فهرست مطالب

رفاه اجتماعی - پیاپی 73 (تابستان 1398)
  • پیاپی 73 (تابستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/06/14
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • ابراهیم زارع، مهرزاد ابراهیمی*، عباس امینی فرد، هاشم زارع صفحات 9-38
    مقدمه

    یکی از اهداف مهم جوامع امروزی دستیابی به جامعه ای شاد است، جامعه ای که شادی مردمانش موجب ارتقای کیفیت زندگی، بهبود بازدهی نیروی کار، تقویت رشد اقتصادی و نهایتا دستیابی به توسعه پایدار را به همراه خواهد داشت. در این راستا اندازه دولت و میزان دخالت دولت در اقتصاد می تواند بر سطح شادی جامعه اثرگذار باشد لذا هدف اصلی این مقاله بررسی نحوه اثرگذاری اندازه دولت بر شادی در کشورهای منتخب درحال توسعه و توسعه یافته است.

    روش

    روش شناسی این پژوهش مبتنی بر روش شناسی اقتصادسنجی است. بدین صورت که بر اساس ادبیات نظری و مطالعات پیشین، مدل اقتصادسنجی به منظور پاسخ به فرضیه های پژوهش تصریح می شود و سپس با روش های آمار استنباطی در مورد فرضیه های پژوهش تصمیم گیری می شود. در این پژوهش، با مدل سازی عوامل موثر بر شادی با تاکید بر تاثیر اندازه دولت، مدل پانل آستانه ای برای کشورهای منتخب درحال توسعه و توسعه یافته در بازه زمانی 2005-2016 برآورد شده است.

    یافته ها

     اندازه دولت تاثیری غیرخطی بر شادی در هر دودسته کشورهای درحال توسعه و توسعه یافته داشته است اما نحوه اثرگذاری اندازه دولت بر شادی در این دو دسته از کشورها متفاوت بوده است. در هر دو دسته کشورهای درحال توسعه و توسعه یافته، اندازه دولت در وضعیت دولت کوچک، تاثیر معنی داری بر شادی نداشته است اما در وضعیت دولت بزرگ، اندازه دولت تاثیری منفی بر شادی در کشورهای درحال توسعه و تاثیری مثبت بر شادی در کشورهای توسعه یافته داشته است. همچنین نتایج مدلهای پژوهش نشان دهنده تاثیر افزایشی درآمد سرانه بر شادی و تاثیر کاهشی نرخ بیکاری و نرخ تورم بر شادی در کشورهای منتخب درحال توسعه و توسعه یافته است.

    بحث

    تفاوت تاثیرگذاری اندازه دولت بر شادی در دو دسته کشورهای درحال توسعه و توسعه یافته نشان دهنده کارآمدی سیاستهای دولت در کشورهای توسعه یافته در راستای تقویت شادی در جامعه نسبت به کشورهای درحال توسعه است.

    کلیدواژگان: اندازه دولت، رویکرد پانل آستانه ای، شادی، کشورهای توسعه یافته، کشورهای درحال توسعه
  • سید سعید موسوی*، مهدی باسخا، فرهاد نصرتی نژاد صفحات 39-62
    مقدمه

    مسکن و رضایت از سکونت، یکی از مولفه های تاثیرگذار بر رفاه اجتماعی است. شناخت ابعاد رضایت از سکونت و مدیریت آن، نقش موثری بر رفاه اجتماعی ایفا خواهد کرد. با توجه به این موضوع، مطالعه حاضر به بررسی وضعیت رضایت از سکونت در میان شهروندان ساکن در مسکن مهر شهر پرند و عوامل مرتبط با آن پرداخته است.

    روش

    داده های این مطالعه توصیفی-تحلیلی از طریق پیمایش به دست آمده است. حجم نمونه برابر با 398 نفر و جامعه پژوهش شامل کلیه ساکنان بالای 18 سال در مسکن مهر شهر پرند بوده که حداقل شش ماه از سکونت آنها گذشته است. انتخاب نمونه به صورت چندمرحله ای بوده و به منظور بررسی عوامل مرتبط با رضایت از سکونت، آزمونهای مختلف همبستگی مورداستفاده قرار گرفته است.

    یافته ها

     رضایت از سکونت در مسکن مهر شهر پرند برابر با 2.39 از 5 بوده که بیانگر رضایت کمتر از متوسط است. در میان ابعاد مختلف رضایتمندی سکونتی، وضعیت مشکلات اجتماعی و خدمات عمومی به ترتیب بیشترین و کمترین میزان رضایت را داشته اند. به علاوه رضایت از سکونت با متغیرهای مختلفی ازجمله وضعیت رفاه، دسترسی به امکانات عمومی و تراکم جمعیت در ساختمان رابطه معنادار داشته است.

    بحث

    با توجه به تفاوت در درصد پیشرفت پروژه در فازهای مختلف، رضایت سکونتی ساکنان مسکن مهر پرند نیز بسیار متنوع بوده است. بنابراین ارتقاء رضایت از سکونت در پروژه مسکن مهر، مستلزم طراحی و اجرای برنامه های جامع درزمینه توسعه شهری، ساخت وساز، خدمات عمومی و سیاستهای اجتماعی است.

    کلیدواژگان: رضایت از سکونت، شهر پرند، مسکن مهر
  • محسن نیازی*، اکبر ذوالفقاری، نیره جاویدانی صفحات 63-95
    مقدمه

    در دهه اخیر، الگوی مصرف و توجه به ابعاد اجتماعی و فرهنگی رفتار مصرف کنندگان توجه بسیاری از صاحبنظران علوم را به خود معطوف داشته است. دراین ارتباط در دوره معاصر، پدیده جدیدی ظهور یافته است که مصرف نه به سبب نیاز، بلکه بنا به عوامل دیگری چون کسب پرستیژ، وجهه و تاثیر نفوذ دیگران شکل می گیرد. بر این اساس، هدف اساسی این مقاله شناسایی الگوی مصرف منزلت گرا و نیز چگونگی ارتباط و تعامل هر یک از متغیرهای تشخص پذیری، تاثیرپذیری از دیگران و مصرف بدون توجه به نقش الگوی مصرف منزلت گرا در جامعه آماری موردمطالعه است.

    روش

    این مطالعه از نوع پیمایش اجتماعی بوده و داده های تحقیق با استفاده از تکنیک پرسشنامه توام با مصاحبه جمع آوری شده است. جامعه آماری تحقیق شامل کلیه شهروندان 15 سال به بالای شهر کاشان در سال 1396 بوده است که با استفاده از فرمول نمونه گیری کوکران تعداد 605 نفر به عنوان حجم نمونه تعیین و به روش تصادفی انتخاب و بررسی شده اند.

    یافته ها

     نتایج وجود رابطه منفی بین مصرف بدون توجه به نقش و مصرف منزلت گرا و نیز رابطه مثبت بین متغیرهای تشخص پذیری و تاثیرپذیری از نفوذ دیگران با میزان مصرف منزلت گرا را نشان داده است. علاوه بر آن، نتایج تحلیل مسیر میزان تاثیر هر یک از متغیرهای مصرف بدون توجه به نقش، تاثیرپذیری از نفوذ دیگران و تشخص پذیری بر متغیر مصرف منزلت گرا را به ترتیب به میزان 38/0-، 231/0، 08/0 نشان داده است.

    بحث

    نتایج تحقیق با مباحث نظری صاحبنظران و یافته های تحقیقات محققان در این زمینه قرابت و همخوانی دارد. همچنین، بسیاری از صاحبنظران بر نقش میزان تاثیرپذیری از نفوذ دیگران بر مصرف منزلت گرا تاکید کرده و این امر در تحقیقات متعددی که توسط پژوهشگران صورت گرفته است مورد تایید قرار گرفته است. علاوه بر آن، نقش تشخص پذیری یا تمایل به منحصربه فرد بودن در مصرف منزلت گرا در رویکردهای نظری و پژوهشی صاحبنظران و محققان مختلف مورد تایید قرار گرفته است.

    کلیدواژگان: الگوی مصرف، تاثیرپذیری از دیگران، تشخص پذیری، مصرف بدون توجه به نقش، مصرف منزلت گرا
  • سید سعید آقائی* صفحات 97-135
    مقدمه

    پیش فرض موجود در میان جامعه شناسان، وجود رابطه بین طبقات اقتصادی و پایگاه اجتماعی پایین و میزان گرایش به کجروی1 اجتماعی بیانگر گرایش به پارادایم تضادگرایی در این شاخه از حوزه جامعه شناسی است. اما ازآنجاکه پژوهشگر در مطالعاتی که درباره کارتن خوابی داشته، با موارد نقض کننده این گزاره مواجه شده بود، این پژوهش را با هدف مطالعه رابطه پایگاه اجتماعی و گرایش به کارتن خوابی در میان کارتن خواب های شهر تهران آغاز نمود.

    روش

    روش پژوهش ترکیبی و از نوع ترکیبی متوالی بود. بدین صورت که ابتدا بر اساس فرضیه های موجود در چارچوب نظری که متاثر از نظریه های تضادگرایی در کنار نظریه کنش متقابل گرایی مید بود و تاثیر پایگاه اجتماعی پایین در گرایش به انحرافات اجتماعی و در این پژوهش، گرایش به کارتن خوابی تدوین شد و پرسشنامه ای محقق ساخته در میان کارتن خواب های شهر تهران توزیع شد. در بخش کمی، جامعه آماری 12048 نفر بودند و بر اساس فرمول کوکران، 372 نفر به عنوان جامعه موردمطالعه انتخاب شدند که شیوه نمونه گیری نیز تصادفی بود. در بخش کیفی پژوهش، نمونه گیری هدفمند تا رسیدن به اشباع داده ها پیش رفت که پس از مصاحبه با 34 نفر از کارتن خواب های شهر تهران، پژوهشگر به اشباع داده ها دست یافت.
    یافته ها و

    نتایج

    نتایج پژوهش در بخش پیمایشی و کمی نشان داد که رابطه کارتن خوابی و پایگاه اجتماعی در سطح اطمینان 95 درصد معنادار نبود. پس ازآن، بر مبنای داده های گردآوری شده، سه پایگاه اجتماعی بالا، متوسط و پایین از یکدیگر تفکیک شدند که رابطه گرایش به کارتن خوابی و پایگاه اجتماعی پایین و متوسط در سطح اطمینان 95 درصد معنادار بود. بدین ترتیب، پژوهشگر برای بازشناسی مولفه های پایگاه اجتماعی و نقش آن در گرایش به کارتن خوابی بر اساس مصاحبه با کارتن خواب ها نشان داد که در پایگاه اجتماعی پایین، مهاجرت و حاشیه نشینی، حضور در موقعیت های آسیب زا افزایش می یابد. در پایگاه اجتماعی بالا نیز تنوع موقعیت های فراغتی، امکان حضور در موقعیت های پرخطر را افزایش داده و به اعتیاد و کارتن خوابی منجر می شود. این نتایج نشان داد که فرضیه تضادگرایان در مورد رابطه فقر اقتصادی و گرایش به انحرافات اجتماعی همیشه نمی تواند معنادار داشته باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: پایگاه اجتماعی، حاشیه نشینی، فرصت زندگی، کارتن خوابی، موقعیت های فراغتی
  • سلیمه صالحی شهرکی، ملیحه شیانی* صفحات 137-188
    مقدمه

    هدف اصلی این پژوهش، تحلیل اثرگذاری اجتماعات بر رفاه ذهنی کودکان 10 تا 12 ساله منطقه شش شهر تهران است. پژوهش مبتنی بر تقسیم بندی رویکردهای دینر از عوامل موثر بر رفاه ذهنی و ابعاد رفاه لذت گرای ریس مورد سنجش قرار گرفته است. نظریه ی نظام های بوم شناختی، برونفن برنر (1995)، اجتماعات و لایه های حضور و فعالیت کودک را مشخص می کند و پژوهش پیش رو نیز مبتنی بر این پیشینه نظری قرار گرفته است.

    روش

    جامعه تحقیق تمامی دانش آموزان 10 تا 12 ساله منطقه شش تهران  به تعداد 6462 نفر بودند که از این میان 453 نفر با شیوه نمونه گیری خوشه ای به عنوان نمونه پژوهش انتخاب شدند. فرآیند تحلیل با استفاده از نرم افزار Spss21  و روش های آمار توصیفی (فراوانی و درصد فراوانی) و تحلیلی (آزمون همبستگی پیرسون، آزمون های تفاوت، رگرسیون و تحلیل مسیر) انجام شد.

    یافته ها

    یافته ها بیشترین تاثیر اجتماعات بر رفاه ذهنی کودکان را ناشی از گروه دوستان، خانواده، فضای مدرسه و درنهایت محیط زندگی نشان می دهند. افراد مدرسه (معلم و کادر مدرسه) در رگرسیون چند متغیره تاثیر مستقیمی بر رفاه ذهنی ندارد. کل تاثیر محیط زندگی بر رفاه ذهنی کودکان نشان می دهد، محیط زندگی با ضریب مستقیم و غیرمستقیم 48/0 بیشترین تاثیر را بر رفاه ذهنی کودکان دارد. همچنین فضای مدرسه نیز با ضریب مستقیم و غیرمستقیم 33/0 از خانواده اهمیت بیشتری می یابد. بنابراین محیط زندگی در بین عوامل بیشترین تاثیر را بر رفاه کودکان دارد، پس ازاین گروه دوستان، فضای مدرسه و در نهایت خانواده بر رفاه ذهنی کودکان موثر است.

    بحث

    به نظر می رسد مساله رفاه ذهنی در کنار رفاه عینی دارای اهمیت است و تجارب تحقیقاتی کشورهای توسعه یافته حاکی از تاکید همین مسئله است. پژوهش ثابت می کند کودکان نظرات ارزشمند و در مواقعی کامل و کاربردی تر نسبت به بزرگسالان ارائه دهند. دقت و ریزبینی در عوامل تعیین کننده رضایت و پیشرفت کودکان به ما کمک می کند با تغییر و اصلاحات جزئی در سیاست ها و برنامه های اجرایی می تواند به مراتب خدمت بزرگی به حال و آینده شهروندان و کشورها داشته باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: اجتماعات، رفاه اجتماعی، رفاه ذهنی، کودکان، منطقه شش تهران
  • کبری بهداروندی شیخی، محمدمهدی شریعت باقری* صفحات 189-220
    مقدمه

    این پژوهش با هدف شناسایی رابطه بین خودتنظیمی هیجانی و مسئولیت پذیری با روابط اجتماعی دانش آموزان ششم ابتدایی منطقه 19 شهر تهران انجام شد.

    روش

    جهت رسیدن به این پژوهش از دانش آموزان ابتدایی پایه ششم که در سال تحصیلی 97-1396 بالغ بر 2250 نفر بودند، نمونه ای به تعداد 327 نفر بر اساس جدول مورگان و به شیوه نمونه گیری خوشه ای مرحله ای انتخاب شد. پرسشنامه روابط اجتماعی حقیقیان (1392)، پرسشنامه خودتنظیمی هیجانی هافمن و کاشدن (2010) و پرسشنامه مسئولیت پذیری نعمتی (1380) در گروه نمونه اجرا شد. سپس داده ها جمع آوری و با روش های آماری ضریب همبستگی و تحلیل رگرسیون چندمتغیره بررسی و تحلیل شدند.

    یافته ها

     بین خودتنظیمی هیجانی و روابط اجتماعی در دانش آموزان رابطه معنی داری وجود دارد. از بین مولفه های خودتنظیمی هیجانی در پیش بینی روابط اجتماعی دانش آموزان بیشترین سهم را مولفه «تحمل» داشته است. از طرفی نتایج نشان داد بین مسئولیت پذیری و روابط اجتماعی نیز رابطه مثبت و معنی داری وجود داشته است. مسئولیت پذیری به خوبی قادر است این روابط را تبیین کند. درزمینه بررسی رابطه خودتنظیمی هیجانی با روابط اجتماعی نیز بین تمامی مولفه های خودتنظیمی هیجانی با روابط اجتماعی هیچ رابطه معنی داری یافت نشد.

    بحث

    خودتنظیمی هیجانی و مهارت مسئولیت پذیری ازجمله مهارت های مهم و اساسی است که از سنین کودکی باید به فرزندان آموخت.

    کلیدواژگان: خود تنظیمی هیجانی، مسئولیت پذیری، روابط اجتماعی
  • صدیقه حاجی حسنی، مهدیه صالحی*، سوزان امامی پور صفحات 221-255
    مقدمه

    ازآنجایی که سال های مدرسه به عنوان دوره های سازنده رشد انسانی در نظر گرفته می شود، محیط مدرسه یک ابزار مناسب برای درجه بندی سلامت، عزت نفس، توانایی های زندگی و رفتار مناسب است و اطمینان از سلامت روانی دانش آموزان و دانشجویان به اندازه سلامت جسمی آنها اهمیت دارد. هدف از پژوهش حاضر ارائه الگوی ساختاری بهزیستی ذهنی دانش آموزان بر اساس جو آموزشی، اجتماعی، عاطفی و فیزیکی مدرسه با میانجی گری تاب آوری است.

    روش

    جامعه آماری این پژوهش شامل تمامی دانش آموزان دختر دوره اول متوسطه مدارس دولتی مناطق 11، 18، 2 و 7 شهر تهران در سال تحصیلی 97-96 است. حجم نمونه در این پژوهش 630 دانش آموز است که از این تعداد 209 نفر پایه هفتم و 213 نفر پایه هشتم و 208 نفر پایه نهم بوده که با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری تصادفی چندمرحله ای انتخاب شدند و به مقیاس بهزیستی ذهنی کییز و ماگیارمو (2003) و مقیاس تاب آوری تحصیلی (2004) و پرسشنامه جو مدرسه (2015) پاسخ دادند. داده ها با استفاده از روش معادلات ساختاری و نرم افزارهای SPSS(24) و  AMOS(24)  مورد تحلیل قرار گرفتند.

    یافته ها

    بین جو مدرسه و بهزیستی روانی با واسطه گری تاب آوری تحصیلی رابطه معناداری وجود دارد. همچنین بین تاب آوری و بهزیستی روانی، بین جو مدرسه و تاب آوری تحصیلی و بین جو مدرسه و بهزیستی روانی دانش آموزان رابطه مثبت وجود دارد.

    بحث

     به طورکلی، یافته های پژوهش حاضر شواهدی را برای نقش واسطه ای تاب آوری تحصیلی در ارتباط بین بهزیستی ذهنی دانش آموزان فراهم آورده و اهمیت جو مدرسه را در ایجاد تاب آوری و بهزیستی روانی دانش آموزان نمایان می کند.

    کلیدواژگان: واژگان کلیدی : جو مدرسه، تاب آوری. بهزیستی ذهنی
  • طیبه تجری*، محمد مهدی لولایی صفحات 257-299
    مقدمه

    یکی از وظایف مهم نظام آموزشی اتخاذ سیاست های مناسب برای پرورش سوادهای چندگانه در جهت ارتقا شاخص های رفاه اجتماعی دانش آموزان است. در شرایط فعلی نظام آموزشی کشور، شاهد آموزش به زبان و گفتار معمولی معلمان هستیم. پژوهش حاضر با هدف تعیین تاثیر زبان امکان معلمان بر پرورش سوادهای چندگانه دانش آموزان پایه ششم ابتدایی انجام شده است.

    روش

    روش پژوهش نیمه آزمایشی با استفاده از طرح پیش آزمون-پس آزمون با گروه کنترل نابرابر بوده است. از جامعه آماری دانش آموزان دختر پایه ششم مقطع ابتدایی آموزش وپرورش شهرستان علی آباد کتول 40 نفر نمونه در قالب دو گروه آزمایش و کنترل به روش چندمرحله ای انتخاب شدند. برای گردآوری داده ها از پرسشنامه محقق ساخته استفاده شده است.

    یافته ها

    میزان به کارگیری زبان امکان در گروه آزمایش باعث افزایش سوادهای چندگانه دانش آموزان در مقایسه با روش سنتی در گروه کنترل می شود. میزان سواد اجتماعی، فرهنگی و سیاسی دانش آموزان آموزش دیده با زبان امکان به طور معنی داری بالاتر از دانش آموزان با روش سنتی است ولی تفاوت بین میزان سواد اطلاعاتی و رسانه ای دانش آموزان دو گروه معنی دار نبوده است.

    بحث

     با فراهم کردن فرصت پداگوژی انتقادی مبتنی بر زبان امکان رشته های مجزا فروریخته و با خلق دانش بین رشته ای اشکال جدید دانش ایجاد شد. معلمان با به کارگیری زبان امکان برنامه های درسی را به نحوی تدوین کردند که منابع فرهنگی که دانش آموزان خود به مدرسه آوردند را به حساب آورده، نظم و سازمان دادند؛ به طوری که در قبال اقداماتشان فکورانه برخورد کردند.

    کلیدواژگان: دانش آموزان، زبان امکان، سوادهای چندگانه، معلمان
  • فرزانه سادات میری، محمد مهدی غیایی*، زهرا خدایی صفحات 301-339
    مقدمه

    با توجه به صنعتی شدن جوامع و تبعات اقتصادی- فرهنگی و اخلاقی آن و همچنین با توجه به روند رو به رشد جمعیت سالمندان و بروز بسیاری از بیماری ها و مشکلات دوران سالمندی که ناشی از وضعیت زندگی نامطلوب آن ها است، باید پایه و اساس سلامت سالمندان را با ارتقاء کیفیت زندگی پی ریزی کرد. هدف این پژوهش، ارائه عوامل و ویژگی های تاثیرگذار بر شاخص امید و کیفیت زندگی و رسیدن به محیطی مطلوب و رضایت بخش برای سالمندان مقیم خانه سالمندان است.

    روش

    برای پیشبرد تحقیق و رسیدن به هدف از روش توصیفی- تحلیلی در بستری پیمایشی استفاده شده که این روش شامل مطالعات کتابخانه ای و میدانی می باشد. از روش کتابخانه ای به همراه جداول و آمارها جهت دستیابی به مطالعات روانشناسی و جامعه شناسی سالمندان و وضعیت سالمندان در جوامع و اصول معیارهای طراحی و معماری برای سالمندان و از مطالعات میدانی که شامل مصاحبه با سالمندان، صاحب نظران مسائل سالمندان بوده به عنوان مکمل روش کتابخانه ای جهت دستیابی به توقعات و خواست های سالمندان به عنوان کاربران اصلی استفاده شده است. از نرم افزار spss و آزمون t تک نمونه ای به عنوان ابزار تحلیل و ارزیابی داده ها بهره گرفته شد.

    یافته ها

    نتایج حاصل از تحلیل داده ها نشان داد که عوامل موثر در ارتقاء امید به زندگی سالمندان شامل: سهولت دسترسی، ایمنی و امنیت، پویایی و جذابیت، وحدت و یکپارچگی، آزادی، آسایش، ارتباط با طبیعت، مشارکت اجتماعی، انجام فعالیت های آموزشی و فرهنگی و تعلق مکانی می باشند.

    بحث

     طبق نتایج آزمون رتبه بندی فریدمن اثرگذارترین عوامل به ترتیب: ارتباط با طبیعت، مشارکت اجتماعی، آسایش، فعالیت های آموزشی و فرهنگی، ایمنی و امنیت شناسایی شدند. به نظر می رسد شناخت و درک نیازهای سالمندان و تلاش در جهت پاسخگویی به این نیازها و احترام به ترجیحات آن ها در طراحی فضاهای مختص سالمندان، می تواند در بهبود کیفیت و امید به زندگی آن ها و دستیابی به اهداف سالمندی موفق موثر باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: امید به زندگی، خانه سالمندان، سالمند، طراحی برای سالمندان، کیفیت زندگی
  • جهانبخش هراتی، یاسمن خواجه نوری، مهرداد رایجیان اصلی* صفحات 341-377
    مقدمه

    دگرباشی یا دگرزیستی بعنوان رفتاری انحرافی ، صرفا به معنای همجنسگرایی نیست ، بلکه به اشکال متفاوت دیگری نیز در جامعه نمایان می گردد. مقاله پیش رو در پی شناخت رویکرد نظام حقوقی اسلام و کشف ظرفیت های آن به منظور برقراری نظم و عدالت اجتماعی در مواجهه باچنین  پدیده نوظهور اجتماعی است .

    روش

    برای شناسایی رویکرد نظام حقوقی اسلام ، از روش توصیفی _ تحلیلی ومقایسه ای ، و در گرد آوری داده های آن از آیات ، احادیث ، تالیفات فقهای اسلام  استفاده شده است.

     یافته ها

    این نوشتار بواسطه دستاوردهای تحلیلی خود ، سه رهیافت متفاوت را ارائه می نماید . رهیافت تکلیف مدار که به دلایل مصلحت گرایی ، بر مداخله حداکثری حکومت در آزادی افراد تاکید دارد. رهیافت حق مدار که آزادی افراد در رفتار و چگونه زیستن  را تا هنگامی که در تلاقی با حقوق دیگران قرار نگرفته ، پذیرفته است و بر مداخله حداقلی حکومت اصرار دارد و رویکرد تلفیقی که ضمن لحاظ نمودن حقوق و آزادی افراد و مصلحت جامعه ، حدود جرم انگاری این گونه رفتارها را مشخص کرده است .

    بحث

     بنظر می رسد رویکرد تلفیقی با جوامع متکثر و باز امروزی همنوایی دارد ؛ زیرا رویکرد وظیفه بنیان و تکلیف مدار ، امنیت مدار ونتیجه آن تورم حقوق کیفری ومداخله در حریم خصوصی افراد است . رویکرد حق مدار نیز هرچند بر مسامحه و مدارا استوار است ، ولی ممکن است به بی بند وباری بیانجامد.

    کلیدواژگان: دگرباشی، رهیافت حق مدار، رهیافت تکلیف مدار، رهیافت تلفیقی، جرم انگاری
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  • Ebrahim Zare, Mehrzad Ebrahimi*, Abbas Aminifard, Hashem Zare Pages 9-38
    Introduction

    One of the most important goals of today's societies is to achieve a happy society, a society where the happiness of its people will improve the quality of life and labor productivity, will boost economic growth and, ultimately, will lead to sustainable development. In this regard, government expenditures and the amount of government intervention in the economy can affect the level of happiness of the society. The economics of happiness addresses issues, such as measuring and analyzing prosperity, quality of life, life satisfaction, and the simultaneous growth of indicators of life in a person, family or community with indicators of psychology, health and sociology. The "happiness economics" is a relatively new area in the economy, which in recent years has become a major contributor to the policy equation of many countries. The relationship between happiness and government activities could be an interesting subject for researchers and policy makers. Government with its expenditures and its interventions in the economy may affect happiness of people. Therefore, the main objective of this paper was to examine the effect of government size on happiness in the selected developing and developed countries. Due to the differences between government efficiency in the countries, the results may be different in these two groups ofcountries.

    Method

    The methodology of this research is based on the econometrics methodology. Based on the theories existing in the literature and the previous studies, the econometric model was determined and then inferential statistics was used to explore the research hypotheses. A threshold panel model was estimated by modeling the factors affecting happiness, with emphasis on the effect of government size, for the two selected groups of countries. The threshold panel model is a model in which a predetermined predicted behavior starts to change after a threshold value. In this paper, the size of the government was the threshold variable, which divided the size of government into large and small size governments. Then, the effect of the size of government in both large and small governments on happiness was estimated and the threshold government size was estimated by the model over the period of 2005-2016.

    Findings

    The results of the estimation of the research models showed that the government size has a nonlinear effect on happiness in both the developing and developed countries, but how governments influence happiness in these two categories of countries was different. In both the developing and developed countries, the size of the government in the small states did not have a significant impact on happiness; however, in a large government, the size of the government had a negative impact on happiness in the developing countries and it had a positive impact on happiness in the developed countries. The difference in the effects of government size on happiness in both developing and developed countries shows that government policies in the developed countries are more effective in increasing happiness in society compared to developing countries. The results of research models also revealed the increasing impact of per capita income on happiness and the decreasing effect of unemployment rate and inflation on happiness in the selected developing and developed countries. 

    Discussion

    The threshold government size refers to the size of the government before which the size of the government does not have any effect on happiness, which could be due to neutralizing the positive and negative effects of the government size on happiness. But for the government with a bigger size that pass the threshold, the negative effects on the bigger size of the government outweighs the positive effects, leading to a decrease in happiness in the selected developing countries. In other words, in the large governments, each unit increase in government size has led to a 0.02-unit decrease in happiness in the developed countries. The results of model estimation vary in the developed countries. The threshold size of government for these countries is estimated at 15.4%. In countries with smaller governments, the size of the government does not have any significant effect on happiness in developed countries. However, after passing the aforementioned threshold and being categorized as a big size government, the increase in state size led to higher levels of happiness in the developed countries, reflecting the effectiveness of government policies in developed countries to boost social happiness. These policies include the increase in welfare, the protection of social rights, the development of community and insurance services, the enhancement of the quality of healthcare for the community, and the promotion of social and economic justice. In other words, the developed communities have developed towards well-being and happiness of their societies. On the other hand, the projected outcomes in developed countries indicate a lack of stability in large states in the developed countries. In these countries, the expansion of government in society has led to economic inefficiency and corruption, which in fact resulted in lower levels of happiness in these societies. Therefore, the government size in both developed and developing countries has had a threshold effect on happiness, but these effects have been completely different in the two groups of countries. Based on the results of the study, policy makers are advised to take into account the threshold relationship between government size and happiness. In this way, politicians would be able to direct the government expenses towards enhancing happiness in the society.
     

    Keywords: Developed Countries, Developing Countries, Government Size, Happiness, Threshold Panel Approach
  • Seied Saeid Mousavi*, Mehdi Basakha, Farhad Nosrati Pages 39-62
    Introduction

    Residential satisfaction is one of the factors affecting the social wellbeing. Residence satisfaction has a complex theoretical structure and infolded concepts from economics, sociology, psychology, planning, and geography. Understanding the important dimensions of residential satisfaction will play an effective role in wellbeing. In addition to personal, physical and peripheral factors, social variables can also affect residential satisfaction. This is more significant in cities and towns without local inherency. One of the important government plans to provide housing for low income families in Iran was “Mehr Housing Project”. It seems that the aforementioned policy has a special emphasis on the quantitative aspect of housing and is more indicative of the social aspect rather than that of housing. Regarding this issue, the present study addresses the status of residence satisfaction among citizens living in Mehr Housing Project in Parand City.

    Method

    Primary data gathering was accomplished using a questionnaire from 398 participants. Statistical population for the study included residents over the age of 18 who had resided in Parand city for at least 6 month. Based on theoretical and empirical research studies, the most important component of residential satisfaction educed as physical features, facilities, environmental quality, psychological and social security, public services, social interactions, and social problems. The initial version of the questionnaire was reviewed by the experts of the field. The content validity ratio and content validity index for each item were calculated and the validity of the questionnaire was assured. To assess the reliability of the questionnaire, Cronbach’s alpha was used. The value of this coefficient is equal to 0.781, which indicates the suitability of the research instrument. Performing a pilot study shows that the variance of the residential satisfaction was about 262.5. Considering 0.1 standard deviation as error and 95% confidence level, the sample size calculated reduced to 342, which, with 10% probability of defect in questionnaires, the sample size increased up to 398. From among each of the phases of the Mehr project, an area was randomly selected. Then a street and a block were picked out from each area and data were collected from the inhabitants of that block. Finally, the data were entered into the SPSS software and using the correlation tests, the relationship between the various factors and residential satisfaction was measured.

    Findings

    The average total satisfaction of residents of Mehr Project of Parand is 2.39 (out of 5), which indicates the lower medium score for residential satisfaction in Mehr housing of Parand city. Among the different dimensions of residential satisfaction, the highest rate is related to the low social problems in this area and the lowest satisfaction is related to public services and the quality of the surrounding environment.
    Study’s findings show a significant correlation between residential satisfaction and predictor variables such the amount of saving, district of residence, access to public transport, access to green space, size of housing units, type of ownership, and population density.

    Discussion

    According to the findings, it seems that the promotion of the desirability of Mehr Project Buldings requires comprehensive policy packages in the field of urban development, construction, public services, and social policies. Considering the remarkable difference in the quality and development of the project in different phases, the problems of inhabitants have been very diverse. But the most important policy proposals to increase residential satisfaction for citizens living in Mehr City of Parand can be categorized as: creating sports, recreational and cultural facilities, developing the social gathering centers and encouraging people to attend local communities with appropriate promotions in local media, and enhancement of green spaces and parks for each phase. Along with these things, as aforementioned, it should be noted that creating suitable communities require a comprehensive package of policies in the field of urban development, construction, public services and social policy.

    Ethical Considerations

    In this study, all ethical considerations related to the study were considered. Full written consent was obtained from the respondents consciously and freely. The questionnaires were completed anonymously and the researcher’s confidentiality and confidentiality were respected.

    Keywords: residential satisfaction, rehr housing project, parand city
  • Mohsen Niazi*, Akbar Zolfaghari, Nayereh Javidani Pages 63-95
    Introduction

    In recent decades, the pattern of consumption and attention to the social and cultural dimensions of consumer behavior has attracted the attention of many of the proprietors of social sciences and cultural studies. In this regard, in the contemporary period, a new phenomenon has emerged that consumption is not needed, rather, is due to other factors such as the acquisition of prestige, the image and influence of others.In Role-Relaxed Consumption, purchase of the product is for personal use only and attention to prestige or image is not transferable by product. These types of consumers are more concerned with the product’s usefulness than its apparent aspect, have a low score in terms of susceptibility to interpersonal influence and disregard social expectations. Susceptibility to interpersonal influence means how much of a person’s purchasing has been mentally and really influenced by others. High-impact people are more likely to be more influential when making purchasing decisions while individuals with low impact scores are more independent in the purchasing decision process. Accordingly, the basic purpose of this paper is to identify the pattern of status consumption as well as how to communicate and interact with each of the variables of individualistic orientation, the influence of individuals and consumption, regardless of their role on the dominant pattern of status consumption in the statistical society studied.

    Methodology

    This study was a social survey and the research data were collected using interview questionnaire technique. In this research, for the purpose of measuring each of the main variables, the related locutions have been used in the form of the Likert Scale. Validity and Reliability of locutions have been examined in the preliminary and final tests by using Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient. After data collection, the analysis of the research findings was done using the SPSS computer program and needed statistical activities. In this study, the statistical population of the study consisted of all citizens aged 15 years and older in Kashan in 2017. The sample size of this study was based on the Cochran sampling formula and its maximum application. The exact statistics of the sample size was estimated at 605 people among the citizens after distributing the preliminary questionnaire and estimating the variance of the variables.

    Results

    The results of the research and the statistical activities using the Pearson correlation coefficient confirm that there is a negative and significant relationship between role-relaxed consumption and status consumption and a positive and significant relationship between the variables of individualistic orientation, consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence and amount of role-relaxed consumption. In addition, the results of path analysis show that the variables of role-relaxed consumption, individualistic orientation and consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence were influenced by the status consumption variable; -38, 8 and 23.1 percent, respectively.The result of the study shows that status consumption amount superfluity among role-relaxed consumption people in low, medium and high level was 9.2%, 25.3% and 65.5%, respectively and it decrease by increasing the amount of role-relaxed consumption. The results of statistical activity using Pearson correlation coefficient (r = _0/417 and sig = 0/000) indicate that there is a significant and negative relationship between the two variables at 99% confidence level. In examining the relationship between the degree of individualistic orientation and status consumption, the findings of the research indicate that, the level of status consumption would be increased by increasing the level of individualistic orientation in the manner that status consumption amount superfluity among individualistic orientation people with low frequency was at a rate of 34.1%. This rate has increased to 39.5% among respondents with a high degree of individualistic orientation.

    Discussion and Conclusion

    The results of Pearson correlation coefficient indicated a direct relationship between the two variables (r = 0/133 and sig = 0.001). The result of the study shows that, the level of status consumption among respondents has been increased by increasing the respondent’s consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence in the manner that status consumption amount superfluity among consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence people with low frequency was at a rate of 32.2%. This rate has risen to 36.5% among respondents with a high impact level. The results of Pearson correlation coefficient (r = 0.233 and sig = 0/000) indicate that there is a direct and significant relationship between the level of consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence and the level of status consumption. This means that the level of status consumption increases by increasing the level of consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence.In sum, the research results are in agreement with the theoretical issues of the experts and the findings of previous research. Based on this, the results of this study showed a negative relationship between the two variables including role- relaxed consumption and status consumption. Many scholars have also emphasized that the level of consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence plays very important role in the level of status consumption. In addition, the role of individualistic orientation in the status consumption has been confirmed in the theoretical and research approaches of various scholars. Other researchers in their respective researches also have been approved the relationship between the two variables.According to the results of this study, product prestige is of great importance for sample individuals in choosing and using the goods. In this type of consumer style, the purpose of buying and consuming is acquisition of a status through high value-exchange. Especially in societies which the aristocracy and old rich people have been forced to give power to the new rich. In other words, in this consumer style, goods are valuable and important to create social differences and as agents of communication.

    Ethical Considerations

    Funding
    In the present study, did not have any sponsors
    Authors’ contributions
    All authors contributed in designing, running, and writing all parts of the research.
    Conflicts of interest
    This article does not conflict with other articles of my.
    Acknowledgments
    This article follows the principles of ethics and research and is endorsed by the Bu-Ali Sina University in this regardunder his supervision has written it. The consultant professors in the treatise also contributed effectively to the authors of the paper.

    Keywords: Status Consumption, Individualistic Orientation, Role-Relaxed Consumption, Consumer Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence, Pattern of Consumption
  • Seyed Saeid Aghaei* Pages 97-135
    Introduction

    The existing presumption among sociologists, the existence of the relationship between the low economic classes and the social status, and the degree of tendency to social deviations express the tendency towards the conflictionism paradigm in this branch of Sociology. Since the researcher has encountered violations of this proposition in his studies as regards homelessness, the major aim of the current study was decided to be based on confirmed hypothesis in the previously conducted studies; the relationship between the social status and the tendency to homelessness- among homeless people in Tehran. This hypothesis has been confirmed among a large statistical community of homeless people, but observations show that if the components of the social base are identified on the basis of life opportunities, this concept can be redefined. Redefining concepts that affect social transformations can change the results deriving out of the collected data. Therefore, after integrating existing theories, the researcher measured the social base by finding the relationships between and among the various components. Then the relationship between the components and   the homeless people was measured.

    Method

    The research method was a combination method consisting of quantitative and qualitative methods. The sequential combination was based on hypothesis testing in the quantitative section and exploratory response to the research question in the qualitative section. Contrastive theories and the theory of the Mead from the school of symbolic reciprocity were chosen as the theoretical framework of this research and the main hypothesis of the paper was developed based on the deductive approach. In the first step, the hypothesis of the effect of low social base on the tendency towards social deviations was tested in this study. In the quantitative part of the study, the survey method was used and the data were collected by researcher-made questionnaire. In this section, the participants  consisted of 12048 people. According to Cochran formula, 372 individuals were sampled and a random sampling method was used to select the cases. In the qualitative part of the research, purposeful sampling was done  being followed by saturation data. The researcher obtained data saturation after interviewing 34 homeless people. The interview method used was semi-structured.

    Findings

    The results of the survey in quantitative and quantitative section showed that the relationship between the homeless and the social base was not significant at 95% confidence level. Subsequently, based on the collected data, three social bases of  high, medium, and low social bases were distinguished from one another, with a relationship between the orientation towards the low and moderate social base and homelessness in the 95% confidence level. Thus, the researcher in order to recognize the components of the social base and its role in the orientation to the homelessness, and based on the interview with the subjects, showed that in the lower social base, immigration and marginalization, presence in dangerous situations increased. At the top of the social base, the diversity of leisure opportunities also increases the chance of being in high-risk situations, leading to addiction and homelessness. These results showed that the contradictory hypothesis about the relationship between economic poverty and the tendency to social deviations cannot always be meaningful.

    Discussion

    The results of the questionnaires did not show a linear relationship between the variables of the research. For this reason, independent variables were classified into three groups that showed beginning point, middle point, and ending poiny of the spectrum. Measurement of the relationship between the social status variable and the homelessness showed that the average social base and the low social base were related to the homelessness, and the high social base did not show a meaningful relationship with the dependent variable. The quantitative and qualitative findings of this research were in line wirh each other. In analyzing and explaining the relationship between the class base and homelessness, a variable is included in the analyses that include social support from the family institution and social organizations. The shorter the base of the classroom, the greater his need for social support was likely to be, and the more one has a higher social base, the seemingly less need for social support was seen. But raising awareness in these social strata also requires social support such as insurance, occupation, treatment ,etc. which come from the expectations of these social strata. But because people with a high class base often have a kind of financial and psychological support from their families, they are less likely to experience the social organization support. This variable also showed a meaningful relationship with homelessness among people with a lower class base and greater social support. In the cultures that one is looking for a place to escape from  limitations imposed by family members, and even from financial viewpoint, even if somebody has a permanent job, but it cannot bring, so financial independence, deprivation from material and immaterial matters increases, and one consequence of this would be migration, which makes the closed ethnic culture turn into an interactive or semi-open culture and the fields of imbalance in the internal controls and controls provides outsiders and social exclusion for those who migrate to big cities with a new meaning, a wider concept, and in the mutual relationship with social support can make the social base of individuals in conscious choice and position analysis a central element. Thus, the social base, with three components of the economic class, social deprivation, and social protection showed the interrelationship among these three elements. Accordingly, it can be mentioned that individual’s position may change due to the change in  awareness and   his social experience may be transformed.

    Ethical Considerations

    Funding
    In the present study, all expenses were borne by the author and he did not have any sponsors
    Authors’ contributions
    The present paper is extracted from Saeed Iran’s dissertation, and Dr. Mansoor Haghighatian and Dr. Asghar Mohammadi respectively have been the role of supervisor and professor advisor.
    Conflicts of interest
    There is no conflict with previous authors’ research
    Acknowledgments
    In the present study, we tried to observe all the written and codified professional charter and the “unwritten principles” of scientific and academic ethics.

    Keywords: homelessness, leisure positions, life opportunity, marginalization, social status
  • Salime Salehi Shahraki, Malihe Shiani* Pages 137-188
    Introduction

    Children are usually ignored in the society while they are not able to express their ideas or try to know their own rights and show that they are not dependent on their families, adults, society, local, national or even international policies.  Although areas such as education and hygiene have obvious and direct effects on children but it has been shown that child’s living environment, school, people, and those who are around him/her influence the life and welfare of the child. One the most important theories in intellectual welfare belongs to Diner (Edward Diener, Lucas, & Oishi, 2002). Diner (Edward Diener et al., 2002) divides intellectual welfare into two aspects: emotional (positive feelings, negative feelings, and happiness) and cognitive (life satisfaction, district satisfaction, and quality of life) in order to know the concept. In this division, positive feelings include moods such as pleasure and satisfaction, reflection of people’s desirability regarding one’s life and negative feelings can be interpreted as dissatisfaction such as people’s negative reflection towards life, health, events, and their interpretation (Ali tane, 2012). Along with studying the effects of child communities on intellectual welfare, more emphasis on child satisfaction towards life and considering communities’ conditions is his/her viewpoint (self-reporting) which again will be evaluated regarding communities, such as families, schools, people in the schools, environments and friends and the probable impacts that they might have  on children’s satisfaction towards life. Bronfen brenner –  in his ecological system theory, he states that child growth is influenced by some layers in the environment. Accordingly, changes or contradictions in every layer can be transferred to other layers (Aghdasi, 2010). Families, peer groups, schools, workplaces, and bigger social systems are considered effective environment layers affecting different aspects of child growth in which family is the most effective, long-lasting as  well as the nearest layer in environment (Bronfen brenner, 1979). This pattern divides social environment into four systems. Microsystem includes family which consists of parents and children, all these members have cross impact on one another. The family function connects with variables related to its members and factors like age, personality, financial and job related conditions, levels of education, and parents’ health conditions can be regarded as the effective ones. Mesosystem: a small family system is influenced by mesosystem which surrounds it. It includes environments, such as extended family, neighbors, colleagues and friends.Exosysteme: a mesosystem is influenced by exosysteme. This includes social environments, like social media, educational system, welfare, social, health, and support services.Macro system: a macro system or the last layer refers to the views, beliefs, and hidden values in social organs in a society which are likely to have considerable impacts on family functions.Following theoretical studies, effective communities, i.e. environment and the place of living, schools and teachers, houses and families, and friends are determined as places children spend most of their time; therefore they are regarded as the basis of research.

    Method

    In this research from among 12606 students in seond grade of public and private elementary schools of district 6 453 of them were selected based on probability sampling as statistical sample which include 239 boys (%52.8) and 214 girls (%47.2). As regards children distribution we should state that there are 143 children at the age of 10 (31.6%), 149 children at the age of 11(32.9%) and 161 children at the age of 12 (35.5%). 362 students (79.9%) and 92 students (20.1%) study in public and private schools respectively also 381 students (84.1%) are from Tehran and 70 students (15.5%) are from other cities in Iran.

    Finding

    Findings show there are no significant difference between intellectual welfare of boys with the mean of 86.54 and girls with mean of 86.75. This is proved by T test with 2 independent samples. This test rejects any kind of difference in intellectual welfare with -0.195 and significant level of 0.84. The average scores of intellectual welfare of girls and boys show a small decrease from 10 years old (87.94) to 11 years old (87.31), then a significant decrease from 11 years old to 12 years old (84.87). This average for boys and girls has been the same during these years (except for 10 years old with 0.80 difference) In the analysis of multivariate regression, the biggest effect resulted from friends groups, families, schools, and the place of living. School people (teachers and personnel) do not have direct impacts on intellectual welfare. The total impact in the place of living on intellectual welfare of children shows that it has a strong impact with direct and indirect coefficient of 48%. Schools with direct and indirect coefficient of 33% have more significant impact than families. So the place of living has the biggest impact on children’s welfare after friends, schools and families that were found to have more effects. High coefficient of families and friends show how important they are in developing the children’s relationship with other groups. This means providing satisfactory relationships between childdren and different groups also affect intellectual aspects among children, at times it can also make up other defects. The indirect impact of environment on intellectual welfare is an interesting point which shows the significance of security and facilities discussion.

    Discussion

      In fact, children in this age enter a new stage in their lives in which they need a variety of facilities, such as sports, education and recreation. On the other hand, providing the environment and the possibility of using it, and participating in the programs are likely to be the main aspects.This research proves that children can present valuable ideas and at times perfect and functional ones about adults’ way of thinking. Paying deep attention to important factors of satisfaction and progress in children helps us make some changes in policies and executive programs to serve future citizens and the development of our country. These kinds of research studies, especially among children in Iran have not been conducted sufficiently. The necessity of a country development is considering financial capacities and intellectual welfare of the citizens in such a way that it can be felt in educational and executive organizations.

     Ethical Considerations

    Funding
    In the present study, did not have any sponsors
     Authors’ contributions
     All authors contributed in designing, running, and writing all parts of the research.
     Conflicts of interest
     This article does not conflict with other articles of my.
     Acknowledgments
     This article follows the principles of ethics and research and is endorsed by the Bu-Ali Sina University in this regard

    Keywords: elderly, living standards, social welfare, retirement, socioeconomic status
  • Kobra Behdarvand Sheikhi, Mohammadmahdi Shariatbagheri* Pages 189-220
    Extended Abstract

    Relationship with others is one of the basic needs of human beings. In order to achieve the goals of social life, people as the social members must consolidate and strengthen the foundations and pillars of society in order to form a cohesive and united society, given the importance of social development and the acquisition of related skills, exploring the contexts and factors that are valuable to it. This has been the concern of various researchers, parents, teachers, and psychologists. Various factors including family, school, group of friends, television, gender and socioeconomic status, one’s dominance over different communication skills, cognition, and emotion regulation in different situations influence the development of social relationships and their type and status. They may accelerate or slow down social growth. Those who wantto enhance their social skills, they must be able to regulate and manage their emotions .Accountability refers to any skill learned and acquired. Non-use of emotional self-regulation strategies in childhood has a direct relationship with peer rejection and indirect relationship with adolescent antisocial behaviors. The ability to control emotions is an important feature that a person must possess. Self-application of abilities can be referred to as self-efficacy. Every child becomes more focused on the inner goals, processes, and functions of diabetes as a psychic force. Responsibility is a form of internal control over the individual that is important for building relationships based on empathy, respect for the rights of others, and more generally order in social relationships. People who are more responsible have more positive relationships with others. The present study seeks to identify the relationship between  the two variables of emotional self-regulation and social responsibility in students. In other words, the researcher seeks to answer the question whether emotional self-regulation and responsibility are related to students’ social relationships.This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between emotional self-regulation and responsibility of the sixth grade elementary students in district 19 of Tehran. To achieve this goal, the  sample of the academic year of 1396-1397 was selected from among 352 students based on Morgan’s table and cluster sampling method and then HQ (2013) with 0.88 reliability coefficient, The Hoffman &  Kasten’ (2010) emotional self-regulation questionnaire with a reliability of 0.81, and the Wellbeing Responsibility Questionnaire (2001) with a reliability coefficient of 0.92 in the sample group were administered. Finally, data were collected and analyzed using multivariate regression analysis and correlation coefficients. In explaining this hypothesis, it can be stated that emotional self-regulation is a function of a broad structure of affect regulation. Emotional self-regulation has several important characteristics. First, people are likely to rate their emotions as they decrease or increase. Second, the basic elements of emotional self-regulation are consciousness. It is difficult to properly evaluate emotional self-regulation processes. Situations that invoke emotion do not necessarily lead to emotional responses. Trying to adjust the position to change emotional impact is a potential form of emotional self-regulation. Investigation of the relationship between emotional self-regulation with subscales of secrecy, adaptation, and tolerance with social relationships showed that there was a correlation between the component of “tolerance” with “social relations”. In other words, it can be concluded with 99% confidence that there is a significant relationship between emotional self-regulation and social relations and among the components,   the component of “tolerance” was found to be the most effective one . Emotional self-regulation that is activated before an event contributes to the interpretation of events, thereby it reduces the negative emotional response in the individual. Understanding your emotions and controlling yourself in a variety of emotional situations is one of the skills that people learn from birth at the heart of the family and then at school and in the society. Therefore, acquiring and mastering this skill can affect other aspects of people’s lives, one of which is the issue of social relationships. People who can easily control and regulate their emotions in different situations will behave more appropriately and adapt faster to different situations, and this ability to build and maintain positive social relationships. Another hypothesis was that there was a relationship between student responsibility and their social relationships. The results of testing this hypothesis also showed that the null hypothesis can be rejected at the 0.01 level and with 99% confidence indicating that there is a relationship between “responsibility” and “social relations” of students. In explaining this hypothesis, the scholar also pointed out that accountability refers to a sense of duty, responsibility, and commitment. Man as a social being in his collective life is responsible for others and must respect the rights of others. People who have a high sense of responsibility, satisfy their needs reasonably, generally accept the consequences of their behaviors, and are trustworthy and reliable. They feel committed to the larger social structure and, although not necessarily the leader, they are righteous and keep their promises. People who are more accountable have better social relationships because of the sense of respect they have for themselves and for the society.

    Ethical considerations

    Contribution of authors
    Both authors have contributed to this article

    Funding for article preparation
    As of the publication of this article, no direct funding has been received from any entity

    Conflict of interest
    This article does not overlap with other published works by the authors.

    Following the  ethics of research
    In this article all rights related to research ethics are respected.

    Keywords: commitment, emotional self-regulation, responsibility, social relations, students
  • Sedigheh Hajihasani, Mahdieh Salehi*, Suzan Emamipour Pages 221-255
    Introduction

    In all societies providing mental health and wellbeing can be considered essential for students.
    Mental well-being and positive attitudes result in mental health and an increase a person’s motivation.
    Mental wellbeing can help a person to solve his or her problems with more power and achieve prosperity and a higher self-efficiency
    One of the helpful environmental factors in mental evolution of teenagers is school. In this sense, educational system authorities are trying to provide suitable conditions in schools so as to raise the wellbeing of the students.
    The researchers believed that mental wellbeing in schools is affected by the quality of interaction between students and school climate. One type of human communication is the relationship between students and the educational system they are studying in. In educational systems, a lot of people are working, and students have direct or indirect contact with them. Also, one of the most critical settings for cognitive growth of students is the school which is defined as a key and influential point in this regard.
    It is in schools that educational, social, and behavioral skills are being learned. Acquiring these skills is possible by interacting with the school climate, which comprises teachers, classmates, and the curriculum.
    Students’ success while facing an undesirable situation during education is related to resilience. This issue has recently been greatly emphasized in the field of Education.
    Resilience is defined as the ability to resist against stress and return to the normal balance after experiencing stressful factors. The resilience concept as the control or action against stressful factors should be used before they could hurt the people.

    Method

    The participants of the study  were all high school (first period) female students of public schools of Tehran in the academic year 1396-1397. The sample size included 630 students (209 in grade 7, 213 in grade 8, and 208 in grade 9) selected by stratified random sampling method. The selected students studied in the districts 2 (196 students), 7 (176 students), 11 (133 students), and 18 (125 students).
    Measurement instruments
    A- Kiz and Magiarmo Subjective Wellbeing  Scale (SWS) ( 2003)
    Subjective wellbeing scale of Kiz and Magiarmo  (SWS) ( 2003) is used for evaluating the emotional, psychological, and social wellbeing. This questionnaire include 45 questions and three subscales related to emotional, social, and psychological factors. The internal validity of subscale of emotional wellbeing in positive emotions was 0.91 and in negative emotions it was 0.78. Subscales of psychological and social wellbeing have moderate internal validity ranging from 0.4 to 0.7 and the total validity of both subscales was 0.8 and higher. The reliability coefficient or re-test reliability has been reported to be 0.86.
    B- Academic Resilience scale (ARI): This questionnaire included 29 questions and three subscales related to communicative, future direction, problem-oriented/optimistic items. Samuelz (2004) calculated the reliability of this questionnaire. He calculated the Cronbach alpha to estimate the reliability which was found to be 0.89. Also, the construct validity of the questionnaire was evaluated as desirable in his research. In Iran, this questionnaire was standardized by Sultan Nejad and his colleagues (2014).
    C- School climate  Questionnaire (2015):This questionnaire includes 70 questions and five scales and 11 subscales.
    The scales included: 1) safety, 2) learning, 3) interpersonal relations, 4) school climate, and 5) social media.
    This questionnaire has been translated by English experts and revised by Psychology experts.
    Its primary validity was assessed on 30 students, and its alpha Cronbach coefficient was found to be 0.883 for the whole questionnaire and 0.77 to 0.93 for its scales.

    Findings

    Table1: Descriptive Indexes of Marks of Questionnaire of School’s Climate and Resilient and Well-being
    Variable           Mean        standard deviation    kurtosis    skewness     minimum    maximum
    Security    15.82    2.90    -0.120    -0.454    7.50           24.00
    Teaching and Learning    30.93    6.16    -0.256    0.068    10.00             45.00
    Interpersonal Relationships    21.20    3.44    -0.217    -0.031    9.33               29.33
    Learning Environment    21.89    4.23    -0.043    -0.166    10.00       32.50      
    Social Media    16.58    4.07    -0.375    -0.103    5.00    25.00
    Resilient                 68.78                        15.99              -0.298            -0.355       27.00         121.00
    Well-being                160.38            27.92           0.424         0.623       65.00        245.00

    Table2: Suitability Indexes of Calculated Measuring Modified Model of Questionnaire of School Climate and Well-being and Resilient         
    model    2χ    df    /df2χ    RMSEA    GFI    AGFI    CFI
    Modified Final   Model School Climate      5335/30    1788    2/98    0/057    0/882    0/854    0/890
    Modified Final Model   Well- being    1976/27    646    3/05    0/057    0/896    0/887    0/890
    Modified Final Resilient Model     1106/95    292    3/79    0.067    0/918    0/904    0/901

    Table3: Factors of Total and Direct Way between Research Variables in Total Structural Model.
    Paths    b    S.E    β    Significance level
      Direct path coefficients     School Climate         Resilient     7.294    1.267    0.796    ***
        School Climate   Security     1.000        0.727    
        School Climate  Learning       3.554    0.496    0.974    ***
        School Climate     Relationships          1.551    0.233    1.086    ***
        School Climate    Environment                       2.595    0.366    0.938    ***
        School Climate     Media     0.245    0.042    0.528    ***
        School Climate    Well-being     3.320    0.706    0.789    ***
        Resilient Well-being     0.687    0.057    1.495    ***
        Security Emotional Security     1.000        0.390    
        Security Physical Security     0.818    0.149    0.399    ***
        Security Rules and Norms     1.627    0.240    0.770    ***
        Learning Social Learning     1.211    0.058    0.834    ***
        Learning   Learning Support     1.000        0.745    
        Interpersonal Relationships   Student Support     1.000        0.497    
        Interpersonal Relationships   Adult Support     2.350    0.189    0.737    ***
        Interpersonal Relationships Respect for Diversity             1.210    0.096    0.512    ***
        School Environment   Belong to the School     0.816    0.066    0.558    ***
        School Environment   Physical environment     1.000        0.712    
        Resilient   Communicational     1.000        1.239    
        Resilient   Future orientation     0.319    0.029    0.651    ***
        Resilient   Problem-oriented     0.216    0.019    0.659    ***
        Well-being     Emotion     1.000        0.677    
        Well-being    Psychological     2.050    0.115    0.874    ***
        Well-being    Social     1.221    0.089    0.658    ***
    Coefficient Indirect    School ClimateWell- being    5.010     1.190    ***
    Coefficient Total    School ClimateWell-  being     1.690    0.402        ***          

    Discussion

    To explain the observed positive relationship between school climate and resilient in this research we should say that the results of different research studies show that resilient has relationship with keeping the mental health and wellbeing of people and its promotion (Kampfer, 2012). However, in recent years, researchers have emphasized the multidimensional nature of this construct. Multidimensional nature of resilient is based on evidence that people at risk while show adaptive and skilled functions in some areas show serious maladaptive consequences in other areas (Hashemi and Jokar, 2014).These results are consistent with many conducted studies like Martin’s (2013) research and that of Pandergast and Kaplan’s (2015).
    To explain the observed relationship between school climate and mental well-being with resilient mediation role, we should say that academic resilience is one of the variables that has a relationship with academic involvement, the mental, social climate of the classroom and with emotional atmosphere of the family (Latter, 1991). Research shows that students who may present the resistance in a special domain may be vulnerable in other domains (Sepah Mansur, 2016). This result is consistent with the study results of Golestani (2014), Hejazi and Musavisharifi (2015).
     Besides, in order to explain a significant direct relationship between resilience and mental wellbeing, it can be said that people with high resilience in stressful situations and horrible events keep their psychological well-being and have psychological adaptability. Indeed, the direction of variables correlation shows that with higher resilience, the psychological well-being of students will increase (Wolf, 1995). This finding is in line with the research studies of Jokar and Sahragard (2007), Besharat et al. (2008), Tugade and Friedrikson (2004), and Friberg et al. (2006).
    Finally,  to explain a direct and significant relationship between school climate and well-being, researchers have found that school climate assists in comprehending and developing a high level of mental well-being in students and school staff. Moreover, the positive atmosphere of the school can help to solve many problems and decrease absence, suspension, and bullying. In addition, it promotes educational advances of students and their motivation for learning and mental well-being. Moreover working in this type of schools decreases teachers’ tiredness while increasing their activity. This result is consistent with the results of Borkar’s (2016) study.   
    The obtained results of structural equation modeling show:A direct and significant relationship between school climate  and resilient (β=0.796, P<0.01)
    An indirect and significant relationship between school climate and mental well-being with resilient mediation role. (β=0.496, P<0.05)
    A significant direct relationship between resilience and mental well-being (β=1.557, P<0.01)
    A direct and significant relationship between school climate and well-being (β=0.862, P<0.01).

    Ethical Considerations

    Funding
    There is no direct financial support from any entity or organization for the publication of this article.
    Authors’ contributions
    All authors contributed in producting of the research.
    Conflicts of interest
    This article does not overlap with other published works by the authors..
    Acknowledgments
    In this article, all rights relating to references are cited and resources are carefully
    This study was funded by the Islamic Republic of Iran’s Drug Control Headquarters.

    Keywords: academic resilience, mediation, mental well-being, school climate, structural pattern
  • Tayyebeh Tajari*, Alireza Pages 257-299
    Introduction

    One of the important tasks of the educational system is to adopt appropriate policies to promote multiple literacies in order to improve students’ social welfare. Achieving social welfare requires nurturing citizens who are literate. The development and prosperity of any society without the development of multiple literacies is not possible as a basis; therefore, the strategy of the country’s education system should be focused on promoting the multiple literacies among students. Given that the educational environment is based on cultural, administrative, political, technological, and educational complexities, it is essential for the teacher to understand and direct them in a profound way in their practice and experience in order to be able to act on its assumptions as an active and responsible interventionist in this regard. In the current condition of the country’s educational system, we are witnessing the usual language and speech training of teachers. What can have a profound effect on students is “language of possibility”. This concept has been introduced with features such as ‘uncertainty’, ‘possible states’,’ possible worlds’ and ‘probabilities’ in specialized sources. In the language of possibility words and combinations such as are likely, may, perhaps, etc. are used. Through language of possibility questions are raised that demonstrate the feasibility and can help spread the truth. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of teachers’ language of possibility on the nurturing of primary students (6th grade) multiple literacies. In other words, the use of language of possibility as a central theme in the “education-centered approach”, which is the ultimate goal of the fundamental reform document of education, is that the setting for its use by teachers and students should be one of the goals of education throughout the curriculum, and attempts should be made to apply it in curricula.

    Method

    The research methodology was quasi-experimental with pre-test and post-test design with control group. All the sixth grade female students of Aliabad Katol (a city in Golestan province) who were enrolled in the academic year of 2018-2019 constitute the statistical population of this study and there were 457 students based on the statistics of Aliabad city education. A sample of 40 students was selected through multi-stage sampling from the all sixth grade female students in Aliabad. For this purpose, from all the primary schools (7 schools), 2 schools (girls’ schools of Qods and Mehr) were randomly selected. In order to prevent the effect of educational interventions for the experimental group in the control group, in the next step it was decided to randomly assign one school to be the experimental group and the other one  to be the control group. Finally, from the experimental group, 20 sixth grade female students were selected randomly as the experimental group, and from the control group, 20 sixth grade female students were randomly selected as the control group. The mean age of the experimental group was 11 years and 6 months, and the mean age of the control group was 11 years and 5 months, with a standard deviation of 1 month.

    Findings

    The use of language of possibility in the experimental group increases the students’ multiple literacy compared to the traditional method in the control group. The social, cultural, and political literacy of the language of possibility-educated students was significantly higher than that of the traditional students, but the difference between the information literacy and media literacy of the students in the two groups was not significant. There was a significant difference between the rate of multiple literacy of students who were educated in social studies with the language of possibility of teachers and students who were trained in traditional speech, and those who were educated in the language of possibility were more likely to have multiple literacy. There is a significant difference between the level of cultural literacy of students who are trained in language of possibility and those who are trained in the usual way. The  language of possibility-educated students were found to be able to have a higher cultural literacy. There is also a significant difference between the level of cultural literacy of students who are trained in language of possibility and those who are trained in the traditional way, and the language of possibility-educated students were able to have a higher social literacy. There is a significant difference between the level of political literacy of students who are trained in language of possibility and those who are trained in the usual way, and the language of possibility-educated students were able to have a higher political literacy. There is not a significant difference between the level of information literacy of students who are trained in language of possibility and those who are trained in the usual way. There is not a significant difference between the level of media literacy of students who are trained in language of possibility and those who are trained in the usual way.

    Discussion

    The findings of this study showed that students who were trained in language of possibility were more successful in multiple literacies than the students who were trained in the usual way. In other words, the language of possibility of teachers in teaching has fostered the multiple literacies of sixth grade students. By providing the opportunity for critical pedagogy of language of possibility, the possibility of separate disciplines collapsed and new forms of knowledge were created by the creation of interdisciplinary knowledge. By using language of possibility, teachers developed curriculum in a way that the cultural resources that their students brought to school was accounted so that they thoughtfully acted on their actions. Curriculum development stakeholders, Farhangian University campus centers, initial and in-service teaching for new teachers, and departments on the usefulness of language teaching and the use of language of possibility for academic faculty, teachers and lecturers are required tomake more efforts in this regard.

    Ethical Considerations

    Authors’ contributions
    All authors contributed in producting of the research.
    Funding
    In the present study, all expenses were borne by the author and he did not have
    any sponsors.
    Conflicts of interest
    The authors declared no conflict of interest.
    Acknowledgments
    In this article, all rights relating to references are cited and resources are carefully
    listed.

    Keywords: language of possibility, multiple literacies, teachers, students
  • Farzaneh Sadat Miri, Mohammad Mehdi Ghiai*, Zahra Khodaee Pages 301-339
    Introduction

    Given the industrialization of societies and its economic, cultural, and moral consequences,the growing population of the elderly,the emergence of many diseases, and problems of aging which is caused by the unfavorable condition of their lives,  the basis for the health of the elderly should be established by promoting the quality of life and it should also be stepped up to achieve dynamic aging.   
    The purpose of this research is to provide factors and attributes that affect the index of hope and quality of life and achieve a desirable and satisfactory environment for the elderly. They have been effective in restoring their physical and psychological well-being, providing them with refreshment and higher level of  life expectancy and ultimately improving the quality of life of the elderly. Therefore, the issue of paying attention to elderly people living in nursing homes can have a positive effect on highlighting the role and importance of the elderly and improving their quality of life in the society.

    Method

    In order to carry out the research and achieve its goal, a descriptive-analytical method has been used in a survey approach that includes library and field studies. The library method with tables and statistics is used to reach the psychology and sociology of the elderly and the situation of the elderly in different societies and the principles of design and architecture criteria for the elderly. Field studies, including interviews with the elderly, experts in the fields related to the issues of the elderly, specialists and others, have been used as a supplementary method to the library methodology so as to meet the expectations and needs of the elderly as the main beneficiaries. SPSS software and one-sample t-test were also used as an instrument for data analysis and evaluation.

    Findings

    Considering the result of exploratory factor analysis that was performed on the variables included in the questionnaire, 11 factors were identified as the main factors affecting the increase of quality and life expectancy of the elderly which apart from the factor of lack of complexity and ambiguity, other factors, such as ease of access to spaces, safety and security, dynamism and attractiveness, unity and integrity, freedom, comfort, communication with nature, social participation, educational and cultural activities, and place belonging to raising the level of life expectancy in the elderly have a significant effect.
    According to the research findings, the ease of access is a good environment for public and private spaces associated with the physical and mental constraints of the elderly. The adaptation of the public space to the sensory and physical needs of the elderly will make them feel comfortable. In this way, it is important to pay attention to the design of the furniture in a manner that is consistent with the requirements of aging, the type and color of the flooring and the slope of the sidewalks, the design of various spaces for the gathering and chatting of the elderly. The freedom of the elderly in the public sphere helps to strengthen their sense of self-sufficiency and sense of usefulness. It is important to create diversity in the use of public spaces and to provide a wide range of choices to stimulate the sense of dynamism in the elderly.
    Enjoying nature and watching the natural environment is important in helping the elderly.
    Paying attention to the inner concepts of each element (codename and ambiguity) in designing the public space, along with the concepts and form of the element, and encouraging the elderly to act sensory-mental-perceptual, to discover the meaning of the element, in restoring self-confidence to the elderly and persuading, they  play an important role in public participation in public space.
    In public space, solutions should be considered for the micro scale and how they interact, in order to avoid excessive variation in the public space and a kind of disorder and lack of integrity. Because this irregularity ultimately leads to confusion among the elderly and their refusal to frequent participation in public space.
    In addition to the above, the existence of a safe environment for life is one of the essential requirements of human life. Failure to meet the need for human security in collective spaces not only prevents him from achieving higher-level needs, such as self-actualization, aesthetics, knowledge, and understanding, but reduces social interactions and ultimately leads to the absence of public spaces. Being at the optimum level can create a sense of humor for the elderly, as it enables the visibility of the surroundings and strengthens the sense of security in the individual.
    Other things you can do to achieve this are as follows:- Observing the scale of the human space and scale.
    - Forming of space and ability to be visible and readable.
    - Creating visual comfort through proper orientation with signs and marks, harmony of views in terms of form, color and type of materials,line of glass, and appropriate lighting.

    Discussion

    Regarding the results of the field research on the elderly living in the elderly homes of Karaj, attention to 11 factors in designing the space for the elderly and increasing their life expectancy is necessary according to the results of the Friedman Ranking test . The four factors that have the greatest impact on improving the quality and life expectancy of the elderly are the relationship between the elderly and nature, the elderly social participation, comfort, participation in the educational and cultural activities of the elderly.
    In the study of the relationship between the quality of life and physical activity, the findings of the research showed that the quality of life has a significant relationship with daily activities of life. Therefore, it is recommended that plans be made to increase social participation, improve medical and health services, and provide counseling services in the elderly population with the aim of preserving and enhancing their ability to have an independent life more than before.
    Space design is the core of the research, so that space is the factor for engaging people. Since social communication and interaction is between individuals that keep the human soul alive and hope for it. Round spaces have a positive effect on the interaction of individuals as well as on the happiness of individuals. We can design spaces and even layout furniture. Achieving dynamic aging through active engagement of the elderly with life, acceptance of purposeful, valuable and identity-based social commitment from him, the need for optimal, conventional social interaction with the aging interest of the community is possible. In order to have a dynamic old age, the quality of life as a consequence of mental health is undifferentiated.
    According to the findings of this research, it seems that understanding different needs of the elderly and trying to meet these needs and respecting their preferences in the design of spaces for the elderly can be in good old age and quality improvement as well as  their life expectancy and achievement of successful aging goals. Meanwhile, it is hoped that attention and utilization of the environmental notions explained in this article in designing and improving the living space of the elderly, the presence and participation of the elderly in public spaces and collective activities and the achievement of the transcendental goals of the successful aging idea were provided.
    Ethics of publishing
    Authors Contribution
    All authors have had efficent contribution on this article.
    Financial Resources
    For publishing of this article, it hasn’t received any direct financial support of any organizations.
    Conflict of Benefits
    This article has no conceptional contradiction with other publications of the authors. Although it is along the author studies and research interests, it has no overlap with them.
    Following Principles of Research Ethics
    All rights related to research ethics are followed in this article.

    Keywords: elderly, elderly design, life expectancy, nursing home, quality of life
  • Jahanbakhsh Haraty, Yasaman Khajenoori, Mehrdad Rayejian* Pages 341-377
    Introduction

    The principles of the School of Natural Rights during the Age of Enlightment, i.e., the 17th and 18th centuries, regarding the individuality of human beings, their freedom and self-determination, as well as the human rights recommendations and documentations are designed and drafted by the international organizations during the current century and the appearance of “Global-ization”, the cultural seeds have been planted in different human societies.  Consequently, we have seen (nowadays) that relying on concepts of freedom, intellectualism, natural rights, self-determination, independency, and tendency towards consumerisms; some people have relieved themselves from observing the religious, traditional, and customary values, and have displayed un-conventional styles of life, which is different from the normal and conventional lives of other peo-ple in the society.   Using the merits of technology and the appearance of the concept of “Globali-zation”, this culture is being increasingly widespread throughout the world using the platforms, such as the internet, satellites TV,  and consumptive goods.  
    However, this Study is not designed to find the roots of the “divergence” or providing approaches to fight against this global phenomenon.  In fact, following the appearance of divergence in the Is-lamic society, this Study is aimed at the identification of Islamic legal system approach(es) and dis-covery of its capacities in order to create a kind of balance in the society and establish social order and justice.
    Generally, three different approaches may be provided regarding this phenomenon. The approach based on the obligation that all unconventional behaviors and or lifestyles are rejected and on the strength of the jurisprudential principles and rules, and even some verses of the Holy Quran, such behavior or lifestyles are criminalized.  The right-oriented approach accepts the divergence, with some minor exceptions and not only proposes any limitations for it, but also makes no objections against its scope.  The final moderate approach is right-task-oriented, and while believing in the freedom of individuals in their lives, criminalizes some of these specific behaviors and lifestyles.  
    In order to explain and identify the approach of Islamic legal system towards this new social phe-nomenon, the descriptive-analytical and comparative method is used and for the collection of data, the Quranic verses, and Hadith, as well as works authored by Islamic Jurisprudents and western scholars have been utilized.  
    Critical review of literature:Task-oriented Approach:This approach is based on the “originality of the society”. Verses and jurisprudential rules underlying this approach are aimed at the protection of the society.   Originality of the society means that all the behaviors and lifestyles of the individuals are required to be in the framework of tenets, beliefs, and values of the society, and the individuals are required to observe the social val-ue system and any types of theoretical or practical divergence which are in contradiction of the in-dependent identity of the society and the public conscience.  
    Right-oriented Approach:Contrary to the Task-oriented legal system, which emphasizes the originality of the society and the limitation of the scope of divergence and is established on the “expediency” doctrine, “the Right-oriented legal system” not only believes in the “centrality of the individual”, but also believes in the rights of individuals regarding how to live, how to exist and be free in their behavior and thinking.  In this way, there are some jurisprudential and legal rules which form the basis for the school of “centrality of individual.”  Some Moslem scholars also believe that not only the centrality is at-tributed to the individual, but also no independent and separate existence may be considered for the society.  They believe that the society is a dependent phenomenon and lacks any independent iden-tity.  Such scholars think the number of personal beliefs and feelings amounts to the number of people in the society.  Among the works of early Islamic philosophers, differences in the souls of human beings may be traced, showing that they recognized differences in the ethics and behaviors of the human beings, which result from the differences in the nature of their souls.   
    Combined Approach (Right-Task Oriented):Besides these two basic ideologies, there is another ideology in the Islamic World, which thinks of originality not merely for the individual or the society, but for both of them.  The legal school based on this ideology, propagates a moderate lifestyle, relying on the expediency for the individu-al and for the society.  This belief not only balances the former two approaches, but also believes that the Islamic legal system fundamentally rejects going to the two extremes, because any behavior which is far from balance and moderation, is considered as detachment from pure nature. God has created human beings and their souls to be moderate and to live based on moderation.   

    Discussion

    All the three approaches regarding the scope of intervention of the criminal law in con-fronting the phenomenon of divergence, lack consensus.  The Task-oriented doctrine, which inter-prets the loss principle based on the concept of “expediency”, criminalizes all the behaviors which are in contradiction with the values and beliefs of the society.  This approach is aimed at homoge-nization of the thoughts and behaviors, which is inaccessible and will inevitably result in the infla-tion of criminal law and the maximum intervention of the state in the freedom and privacy of the people, as it is traceable in the Iranian legal system.  In such a legal system, the punishment is aimed at the public interests and prevention of crimes.  Consequently, we witness the increase of preventive crimes and victimless crimes.  The criminal policy of such a system shall be based on the security, curbing, and intimidation, which may not be implemented in today’st open and variant world.
    The right-oriented legal system, is a system separate from morality, because only the behavior, which threatens or violates the right of other(s) will be criminalized and where the behavior violates the ethics and brings about no harms to others, shall not be considered as a crime.  In this system, the state may not intervene in the freedom or privacy of individuals with the justification of expe-diency or the observance of ethics and limit their freedom based on the patrimonial reasons and the rules of morality.  In other words, in such a system, the state is designed to be based on the princi-ples of minimalism and minimum intervention.  Although this legal system, based on the principle of tolerance, and taking the criminal policies based on the tolerance, is in line with today’s plural society, and tolerates individuals with all types of clothing, tendencie,s and lifestyles, is somehow approving the human rights and the freedom of thoughts and expressions, and although the princi-ple of tolerance is considered in Islam as an ethical value, this principle may create a justification for some people to promote anarchistic and pure permissiveness.  Moreover, recognizing the prin-ciple of “tolerance” in this legal school may be considered as the approval of the divergence and denial of “homogenous lifestyle”.  This level of tolerance is not a good characteristic in the way defined in the Holy Quran and is not considered as an ethical value.  Actually, it is one of the liber-alist principles, which may not be contested, and any thought or act, which attempts to limit the scope of tolerance and permissiveness must be limited.  Consequently, the tolerance which is one of the principles of this school is in line with the religion of Islam, if it agrees with the ethical prin-ciples. Otherwise, it will be turned into a theory of trait.   
    But in the combined legal system, which is based on the “legal expediency”, the criticizing and public contempt of a behavior may not be considered as a good reason for calling it an unethical behavior.   On the other hand, the gladiator-like behaviors, which are aimed at the entertainment or enjoyment of the individual or people who do it, are not acceptable.   
    If the legal system is merely task-oriented, some type of ethical populism is formed and a unique lifestyle is inflicted upon the society.  If the legal system is merely right-oriented, then the permis-siveness and unstrained tendencies are promoted.  Consequently, in the combined or moderate sys-tem, taking into account the expediency of the society and the rights of individuals and with the designing of a “moderate state”, any  the type of behavior which is rationally and naturally consid-ered as unethical, and each behavior which is prohibited in the religion, such as divergence, shall be forbidden.  However, other representations of the divergence which appear in the form of clothing, make-up, viewpoints, etc., are not considered as unethical and if no religious rule have been issued to prohibit them, they will be authorized.   In fact, this approach is a type of liberalism combined with the governing perfectionism. The aforementioned approach follows some of the principles of liberalism, such as freedom, self-determination, and independency and at the same time supports the behaviors, which promotes the human being to the rank of “divine closeness”.  

    Ethical Considerations

    Funding
    In the present study, did not have any sponsors
    Authors’ contributions
    All authors contributed in designing, running, and writing all parts of the research.
    Conflicts of interest
    This article does not conflict with other articles of my.
     Acknowledgments
    In this article, all rights relating to references are cited and resources are carefully listed.

    Keywords: combined approach, criminalization, divergence, right-oriented approach, task-oriented approach