فهرست مطالب

پژوهش های راهبردی مسائل اجتماعی ایران - سال هفتم شماره 4 (پیاپی 23، زمستان 1397)
  • سال هفتم شماره 4 (پیاپی 23، زمستان 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/12/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • وحید گوهری ثابت، وکیل احمدی*، جلیل کریمی صفحات 1-18

    برای کاهش ترافیک، بر مدیریت عرضه ترافیک و نقش پلیس راه در این زمینه تاکید می شود؛ در حالی که سازمان های زیادی وجود دارند که در تقاضای ترافیک نقش مهمی دارند. هدف از این پژوهش، بررسی نقش عوامل نهادی در شکل گیری ترافیک در شهر کرمانشاه با استفاده از روش پیمایشی و استفاده از پرسش نامه بود. بدین منظور، 384 نفر از افراد بالای 15 سال شهر کرمانشاه با استفاده از نمونه گیری خوشه ایچند مرحله ای انتخاب شدند. نتایج نشان دادند میزان استفاده از اتوبوس در شهر کرمانشاه به ‎دلیل کمبود اتوبوس و پایین بودن کیفیت آنها کم است. به نظر پاسخگویان گشت زنی اضافی برای پیداکردن پارک، تغییر لاین به دلیل خرابی آسفالت جاده، عبور از عرض خیابان و عبور از سواره رو در شکل گیری ترافیک نقش دارد. شهرداری و سایر سازمان های دولتی و غیردولتی به دلیل الزام کردن شهروندان به مراجعه حضوری، استفاده نکردن از سامانه های اینترنتی، وجودنداشتن یکپارچگی سازمانی و توزیع نامناسب کاربری ها که دسترسی به خدمات در محله ها را کم کرده اند، در شکل گیری تقاضای سفر درون شهری و درنتیجه ترافیک شهر کرمانشاه نقش مهمی دارند. پیشنهاد می شود برنامه ریزان علاوه بر مدیریت عرضه ترافیک بر مدیریت تقاضای سفر با استفاده از یکپارچگی سازمانی متمرکز شوند.

    کلیدواژگان: ترافیک، عوامل نهادی، سامانه های الکترونیک، یکپارچگی سازمانی، توزیع کاربریها، کرمانشاه
  • اکبر زارع شاه آبادی*، مهران بندری صفحات 19-40

    امنیت از مهم ترین نیاز های بشری و دلیل اصلی او برای دوری از تنهایی و روی آوردن به زندگی جمعی است. این پژوهش با هدف سنجش میزان احساس امنیت شهروندان شهر ایذه با تاکید بر نقش افراد تبعیدی انجام و در آن از نظریات امنیت اجتماعی، کنترل اجتماعی و پیوند اجتماعی برای تبیین استفاده شده است. تعداد 384 نفر از شهروندان به منزله حجم نمونه، با استفاده از فرمول کوکران و به روش نمونه گیری دومرحله ای سیستماتیک و تصادفی انتخاب شدند. ابزار جمع آوری اطلاعات پرسش نامه محقق ساخته است که اعتبار آن با استفاده از محتوا و پایایی آن با محاسبه آلفای کرونباخ سنجیده شده است. یافته های پژوهش نشان می دهند میزان احساس امنیت در نواحی 5گانه شهری متفاوت است. بین حضور تبعیدی ها در شهر و احساس امنیت رابطه وجود دارد. بین جنسیت، تحصیلات و درآمد با احساس امنیت رابطه معناداری وجود دارد. همچنین بین نگرش مردم به تبعیدی ها و احساس امنیت همبستگی منفی وجود دارد؛ اما این رابطه ازنظر آماری معنادار نیست. تحلیل رگرسیون چندمتغیره نشان داد متغیرهای جنس، درآمد، تحصیلات و نوع محله و حضور تبعیدی ها در محله حدود 10 درصد از تغییرات احساس امنیت در این شهر را تبیین می کنند. انتخاب شهر ها برای تبعیدگاه بودن نتایج ناخوشایندی برای آن شهر دارد که یکی از آنها کاهش احساس امنیت شهروندان است؛ ولی متاسفانه قانون گذار کمتر به این امر توجه کرده است.

    کلیدواژگان: امنیت اجتماعی، احساس امنیت، شهروندان، تبعید، ایذه
  • حمیدرضا پیکری*، بابک بنازاده صفحات 41-58

    هدف پژوهش حاضر، بررسی رابطه آگاهی از امنیت اطلاعات با قصد نقض امنیت اطلاعات با نقش میانجی هنجارهای فردی و خودکنترلی بین کارمندان بانک کشاورزی شهر اصفهان است. این پژوهش ازنظر هدف، کاربردی و ازنظر چگونگی اجرا توصیفی - همبستگی است. جامعه آماری آن شامل 350 نفر از کارکنان شعب بانک کشاورزی شهر اصفهان است که نمونه بررسی شده براساس جدول مورگان و فرمول حجم نمونه جامعه محدود، 184 نفر برآورد و به روش نمونه گیری در دسترس متناسب با حجم انتخاب شد. ابزار جمع آوری اطلاعات، پرسش نامه بومی سازی شده بود. این پرسش نامه ها در طیف پنج درجه ای لیکرت تنظیم شده ‍ اند. روایی پرسش نامه ها با استفاده از روایی صوری (تعدادی از پاسخ دهندگان)، روایی محتوا (استاد راهنما و متخصصان رشته مدیریت) و روایی سازه (تحلیل عاملی) و پایایی آن ازطریق شاخص آلفای کرونباخ معادل 83/0 به دست آمد. اطلاعات جمع آوری شده با نرم افزار SPSS و PLS Smart ازطریق آزمون های آماری در دو سطح توصیفی و استنباطی تجزیه و تحلیل شد. آگاهی از امنیت اطلاعات با هنجارهای فردی (67/0=β)، خودکنترلی (71/0=β) و قصد نقض امنیت اطلاعات (53/0-=β) رابطه معنادار دارد. همچنین نتایج نشان دادند هنجارهای فردی (54/0-=β) و خودکنترلی (48/0-=β) با قصد نقض امنیت اطلاعات رابطه معنادار دارند.

    کلیدواژگان: آگاهی از امنیت اطلاعات، قصد نقض امنیت اطلاعات، هنجارهای فردی و خودکنترلی
  • ایدا صدرالسادات، حمدالله سجاسی قیداری*، علی اکبر عنابستانی صفحات 59-74

    نیاز به امنیت همواره یکی از شاخص های کلیدی کیفیت زندگی و تامین نیازهای اساسی بوده و مسئله وقوع جرم از مهم ترین مسائل جامعه بشری به شمار رفته است. با وجود ضرورت داشتن بررسی موضوع جرایم و امنیت در جوامع شهری نسبت به جوامع روستایی، پیشرفت تمرکز مطالعات اخیر بر مباحث جرم شناسی روستایی، نشان دهنده بازگشت اهمیت این موضوع در متن جوامع روستایی است؛ به طوری که علاوه بر رویکردهای اجتماعی پیشگیری از جرم، کاربرد رویکرد پیشگیری از جرم ازطریق طراحی محیطی (CPTED) در مناطق روستایی توصیه شده است. پژوهش حاضر از نوع توصیفی تحلیلی و با توجه به هدف، از نوع کاربردی است و در آن سعی شده است با شناخت جایگاه مقوله امنیت در برنامه ریزی کالبدی روستایی، رویکرد CPTED در مناطق روستایی آزمون و میزان تاثیر آن بر میزان احساس امنیت ساکنان روستاهای دهستان طوس شناخته شود. در این پژوهش از دو روش مطالعات کتابخانه ای و میدانی استفاده شده است. بر مبنای فرمول کوکران با میزان خطای 05/0، از مجموع 6195 خانوار، تعداد 362 نمونه در سطح سرپرست خانوار به دست آمد که برمبنای قاعده تسهیم به نسبت تعداد نمونه ها به تفکیک هر روستا مشخص شد؛ سپس با ارتقای نمونه های زیر 10 خانوار در هر روستا، تعداد نهایی نمونه ها به 386 رسید. در این پژوهش در مجموع 5 مولفه CPTED با 41 گویه انتخاب شدند و پایایی آنها با آزمون کرونباخ تایید شد. برای تحلیل داده ها از نرم افزار تحلیل آماری SPSS و آزمون همبستگی اسپیرمن و الگوی رگرسیون و تحلیل مسیر استفاده شد. با توجه به نتایج به دست آمده از پرسش نامه و معناداری الگوی رگرسیون، اثرگذاری اصول این رویکرد تایید شد. با توجه به منفی بودن ضریب مولفه حمایت از فعالیت های اجتماعی که بر میزان احساس امنیت هم افزا نیست و با نتیجه موردانتظار نیز هم راستا نیست، می توان بیان کرد ترتیب اثرگذاری مثبت اصول CPTED تنها به تعمیر و نگهداری، کنترل حرکت و دسترسی، قلمروگرایی و نظارت و مراقبت محدود می شود و نیاز به نقش هرچه بیشتر نهادهای دیده بانی در روستا احساس می شود تا مولفه حمایت را با تاثیری مثبت در تامین حس امنیت دخالت دهند.

    کلیدواژگان: برنامه ریزی کالبدی روستایی، احساس امنیت، CPTED، دهستان طوس
  • علیرضا صادقی*، امید باقرزاده صفحات 75-92

    شناخت میزان جذابیت دارایی ها برای در معرض هدف قرارگرفتن ازسوی دشمن در فرایند مدیریت خطر پذیری، جایگاه والایی دارد. به طور کلی جاذبه، معیاری کمکی برای محاسبه احتمال حمله است و ارزش یک دارایی از منظر دشمن عاملی است که بر احتمال در معرض هدف قرارگرفتن ازسوی دشمن تاثیر می گذارد. در این پژوهش، عوامل موثر بر میزان جذابیت دارایی های شهر های مذهبی برای در معرض هدف قرارگرفتن ازسوی دشمن تحلیل شده اند تا از این طریق زمینه لازم برای تحلیل میزان خطرپذیری امنیتی دارایی ها و ارتقای امنیت محیطی شهری فراهم شود. به این منظور از روش های پژوهش توصیفی - تحلیلی و پیمایشی و شیوه های پژوهش مرور متون و منابع، مشاهده و بازنمایی استفاده شده است. همچنین از پرسش نامه به منزله ابزار پژوهش و از آزمون فریدمن برای تحلیل داده های پژوهش و از نرم افزار های GIS و SPSS به منزله ابزار تحلیل داده ها بهره گرفته شده است. نمونه گیری این پژوهش به طور کامل هدفمند بوده و برای شناسایی گروه نمونه 45نفری از جامعه آماری، از شیوه نمونه گیری گلوله ‎برفی استفاده شده است. همچنین به دلیل نقش و جایگاه مجموعه شهری مشهد در گستره شرقی ایران و شهر مشهد به منزله دومین کلان شهر مذهبی جهان، این کلان شهر برای نمونه موردی انتخاب شده است. نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش، شناخت عوامل ایجادکننده جذابیت دارایی ها، تحلیل میزان جذابیت دارایی ها، سطح بندی جذابیت دارایی ها از منظر دشمن و ارائه نقشه های پخشایش دارایی ها براساس میزان جذابیت در محدوده کلان شهر مشهد بوده اند.

    کلیدواژگان: امنیت محیطی، مدیریت خطرپذیری، جذابیت دارایی، شهر مذهبی، مشهد
  • سعید نوری، هدا حلاج زاده*، معصومه شنوا صفحات 93-108

    هدف پژوهش حاضر، بررسی سازگاری فرهنگی مهاجران آذری زبان شهر رشت بوده است. روش پژوهش از نوع پیمایشی و نمونه مطالعه شده شامل 350 نفر از زنان و مردان بالای 14 سال محله های ترک نشین شهر رشت بوده است که براساس روش نمونه گیری خوشه ایانتخاب شده اند. برای پایایی ابزار سنجش از روش آماری آلفای کرونباخ و برای سنجش اعتبار پژوهش از روایی صوری بهره گرفته شده است. یافته های تحلیلی پژوهش نشان داده اند بین سن و میزان ارتباط مهاجران با جامعه مبدا و سازگاری فرهنگی رابطه معناداری (065/0) وجود ندارد؛ اما بین احساس تعلق قومی (000/0)، مدت اقامت (001/0)، جنسیت مهاجران (013/0) و نگرش مثبت به فرهنگ غالب با سازگاری فرهنگی (022/0) رابطه معناداری وجود دارد؛ به این معنا که مهاجران در این شهر به سازگاری فرهنگی رسیده اند و با ویژگی های کلی جامعه مهاجرپذیر انطباق یافته اند. برای پیش بینی میزان سازگاری فرهنگی مهاجران از تحلیل رگرسیون چندمتغیره استفاده و متغیر احساس تعلق قومی با ضریب 23/0 به منزله قوی ترین پیش بینی کننده متغیر سازگاری فرهنگی مهاجران گزارش شد.

    کلیدواژگان: مهاجرت، سازگاری فرهنگی، فرهنگ پذیری، مهاجران آذری زبان
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  • Vahid Goharisabet, Vakil Ahmadi *, Jalil Karimi Pages 1-18
    Introduction 

    Kermanshah city, associated with unplanned developments in the past, has serious problems regarding traffic within the city. Municipality and the police office were widening streets and changing the rules of traffic to reduce traffic. But, these actions don’t obviate the boring traffic, so it might reduce people’s motivation for coming to the streets and prevent the formation of traffic by omitting unnecessary traffic. Thus, the action of organizations and institutions play an important role in using electronic systems, organizational solidarity and users’ proper distribution in the management of supply and demand traffic. This research seeks to answer the question that: what are the effects of institutional factors in the formation of Kermanshah city traffic?

    Material & Methods

    This research is quantitative one based on the nature of the data, and is a cross-sectional survey based on method of collecting the data. In terms of purpose, it is an applied research. A researcher-made questionnaire has been used for collecting the data. The sample size has obtained 383 by Cochran (α=. /05 & P=. /5. The sampling method is based on multi-stage clustering. So, 38 blocks from more than 8,000 urban blocks has been randomly selected, and in each block, 10 questionnaires have been distributed by selecting odd number license plate at the beginning of each block. SPSS software has been used for data analysis. To describe and analyze the questionnaire, the frequency distribution table and Chi-square test have been used.

    Discussion of Results & Conclusions 

    The results showed that, in the Kermanshah city, mostly personal cars are used than public (e.g. using buses) transportation (17%), and it is a factor in increasing traffic volume. People wander a lot to find a place for parking their cars in the center of city. The sudden shift of drivers to prevent falling in the pits and asphalt surface is high (77 %). A large number of participants (more than 55 % of high and very high groups) preferred walking across the street to cross or used roadway due to the lack of standard sidewalks. This has caused the problems such as traffic and stopping of cars for pedestrians, fatal accidents due to vehicle collisions with pedestrians, and so on. More than 65 % of the respondents have been less familiar with e-municipality services. And more than 80% have used e-municipal services low and very low. So, the majority of citizens resort to municipality for doing their activities and it also caused more traffics. People have forced to go out for doing actions of some organizations and thus it raises the traffic demand. They leave the house for actions such as purchasing the necessities of life (9/47%), going to work (5/39%), referring to the training centers (9/4%), going to banks (3/3%) and health centers (3/3%) and entertainment (8/0%). The use of electronic port of organizations in Kermanshah city is very low (approximately 80% of samples have used moderate and less of electronic portal of organizations). The online shopping of Kermanshah citizens is very low (approximately 89% of samples have done online purchase moderate and less). Online banking practices by citizens of Kermanshah are low (about 68% of samples moderate and less their banking practices have done online). In general, different uses have not been properly distributed in Kermanshah city, since about 85% of the sample population can do their work in their place of residence without going to other areas. The municipality and other government agencies and non-governmental organizations have an important role in forming Kermanshah traffic and in-city travel demand due to the need for personalized visits, the lack of internet systems, lack of organizational integration, and inappropriate distribution of applications which reduced the availability of services in neighborhoods. It is suggested that planners, in addition to managing the supply of traffic, focus on management of travel demand through organizational solidarity.

    Keywords: Traffic, Institutional Factors, Electronic Systems, Organizational Solidarity, Distribution of Applications, Kermanshah
  • Akbar Zare Shahabadi *, Mehran Bondori Pages 19-40
    Introduction

    Security is one of the most important human needs and the main reason for tendency of humans to group living. It seems that in Iran society, especially provinces and cities that face many damages with imbalance development of cultural and economic status, if we leave aside the security created by police and military force, we have bad and unfavorable conditions in the other security dimensions (financial, occupational, judicial, …). Establishing security in the cities such as Izeh has special difficulties. Because the population context of this city is made up of low and weak levels, and since their income rate is trivial and the unemployment rate is high, Izeh city is located in the arrowhead of economic and social pathology due to the above conditions.  Also, in the city of Izeh, tribal disagreements and street ware fare tag-rag have made it hard to maintain the security of the city. But what seems to affect the security of the city is the name of Izeh in the list of Iranian exile cities. In such a way, in the time periods 2011-2013 and 2017-2018, the number of 650 people were exiled from different cities to Izeh city, only in the first half of  2018, 53 people were exiled to Izeh city. All in all, it can be said that Izeh city, due to the lack of growth and economic development, the high amount of poverty, joblessness, tribal conflict and thugs’ conflicts has insecurity conditions and the presence of the exiled people has the role of facilitator in increasing crimes and conflicts so it leads to the reduction of security in the city. According to the above subjects, the significance and necessity of studying the role of the exilic people in the citizen security feeling is determined and the main goal of the research is assessing the rate of citizen security feeling as well as examining the presence of the exilic people and the roles they have in the rate of security feeling of Izeh citizen.

    Material and Methods

    This research is survey in terms of implementation, is analytical in terms of method, and is applied in terms of goal. The number of 384 people from citizen were selected as volume size, by using Cochran formula and by two-step systematic and randomly sampling and method. The data collection tool is a researcher-made questionnaire that its validity is assessed by content and its reliability is assessed by Cronbach alpha. SPSS software and statistics tests, T, F, Pearson correlation coefficient and multivariable regression are used for statistical analysis.

     Discussion of Results and Conclusion

    The findings of the research show that the rate of security feeling in the 5 areas of city is different. There is a relationship between the presence of exiles in the city and sense of security. There is significant relationship among genders, education, and income with security feeling. Also, there is negative correlation between people attitude toward exiles and security feeling but this relationship was not statistically significant. Multivariable regression analysis show that gender, income, education variables and the type of neighbor and the presence of exiles in the neighborhood explain about 10% the security feeling changes in this city. The city selection for exile places has the unfavorable results for this city and one of them is the reduction of security feeling in citizens that unfortunately, legislators pay less attention to it. According to the obtained results, it can be concluded that Izeh city was deleted from the list of exiled cities because of its special situation. And considering the present period of communication, exile does not have the former efficiency, other sentences substitute for this sentence. If legislators insist on issues such as sentence, before issuing the sentence, they should think about the criminal’s job and other needs in the exiled places until the criminals for satisfying the needs of exiles. If they want to issue the exiled sentence, they should select a city as exiled place with the less crime and sins not the cities that are exposed to the different types of damages and deviations. Regarding the research theories that define a separate and distinct identity from the exiles and sometimes contrast with native’s identity which leads to separation, disparate and insecurity in these cities. So, it is necessary to do special cultural activities in the direction of coordination and harmony of culture and identity.

    Keywords: Social Security, Security Feeling, Citizen, Exile, Izeh
  • Hamid Reza Peikari *, Babak Banazdeh Pages 41-58
    Introduction

    while the role of information in today’s world cannot be denied, and since most activities and processes depend on information, the violation of information security is a critical concern. There are numerous motivations to threaten the security of an organization’s information, ranging from economic motivations to revenge, although some threats are not intentional and the source of such threats does not really intend to do so. There are two sources of security threats, internal and external. The internal threats consist of the employees who intentionally or unintentionally violate the security rules of organizational information. While there are a variety of studies, dealing with this issue from different angles, researchers found no prior reports on the relationship between information security awareness and intention to violate information security with the mediating role of individual norms and self-control. Hence, this research aims to employ several theories, including general deterrence theory, general crime theory, control theory and social learning theory and suggests 5 minor hypotheses and 2 major hypotheses to examine the mentioned relationship among the employees of Keshavarzi Bank in Isfahan city. The results will lead to the development of a new theoretical model, which expands our knowledge in this field and also can be employed by researchers as the theoretical underpinning in their future research. The results can also offer new practical suggestions and solutions to reduce the incidents of information security breach in organizations by the employees.

    Material & Methods

    The present study is an applied research in terms of the purpose, and it is a descriptive-survey with correlation approach in terms of the method. The population of the present study consisted of 350 employees of Keshavarzi Bank in Isfahan. The studied sample was estimated 184 individuals based on the Morgan table and was selected by stratified random sampling fitted to size. The scale was adopted and adapted from published sources, and, except the demographics, was formatted on the five-point Likert scale. The demographics consisted of 5 questions, referring to the respondents’ age, gender, education level, marital status, and organizational position.  The main scale for the variable ‘information security awareness’ consisted of 3 dimensions, namely, ‘information security general awareness’, ‘information security rules awareness’, and ‘information security violation sanctions’, each consisted of three-question items. The questionnaires for ‘individual norms’ and ‘intention to violate information security’ each consisted of 4 items, and the questionnaire for ‘self-control’ consisted of 3 items. The validity of the questionnaires was obtained using face validity (by a number of respondents), content validity (by faculty members and management specialists) and construct validity (confirmatory factor analysis), using average variance extraction (AVE), composite reliability (CR), factor loading and Fornel and Larcker criterion. To examine the scale reliability, Cronbach’s alpha was used and the overall reliability was 0.83. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS and SmartPLS software at two levels of descriptive and inferential statistics. Based on the results, all the research hypotheses were approved.

    Discussion of Results & Conclusions

    The relationships between awareness of information security with individual norms (β=0.67), self-control (β=0.71), and intention to violate information security (β=- 0.53) were significant. The results also indicated that individual norms (β= -0.54) and self-control (β= 0.48) were significantly related to intention to violate information security. The results are consistent with some past similar studies, which have been discussed. Overall, it can be suggested that employees’ awareness regarding the security rules of the organization, and the consequences of violation of information security should be improved by conducting different classes. Moreover, building an efficient security culture to encourage employees to follow the security rules of the organization can be an effective step toward this goal. Another step would be implementing sanctions in public against those who violate the security rules of the organization.

    Keywords: Information Security Awareness, Intention to Violate Information Security, Individual Norms, Self-control
  • Aida Sadrossadat, Hamdollah Sojasi Qeidari *, Aliakbar Anabestani Pages 59-74
    Introduction

    Since the past, it was emphasized on the built-environmental aspect of a village in order to ensure its security against the entry of enemies. Therefore, the security measures had been taken in the architecture and design of streets. The relationship between security and rural physical planning is considered by the fact that the purpose of rural development planning is to improve the quality of life in rural communities, and the necessity for safety has always been an important index of quality of life and basic human needs. Crime is one of the most important issues of human society. Despite the fact that crime has been more considered in urban societies than rural communities, the focus of recent studies on rural criminology indicates the importance of this issue within rural context, too. Particularly, the high level of crime and insecurity in rural settlements at the urban fringe reveals that such settlements need more concern in this regard. Moreover, the approach of Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) has been also recommended in rural areas in addition to socio- economic approaches. This is important due to the fact that those factors of CPTED resulting in reduction the incidence and fear of crime in rural areas can be recommended in the process of development of rural physical planning in the country, that is, the development of Rural Guidance Plans. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluating the impact of CPTED indices on perception of security of rural residents to apply its results and effective factors in making a safe community.

    Material & Methods

    This study uses a methodology of descriptive and analytical research with an applied approach. The methods of data collection are based on desk and field study. Desk study was used to determine the factors of CPTED. Field study was performed to fill out the questionnaires in the villages of Toos Dehestan of Mashhad County. Cochran formula was used to make a sample of 362 out of 6195 households (P & Q=0.5; d=0.05). By modulating the samples below 10 per village, the final sample size was revised as 386. The survey instrument was a questionnaire designed in the form of Likert scale whose validity was confirmed by a panel of experts. To determine the reliability of the questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used including Territoriality (0.73), Access Control (0.72), Surveillance (0.65), Support (0.62) and Repair and Maintenance (0.68). The data were analyzed using SPSS software including Spearman correlation, Linear Regression model and Path Analysis.

     Discussion of Results & Conclusions

     This study indicates that Territoriality and Surveillance which examine a limited area such as surrounding environment have had a higher mean and then Access Control which shows the result of performing Rural Guidance Plans. The correlation between CPTED and Perception of Security is significant in all factors. There is a positive correlation between Territoriality, Access Control, Surveillance, Repair and Maintenance and Perception of Security. The Linear Regression model indicates the impact of Factors on Perception of Security including Territoriality (0.242), Access Control (0.372), Surveillance (0.179), Repair and Maintenance (0.287) and Support ( -0.116). The negative effect of Support on Perception of Security determines the weakness of Social Support in the studied rural areas. The results of regression model indicates the significant impact of CPTED on Perception of Security. However, the factor of Support is not in line with the expected outcome due to its negative impact factor. Therefore, according to Path Analysis the positive effects are respectively limited to 1- Repair and Maintenance, 2- Access Control, 3- Territoriality, 4- Surveillance. It is proposed to increase scouting groups in rural areas to have a positive impact on perception of security.

    Keywords: Rural Physical Planning, Perception of Security, CPTED, Toos Dehestan
  • Ali Reza Sadeghi *, Omid Bagherzadeh Pages 75-92
    Introduction

    Environmental security is defined as tranquility, confidence, and no-intimidation of citizens from any kind of environmental risk and threats (natural and human) which affects the joy, health, presence, and public participation of citizens. In a safe city, safety is provided in urban spaces, and the person in the city feels a sense of security and a lack of risk. In fact, in the safe city, it is tried to minimize risks for citizens. Therefore, today, the world's advanced countries spend a lot of expenses every year to increase the safety and security of their assets, facilities and urban infrastructure against potential risks and economic damages caused by an incident. Since the scope of decision-making is widespread, these countries always seek to explain the challenge in threats from natural and man-made disasters. The risk analysis of critical assets and attractive targets is a management tool in the hands of crisis managers to decide how to handle countermeasures in dealing with potential threats and vulnerabilities. But, the first step in the risk management process of hostile operations is to identify and analyze threats and vulnerabilities that the assets face. Because it seems that investigating and identifying the threats and capabilities of the enemy's weaponry and technology is the prerequisite for the determination of the enemy's abilities and objectives. According to defense experts, the contribution to threats can transform it into an opportunity to acquire defensive power and to neutralize offensive plans of enemies and even to hinder them. This important issue in cities has been considered as one of the human settlements that have long been exposed to many damages caused by an incident. This has been more prominent in cities as one of the manifestations of human settlements that have long been exposed to many damages caused by accidents. In this context, the attractiveness of an asset is a useful measure to calculate the probability of an attack, which is based on estimating various factors indicating the value of the asset for targeting. Because, for the enemy, not all assets have the same value and the value of an asset from the enemy's perspective is the factor that affects the probability of a security incident. Therefore, the analysis and evaluation of the attractiveness of assets in the process of risk management and analysis of threats and vulnerabilities has a significant role. In this study, factors affecting the attractiveness of assets in religious cities for targeting by the enemy were analyzed in order to provide the necessary background for investigating the security risk of assets and enhancing urban environmental security.

    Material & Methods

    descriptive–analytical and survey research methods have been used in this study. Also, research methods of literature review, observation and representation within the context of library and field studies were employed to analyze factors affecting the attractiveness of assets targeted by the enemy, so that the basis for the risk analysis, explaining the consequences, scenarios and determining the assets security risk become available. The questionnaire was also used as a research tool and Friedman test was utilized to analyze the research data. GIS and SPSS software have been used as the data analysis tools. The sampling of this study is highly targeted, and to identify the sample group of 45 people from the statistical population, a snowball sampling method was used. In this context, Mashhad religious metropolis was selected as the case study for this research, due to the unique religious, pilgrimage, and tourism characteristics and its significance and important role in the national development process and achieving the ideal goals of Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Discussion of Results & Conclusions

    By using the Friedman test, the importance of assets attractiveness was ranked as the target. These assets with collateral damages have the greatest strategic importance. Then, cultural, belief, symbolic, military, economic, political, and social assets, along with assets in the vicinity of vital assets were, respectively, the most important ones. In addition, the assets of buildings, human resources, urban infrastructure and transit network are more important for the enemy if they have more exclusive monopoly. Moreover, according to the analysis, the attractiveness of assets was graded and presented in the spectral form of attractiveness. After obtaining the amount of attractiveness of assets and its leveling, the location of these assets were displayed on the map. Then, using the analyses made in the GIS software, urban zones were plotted in this factor and the asset map was calculated based on the amount of the attractiveness. Finally, some suggestions have been made to reduce the effects caused by the targeting of attractive assets in religious cities and to promote environmental security in such cities.

    Keywords: Environmental Security, Risk Management, Asset Attractiveness, Religious City, Mashhad
  • Saeid Nouri, Hoda Hallajzadeh *, Masumeh Shenava Pages 93-108
    Introduction

    Nowadays, many people across the world immigrate for several reasons, such as war, work, education, etc. Now, different cultures, beliefs, values, opinions and customs in different societies will affect the personality structure and the trait of immigrants, tremendously, which can lead to positive or negative changes in behavior or even hurt these individuals. Hence, adaptation to culture and new customs for immigrants is a very necessary and considerable. (Kawandi, Safarai, 2013: 15)
    Cultural adaptation is an issue happening in the cultural, social, psychological, political, demographic context, and so on. It stands to the reason that discussions about interdisciplinary research are more paid attention (Qaramlaki, 2006: 392). Growing immigration particularly from villages to cities and metropolises has been emerged and characterized by the anonymity of immigrants, individualism and the existence of diverse groups and subcultures that have to live together and survive under a dominant culture. Otherwise they would be drawn to cultural isolation. Nevertheless, the migration itself is one of the most complicated social phenomenon as it requires adaptability. The main subject in this research is the examination of the compatibility of Azeri immigrants in Rasht city and groups which embrace the dominant culture and identity. Also, another question is: which groups resist against the common culture in Rasht?

    Material & Methods 

    The research method was survey and the case study included 350 Azeri men and women over 14 years of residence duration of in Rasht, chosen based on cluster sampling method. In order to measure the reliability of the assessment tool, Cronbach's alpha method was used, and formal validity was utilized to evaluate the validity of the research. The theoretical model used in this study was John Burry's four-side theory. In this theoretical model, based on each adaption pattern chosen by immigrants, social adaptation is comprehended from a theoretical and practical viewpoint.

     Discussion of Results & Conclusions

    Analyzing the research assumption, there was a significant relationship between the variables of ethnic belonging sense, residence duration, gender and positive attitude towards the host society and cultural adjustment, although there was no significant relationship between the criteria of age and immigrant’s association with the cultural origin and culture community. The analysis of the first hypothesis proved that there was a significant relationship between ethnic belonging sense and cultural adaptation. People with a higher sense of ethnic belonging are proud of their ancestral and inherited city and their home. The outcome of the second hypothesis demonstrated that there was no relationship between the immigrant’s association with the original community and cultural compatibility. They are obliged to adhere to the dominant culture of the host society, even despite their connection to the original community. The analysis of the third hypothesis of the research demonstrated that there was a significant relationship between the residence duration in Rasht and cultural adjustment. People with longer residence will try to adopt themselves to the host community. However, immigrants, who live shorter, are more subject to follow the integration pattern and cultural adaptation. The analysis of the fourth hypothesis proved that a positive attitude toward the host community also affect the acceptance of the dominant culture, positively. Over time (residence duration), the process of adaptation and adjustment to the host culture gradually comes up, and immigrants show less resistance to the culture of the host community. The fifth hypothesis, considering the relationship between the variability of gender and cultural adaptation, was confirmed. That is, the experience of living in a destination and host society for women and men leads different cultural adaptations. Women adaptation with the culture of the host community is higher. But, in men, the components of ethnic identity stick out more. The sixth hypothesis, concerning the age and cultural adaptability of immigrants, was not approved, that is, increasing age and diversity of the generation did not affect the cultural adjustment of Azeri immigrants. Since each culture has special and unique advantages and strengths, which can amplify the national culture of a country, it is suggested that these unique features strengthen and connect interculturalism. Rasht should be seen as a city of cultural diversity, whose citizens consider their own homeland.

    Keywords: Immigration, Cultural Adaptation, Culturing, Azeri-speaking Immigrants, Relationship, society, Theoretical Model