastiani, Ali Jebali, Seyed Hossein Hekmatimoghaddam, Elham Khalili Sadrabad, Fateme Akrami Mohajeri*, Arefeh Dehghani Tafti Pages 225-235
    Background

    The rainbow trout fish is susceptible to spoilage due to its high content of unsaturated fatty acids. It should be kept at low temperature to reduce microbial, enzymatic, and oxidation reactions. The purpose of this study was to design a packaging that contains a pH indicator for monitoring freshness of the rainbow trout fish during storage at refrigerator.

    Methods

    The indicator contained agarose as the carrier, bromocresol green as pH indicator, and silica as surface provider. It was covered by polypropylene film and attached inside the package. Freshness of the trout stored in the refrigerator was assessed by chemical (total volatile basic nitrogen and pH) and microbiological (total viable count) methods.

    Results

    The pH of fish gradually decreased after the third day since color of the indicator changed from yellow to green on day 3 and then to blue on day 6. The indicator's response was correlated with changes in the microbial population and also with levels of total volatile basic nitrogen and pH. The results showed that the designed indicator was sensitive to different pH levels and could be applied as part of the intelligent packaging system.

    Conclusion

    The freshness indicator worked well before the expiry date of fish, which makes it suitable for food quality assessment. So, this indicator can be used for real-time monitoring of packaged fish freshness

    Keywords: Rainbow trout, pH freshness indicator, Intelligent packaging, Silica nanoparticles
  • Fatemeh Karimnezhad, Vadood Razavilar, Amirali Anvar, Shahrzad Dashtgol, Atefeh Pilehvar Zavareh* Pages 236-242
    Background

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chitosan coatings, oregano essential oil, and their combination on microbial quality of chicken fillet during 12 days in refrigerator temperature.

    Methods

    Oregano oil was extracted by water distillation and then different concentrations of oregano oil (1% and 2%) were used for film preparation. Microbiological tests were carried out on the chicken fillet samples stored in 4 °C at different intervals including days 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12.

    Results

    Treated groups with chitosan and oregano oil affected the increase rate of aerobic plate counts, coliform counts, and total psychrophilic counts significantly compared to the control group across the entire storage period (P < 0.05). Chitosan-based edible film containing oregano oil inhibited microbial growth on chicken fillet. Microbial populations were reduced by 2.14-3.53 log CFU/g in groups treated with chitosan and oregano oil. Our results revealed that incorporation of oregano essential oil at 2% concentration had the highest inhibitory effect on spoilage microorganisms in coated chicken fillet during 12 days of storage at refrigerator.

    Conclusion

    Generally, application of oregano essential oil at 2% concentration had the potential to enhance safety and shelf-life of chicken fillet.

    Keywords: Chitosan film, Oregano oil, Chicken meat, Microbial quality, Shelf-life
  • Behnaz Abiri, Mohammadreza Vafa*, Fatemeh Azizi Soleiman Pages 243-248
    Background

    Iron deficiency anemia is a major public health problem in the developing countries. Anemia decreases physical capacity and adversely affects performance in women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of anemia based on some hematological parameters among women of reproductive age in Kermanshah, Western Iran.

    Methods

    We conducted a cross-sectional study in Kermanshah in May 2015. A total of 515 females aged 15-45 years agreed to participate in the study. Blood samples were collected from all participants. The analyzed hematological parameters from the participants' blood samples included the hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, hematocrit, mean cell volume (MCV), mean hemoglobin concentration (MCH), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).

    Results

    The total prevalence of anemia was 15.1%. Mean concentration of Hb was 13.86 ± 1.08 mg/dL in ages 15 to 25 years, 13.83 ± 1.08 mg/dl in 26 to 35 years, and 13.58 ± 1.27 mg/dl in the age range of 36-45 years. These results showed that the mean concentration of Hb decreased with increase of age. The prevalence of microcytosis and hypochromia were higher in women aged 36-45 years. The hypochromic-microcytic anemia was observed in 81.3% of those with Hb < 12.7 mg/dl.

    Conclusions

    The prevalence of anemia in women of reproductive age is not a health concern in Kermanshah City. However, this does not mean that the importance of prevention programs should be neglected.

    Keywords: Iron deficiency anemia, Anemia, Hematological parameters, Prevalence, Women, Western Iran
  • Farzaneh Montazerifar, Mansour Karajibani*, Hossnieh Asoudeh, Mohaddeseh Asoudeh, Ali Reza Dashipour Pages 249-255
    Background

    Malnutrition, as a serious health problem in children, has an increasing prevalence in the developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate the anthropometric indices of primary school children in Iranshahr, a city in central region of Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 1000 6-14 year-old primary school children studying in 16 public and 5 private schools in Iranshahr city from May to June 2017. The sampling was done using multistage cluster random method. The school records were used to determine the students' ages. Their weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) were measured. Anthropometric indices including weight-for-age, height-for-age, and BMI-for-age were assessed using the National Center for Health Statistics/World Health Organization international growth reference and Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2000).

    Results

    The rate of thinness was significantly higher in public than private schools (18.1% vs 1%; P < 0.0001). Overweight/obesity was lower in public schools’ children compared to students of the private schools (0.1% vs 9.3%; P = 0.007). The rates of stunting and underweight in public and private schools’ children were 50.2% vs. 53.3% (P = 0.11) and 46.6% vs 35% (P < 0.0001), respectively.

    Conclusion

    Findings showed that although nutritional status was better in private schools than public schools, malnutrition is still a potential public health problem in this area. Therefore, the nutrition interventions are suggested at national and regional levels to increase the parents' awareness.

    Keywords: Underweight, Stunting, Wasting, Primary schools, Children
  • Ameneh Marzban*, Azadeh Nadjarzadeh, Elham Karimi Nazari, Vahid Rahmanian, Asma Farrokhian, Mehran Barzegaran Pages 256-262
    Background

    Today, bad and harmful nutritional behavior is one of the most important and common nutritional problems of young people. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between religiosity and nutritional behavior in students of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in Yazd City, Iran.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was conducted on 310 students in the academic year 2017-2018 by stratified sampling method. Data collection tools were demographic questionnaire, Serajzadeh religiosity measures, and nutritional behavior questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS16 using descriptive statistics, Chi-square, and Pearson correlation coefficient.

    Results

    The results showed a positive and significant correlation between religious attitude and nutritional behavior of students (P = 0.01, R = 0.78). Furthermore, religious attitude had a significant relationship with educational level and school of study. Moreover, a significant relationship was found between gender and nutritional behavior of students.

    Conclusion

    Regarding the correlation between religiosity and nutritional behavior, the authorities are recommended to hold Islamic nutrition workshops in order to improve nutritional behavior of the students.

    Keywords: Religiosity, Nutritional Behavior, Students, Yazd
  • Mansour Karajibani*, Farzaneh Montazerifar, Karim Dehghani, Mehdi Mogharnasi, Reza Mousavi Gilan, Alireza Dashipour Pages 263-271
    Background

    Exercise training affects the adipose tissue, which may lead to the secretion of adipokines. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of endurance exercise training on vaspin, lipid profiles, and some anthropometric indices among young people.

    Methods

    The participants included 26 young men selected and categorized into the intervention and control groups randomly. The intervention group underwent the endurance activity (aerobic), while the control group had no exercises during the study. Anthropometric indices and dietary intakes were determined by standard and 48-hr recall methods, respectively. Before and after implementation of the exercise training, the participants' fasting blood samples were collected. Lipid profile (including cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, and HDL) and vaspin levels were determined.

    Results

    A significant difference was observed in body fat percentage of the intervention group after exercise training (P = 0.009). However, no significant differences were observed based on the means of anthropometric indices, lipid profile, and daily energy intake between two groups. With regard to the vaspin levels, a significant difference was observed between the participants' scores before (P = 0.001) and after (P = 0.04) the exercise training in intervention compared to the control group. 

    Conclusion

    Endurance exercise program can lead to appropriate changes in some anthropometric indices, lipid profile, and vaspin adipokine in young people. So, exercise training can affect health promotion of people.

    Keywords: Vaspin, Endurance training, Anthropometric indices
  • Ayda Arian, Elahe Alizadeh, Navid Mazrouei Arani, Reza Sharafati Chaleshtori* Pages 272-278
    Background

    Lime juice is a nutritious drink, which is generally consumed for its' refreshing properties, nutritive value, vitamin content, and health benefits. Therefore, the chemical and microbiological quality of the traditional and industrial lime juice produced in Kashan city was assessed.

    Methods

    In this descriptive cross-sectional study, a total of 106 samples were collected and screened for total soluble solid (TSS), pH, acidic value, protein content, mold, yeast, and count of acid-tolerant bacteria according to the Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (ISIRI).

    Results

    Of the total samples, 66 samples (62.26%) were within the Iran’s national standard range. Most samples that did not meet the national standard requirements, were related to traditional samples (70.24%) compared to industrial samples (31.82%, P < 0.001). No significant difference was found between pH and protein of traditional and industrial lime juice samples (P > 0.05), while TSS and acidic values in traditional lime juices were less than those of the industrial lime juice (P < 0.05). Additionally, the mold and yeast contaminations in traditional lime juices were more than industrial lime juices (P < 0.05).

    Conclusion

    In overall, traditional lime juice samples had the most microbial and chemical contaminations. It is necessary to increase the regular monitoring by relevant organizations over quality of the produced lime juices.

    Keywords: Citrus, Food quality, Iran
  • Ousmane Ouedraogo*, Ella WR Compaore, Emile KS Amouzou, Augustin N. Zeba, Mamoudou H Dicko Pages 279-292
    Background

    Simplified and reliable tools for individual and household diet quality assessment have been found helpful to reduce cost of the dietary survey. The main objective of this study was to determine the household’s diet profile in the Centre-West Region of Burkina Faso.

    Methods

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on household food consumption using the last seven days recall. Food consumption score (FCS) was calculated by adding sores of the consumed food groups for each household.

    Results

    Overall, 985 households were involved from 37 rural and three urban places from the Centre-West Region of Burkina Faso. With regard to the FCS, 28%, 28%, and 44% of the households had a poor (FCS ≤ 21), borderline (21< FCS ≤ 35), and acceptable (FCS > 35) scores, respectively. Increased FCS improved the food consumption frequency rich in nutrient (vitamin A, iron, protein) groups. The quality of household’s diet was determined by socioeconomic variables such as household assets and number of income sources. Urban households get their food from the market places, while rural ones consumed their own productions.

    Conclusion

    Diet quality based on food groups' consumption was associated with the socioeconomic status of households with regard to a certain food vulnerability. More efforts are required to strengthen the food security in vulnerable households regarding healthy diets for the population.

    Keywords: dietary survey, food groups, households food consumption, Burkina Faso
  • Sun Wenli, Mohamad Hesam Shahrajabian, Cheng Qi* Pages 293-305
    Background

    Goji berries (Lycium barbarum), widely used in traditional Chinese medicine, can be applied as a dietary supplement. They are classified as nutraceutical food due to their long and safe traditional use. Ginseng has been increasingly used in the last decades and has become well known for its significant role in preventing and treating many diseases.

    Methods

    The keywords of Goji berry, Ginseng, Traditional Chinese medicine were searched in Google Scholar, Scopus, Research Gate, and PubMed in both English and Chinese languages.

    Results

    Goji berry significantly inhibited the generation and spread of cancer cells, improved eyesight, and increased reserves of muscle glycogen and liver glycogen, which may increase human energy and has anti-fatigue effect. Usage of Goji berries improved brain function and enhanced learning and memory. It had positive effects on anti-cancer, anti-oxidant activities, retinal function preservation, anti-diabetes, immune function, and anti-fatigue. Pharmacological activities of ginseng extracts affected the central nervous system, antipsychotic action, tranquilizing effects, protection from stress ulcers, increase of gastrointestinal motility, anti-fatigue action, endocrinological effects, enhancement of sexual behavior, acceleration of metabolism, or synthesis of carbohydrates, lipids, RNA, and proteins. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, ginseng helps to maintain a healthy immune system.

    Conclusions

    In this review article we found that Goji berries and Ginseng were sources of compounds with valuable nutritional and bioactive properties. Therefore, they could be incorporated into foods with functional properties. More clinical studies are necessary to uncover the numerous substances and their effects in goji berries and ginseng that contribute to public health.

    Keywords: Goji berry, Ginseng, Traditional Chinese medicine