فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:8 Issue:12, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/09/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Russell Mannion *, Neil Small Pages 678-683
    New wave public health places an emphasis on exhorting individuals to engage in healthy behaviour with good health being a signifier of virtuous moral standing, whereas poor health is often associated with personal moral failings. In effect, the medical is increasingly being collapsed into the moral. This approach is consistent with other aspects of contemporary neoliberal governance, but it fuels moral panics and creates folk devils. We explore the implications and dysfunctional consequences of this new wave of public health policy in the context of the latest moral panic around obesity.
    Keywords: Moral Panic, Obesity, Public Health Policy, Medical Sociology
  • Sarah Bowen *, Ingrid Botting, Ian D. Graham, Martha Macleod, Danielle De Moissac, Karen Harlos, Bernard Leduc, Catherine Ulrich, Janet Knox Pages 684-699
    Background Emerging evidence that meaningful relationships with knowledge users are a key predictor of research use has led to promotion of partnership approaches to health research. However, little is known about health system experiences of collaborations with university-based researchers, particularly with research partnerships in the area of health system design and health service organization. The purpose of the study was to explore the experience and perspectives of senior health managers in health service organizations, with health organization-university research partnerships.   Methods In-depth, semi-structured interviews (n = 25) were conducted with senior health personnel across Canada to explore their perspectives on health system research; experiences with health organization-university research partnerships; challenges to partnership research; and suggested actions for improving engagement with knowledge users and promoting research utilization. Participants, recruited from organizations with regional responsibilities, were responsible for system-wide planning and support functions.   Results Research is often experienced as unhelpful or irrelevant to decision-making by many within the system. Research, quality improvement (QI) and evaluation are often viewed as separate activities and coordinated by different responsibility areas. Perspectives of senior managers on barriers to partnership differed from those identified in the literature: organizational stress and restructuring, and limitations in readiness of researchers to work in the fast-paced healthcare environment, were identified as major barriers. Although the need for strong executive leadership was emphasized, “multi-system action” is needed for effective partnerships.   Conclusion Common approaches to research and knowledge translation are often not appropriate for addressing issues of health service design and health services organization. Nor is the research community providing expertise to many important activities that the healthcare system is taking to improve health services. A radical rethinking of how we prepare health service researchers; position research within the health system; and fund research activities and infrastructure is needed if the potential benefits of research are to be achieved. Lack of response to health system needs may contribute to research and ‘evidence-informed’ practice being further marginalized from healthcare operations. Interventions to address barriers must respond to the perspectives and experience of health leadership.
    Keywords: Research Partnerships, Integrated Knowledge Translation, Health Systems, Canada, Health System Leadership
  • Isabel Kazanga *, Alister C. Munthali, Joanne Mcveigh, Hasheem Mannan, Malcolm Maclachlan Pages 700-710
    Background Despite numerous efforts to improve maternal and child health in Malawi, maternal and newborn mortality rates remain very high, with the country having one of the highest maternal mortality ratios globally. The aim of this study was to identify which individual factors best predict utilisation of skilled maternal healthcare in a sample of women residing in Lilongwe district of Malawi. Identifying which of these factors play a significant role in determining utilisation of skilled maternal healthcare is required to inform policies and programming in the interest of achieving increased utilisation of skilled maternal healthcare in Malawi.   Methods This study used secondary data from the Woman’s Questionnaire of the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey (MDHS). Data was analysed from 1126 women aged between 15 and 49 living in Lilongwe. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to determine significant predictors of maternal healthcare utilisation.   Results Women’s residence (P = .006), education (P = .004), and wealth (P = .018) were significant predictors of utilisation of maternal healthcare provided by a skilled attendant. Urban women were less likely (odds ratio [OR] = 0.47, P = .006, 95% CI = 0.28–0.81) to utilise a continuum of maternal healthcare from a skilled health attendant compared to rural women. Similarly, women with less education (OR = 0.32, P = .001, 95% CI = 0.16–0.64), and poor women (OR = 0.50, P = .04, 95% CI = 0.26–0.97) were less likely to use a continuum of maternal healthcare from a skilled health attendant.   Conclusion Policies and programmes should aim to increase utilisation of skilled maternal healthcare for women with less education and low-income status. Specifically, emphasis should be placed on promoting education and economic empowerment initiatives, and creating awareness about use of maternal healthcare services among girls, women and their respective communities.
    Keywords: Malawi, Health System, Maternal Healthcare
  • Jose A. Arriola, Vigo *, Jeffrey G. Stovall, Troy D. Moon, Carolyn M. Audet, Francisco Diez, Canseco Pages 711-722
    Background The global burden of mental health conditions has led to the implementation of new models of care for persons with mental illness. Recent mental health reforms in Peru include the implementation of a community mental health model (CMHM) that, among its core objectives, aims to provide care in the community through specialized facilities, the community mental health centers (CMHCs). Community involvement is a key component of this model. This study aims to describe perceptions of community engagement activities in the current model of care in three CMHCs and identify barriers and potential solutions to implementation.   Methods A qualitative research study using in-depth semi-structured interviews with clinicians from three CMHCs and with policy-makers involved in the implementation of the mental health reforms was conducted in two regions of Peru. The interviews, conducted in Spanish, were digitally recorded with consent, transcribed and analyzed using principles of grounded theory applying a framework approach. Community engagement activities are described at different stages of patient care.   Results Twenty-five full-time employees (17 women, 8 men) were interviewed, of which 21 were clinicians (diverse health professions) from CMHCs, and 4 were policy-makers. Interviews elucidated community engagement activities currently being utilized including: (1) employing community mental health workers (CMHWs); (2) home visits; (3) psychosocial clubs; (4) mental health workshops and campaigns; and (5) peer support groups. Inadequate infrastructure and financial resources, lack of knowledge about the CMHM, poorly defined catchment areas, stigma, and inadequate productivity approach were identified as barriers to program implementation. Solutions suggested by participants included increasing knowledge and awareness about mental health and the new model, implementation of peer-training, and improving productivity evaluation and research initiatives.   Conclusion Community engagement activities are being conducted in Peru as part of a new model of care. However, their structure, frequency, and content are perceived by clinicians and policy-makers as highly variable due to a lack of consistent training and resources across CMHCs. Barriers to implementation should be quickly addressed and potential solutions executed, so that scale-up best optimizes the utilization of resources in the implementation process.
    Keywords: Mental Health Reform, Community Engagement, Community Mental Health, Health Policy, Peru
  • Lucy Reynolds * Pages 723-726

    This companion paper suggests the potential benefits of applying Steven Lukes’ dimensions of power model to the study of corruption in health systems. Lukes’ model sets out three “faces of power” classified by their influence on political discourse, resulting in overt, covert and latent discussion of issues depending on the degree of their alignment with the agenda of dominant power interests. His concept that differential access to public discourse varies according to this alignment implies the potential for identifying more serious forms of corruption by the mismatch between their practical importance and the amount of open debate addressing them. These two variables are in practice inversely related, and do not, as might be expected, correlate, with more important topics receiving more public attention. Lukes’ model would predict and can explain such inversion of public priorities, which tells us that observed suppression of public debate might efficiently direct the interest of researchers and the efforts of those seeking to further the public good on to the key issues needing discussion and resolution. The commentary goes on to examine whether the most serious and dangerous forms of corruption might therefore also be the most invisible, and suggests that whistleblower reports should be considered a key data source for research into high-level corruption in health systems, including redirection of policy decisions away from those which are in the public interest.

    Keywords: Corruption, Power, Privatisation, Censorship, Whistleblowing
  • Peter Delobelle Pages 727-731

    In their editorial, Tangcharoensathien et al1 describe the challenges of industry market promotion and policy interference from Big Tobacco, Alcohol, and Food in addressing non-communicable diseases (NCDs). They provide an overview of the increasing influence of corporate interest in emerging economies and government attempts to implement the World Health Organization (WHO) ‘best buy’ interventions. The authors largely draw on examples from Asia and a few selected countries, but provide little detail as to how aggressive marketing and policy interference plays out in a context of poor legislation and regulation in many low- and middleincome countries (LMICs), where the burden of NCDs is increasing at an alarming rate and governments face a high burden of disease with a limited budget for countering industry interference. This commentary provides some poignant examples of the influence of Big Tobacco, Alcohol, and Food on market regulation and policy interference in LMICs and argues for more policy coherence and accountability in terms of multisectoral action and civil society activism. Securing funds for health promotion and establishing health promotion foundations could help achieve that goal.

    Keywords: Big Tobacco, Alcohol, Food, Policy Influence, Non-communicable Disease, LMICs
  • Anthony J. Culyer * Pages 732-733

    Abrishami, Oortwijn, and Hofman (AOH) attribute to me a position I do not hold and an argument I did not make. The purpose of this note is make clear what my position actually is and to clarify the main differences between health technology assessment (HTA) and cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA).

    Keywords: HTA, Cost-Effectiveness Analysis, Scope, Social Value Judgments
  • Emily Satinsky *, Theodoros A. Filippou, Antonis A. Kousoulis Pages 734-736

    As Fotaki (2019) argues, the current political climate in Europe is threatening principles of humanitarianism, particularly among refugees and asylum seekers. This commentary builds on that argument, with a spotlight on mental health and culturally relevant service design. By addressing some of the barriers faced by refugees and asylum seekers in accessing mental healthcare, we can address inequalities and develop compassionate societies.

    Keywords: Global Mental Health, Health Services, Cultural Diversity, Refugee Crisis, Europe