فهرست مطالب

پژوهش های حبوبات ایران - سال دهم شماره 1 (بهار و تابستان 1398)
  • سال دهم شماره 1 (بهار و تابستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/07/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 15
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  • مهدی کاکایی* صفحات 12-27

    از جمله روش های مطالعه وجود تنوع ژنتیکی میان گونه های گیاهی، استفاده از روش الکتروفورز پروتئین های بذر می باشد. استفاده از نشانگرهای پروتئینی در جداسازی ارقام نخود به عنوان یک منبع ارزشمند غذایی مهم است. الگوی پروتئین های ذخیره ای چهار رقم نخود (آرمان، هاشم، ILC-482 و آزاد) با روش SDS-PAGE بررسی شد. برای این منظور از ژل 5/12درصد پلی اکریل آمید استفاده گردید. نتایج الکتروفورز نشان داد که تفاوت الگوی پروتئینی ارقام مورد مطالعه بیشتر مربوط به باندهای پروتئینی موقعیت 17 و 25کیلودالتون است. بر اساس نتایج SDS-PAGE، به طور میانگین 75/28باند پروتئینی، در محدود 14 تا 100کیلودالتون شناسایی گردید. حضور باندهای پروتیئنی با وزن تقریبی 17کیلودالتون در الگوی پروتئینی ارقامILC-482 ، هاشم و آزاد می تواند به عنوان نشانگرهای پروتئینی برای این ارقام و باند پروتئینی 14کیلودالتون برای رقم آرمان معرفی شوند. دو رقم ILC-482 و آرمان و نیز هاشم، به ترتیب بیشترین و کمترین تعداد باند را داشتند و بیشترین فاصله ژنتیکی بین ارقام ILC-482 و آرمان مشاهده شد. ماتریس تشابه محاسبه و تجزیه خوشه ایبر اساس ضریب تشابه جاکارد به روش UPGMA انجام گردید. در رنگ آمیزی با کوماسی بلو دامنه ضرایب تشابه از 78/0 تا 87/0 متغیر بود. جهت تعیین همبستگی بین صفات زراعی و مولکولی از آزمون مانتل-هانزل (Mantel-Hansel) استفاده شد و همبستگی بین صفات زراعی در شرایط تنش خشکی و شرایط آبیاری تکمیلی با داده های مولکولی مشاهده گردید P<%5)). با بررسی شاخص های تنش خشکی و نتایج حاصل از بای پلات رقم آرمان به عنوان متحمل ترین رقم شناخته شد و در هر دو شرایط محیطی تنش خشکی و بدون تنش عملکرد بالاتری نسبت به سایر ارقام از خود بروز داد. همچنین تجزیه بای پلات نشان داد که شاخص های YI و HAM بهترین شاخص های تحمل به خشکی بودند.

    کلیدواژگان: آذیاری تکمیلی، آزمون مانتل، ذایپتت، شناساگر پروتیینی، ضری جاکارد
  • فریما دعائی*، علی نخزری مقدم، علی راحمی کاریزکی، مجید الداغی صفحات 28-39

    به منظور بررسی تاثیر کود شیمیایی و زیستی نیتروژن در تاریخ‎های کاشت مختلف نخود (Cicer arietinum L.) رقم آزاد، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 95-1394 به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه گنبدکاووس انجام شد. تاریخ کاشت در دو سطح (15دی و 13بهمن ماه)، کود زیستی مزورایزوبیوم در دو سطح (تلقیح با کود زیستی مزورایزوبیوم و عدم تلقیح) و کود شیمیایی نیتروژن در چهار سطح (صفر، 20، 40 و 60کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار با منشا اوره) بود. نتایج نشان داد که عامل تاریخ کاشت بر ارتفاع بوته، تعداد ساقه در بوته، تعداد غلاف و دانه در بوته، عملکرد دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیک تاثیرگذار بود و مقدار آن ها در تاریخ 15دی بیشتر بود. تعداد غلاف در بوته، عملکرد دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیک تحت تاثیر عامل کود نیتروژن و کود زیستی مزورایزوبیوم قرار گرفتند. کود زیستی مزورایزوبیوم تعداد دانه در بوته را نیز تحت تاثیر قرار داد. تیمارهای مصرف 60کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار و تلقیح با کود زیستی مزورایزوبیوم بیشترین مقدار صفات را به خود اختصاص دادند. عملکرد دانه در تاریخ کاشت 15دی ماه 8/16درصد بیشتر از 13بهمن ماه بود. با مصرف 60کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار عملکرد دانه 57/9درصد نسبت به عدم مصرف افزایش یافت. تلقیح با باکتری عملکرد دانه را 48/7درصد افزایش داد. بنابراین استفاده از نیتروژن، تلقیح با باکتری و کاشت زودتر فرصت بهتری برای استفاده از منابع محیطی و نیتروژن برای گیاه فراهم کرد، به طوری که موجب افزایش رشد رویشی و به دنبال آن عملکرد دانه شد.

    کلیدواژگان: ارترا بوته، عملکرد بیولوژیک، کاشت زودتر، مزورایزوبیوم
  • سید حسین صباغ پور*، حجت الله شهبازی، رضا رضا خانلو صفحات 40-51

    مصرف بی رویه کودهای شیمیایی به منظور افزایش تولیدات کشاورزی به ویژه در بخش زراعی، موجب صدمات زیست محیطی و اختلال در حاصلخیزی خاک می شود. به منظور بررسی تاثیر کودهای بیولوژیک و شیمیایی نیتروژنه بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد ژنوتیپ های عدس، تحقیقی در سال زراعی 1394-1393 در ایستگاه اکباتان مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان همدان انجام شد. این آزمایش در قالب فاکتوریل و بر مبنای طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی در چهار تکرار با پنج تیمار کودی (شاهد، سوپرنیتروپلاس، نیتروکسین، ریزوچک و کود شیمیایی نیتروژنه به عنوان استارتر) و سه رقم (بیله سوار و کیمیا، رقم محلی) اجرا شد. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که تیمار کودی تاثیر معنی داری از نظر تعداد روز تا 50درصد گل دهی، تعداد روز تا 50درصد غلاف دهی، تعداد غلاف در بوته، ارتفاع بوته، زیست توده تولیدی و عملکرد دانه داشت. ارقام مورد مطالعه نیز از نظر تعداد روز تا 50درصد گل دهی، تعداد روز تا 50درصد غلاف دهی، ارتفاع بوته، تعداد غلاف در بوته، زیست توده تولیدی، تعداد دانه در غلاف، وزن100دانه و عملکرد دانه اختلاف معنی دار آماری داشتند. اثرات متقابل کود×رقم در صفات مورد بررسی معنی دار نشد. نتایج مقایسه میانگین نشان داد که بیشترین عملکرد دانه مربوط به تیمار مصرف کود ریزوچک و کمترین آن مربوط به تیمار شاهد (عدم مصرف کود) بود. افزون بر این، تیمار ریزوچک به ترتیب موجب افزایش 29، 16 و 49درصدی زیست توده، ارتفاع بوته و عملکرد دانه نسبت به تیمار شاهد شد. در بین ارقام مورد بررسی، رقم بیله سوار عملکرد بالاتری نسبت به عدس رقم محلی تولید کرد.

    کلیدواژگان: ریزوچک، سوپرنیتروپلاس، غلافدهی، کود شیمیایی، نیتروکسین
  • امیرهوشنگ جلالی* صفحات 52-62

    به منظور مقایسه دو شیوه کشت دیم و کشت با یک مرحله آبیاری تکمیلی بر عملکرد و کارآیی مصرف آب سه رقم نخود پژوهشی در سال 94-1393 در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی رزوه (شهرستان چادگان- اصفهان) انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل دو روش کاشت (دیم و کاشت با یک نوبت آبیاری) به عنوان کرت اصلی و سه رقم نخود (آزاد، هاشم و آرمان) به عنوان کرت های فرعی در نظر گرفته شدند. آزمایش به صورت کرت های خردشده با طرح پایه بلوک کامل تصادفی در چهار تکرار انجام شد. نتایج نشان دادند دو روش کاشت از نظر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و کارآیی مصرف آب با هم تفاوت معنی دار داشتند. رقم آزاد در شرایط دیم و آبیاری تکمیلی به ترتیب با 7/605 و 8/899کیلوگرم در هکتار به طور معنی داری (در سطح احتمال 5درصد) عملکرد بالاتری نسبت به دو رقم دیگر تولید نمود. صرف نظر از نوع رقم، شاخص برداشت در شرایط دیم نسبت به شرایط آبیاری تکمیلی افزایش معنی داری نشان داد و رقم آزاد از بیشترین مقدار شاخص برداشت (5/34درصد) برخوردار بود. سه رقم آزاد، هاشم و آرمان به ازای هر میلی متر آبیاری تکمیلی به ترتیب 88/5، 68/4 و 44/5کیلوگرم عملکرد اضافی (نسبت به شرایط دیم) تولید کردند. به طور خلاصه استفاده از رقم آزاد و انجام آبیاری تکمیلی نسبت به دو رقم دیگر نتایج بهتری دربرداشت.

    کلیدواژگان: ارتفاع بوته، تعداد نیام، شاخص برداشت، نخود
  • سیاوش دنیر، سوران شرفی، اسماعیل قلی نژاد* صفحات 63-74

    به منظور بررسی اثر تنش کم آبی و تنظیم کننده های رشد بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد لوبیا رقم سان رایز آزمایشی به صورت کرت های خردشده در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقات هنرستان کشاورزی ارومیه در سال 1394 به اجرا درآمد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل کم آبی در سه سطح (تنش شدید: آبیاری بعد از 120میلی متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر کلاس A، تنش ملایم: آبیاری بعد از 90میلی متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر کلاس A، و شاهد: آبیاری بعد از 60میلی متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر کلاس A) به عنوان فاکتور اصلی و تیمار محرک رشد در پنج سطح (شاهد، پرایمینگ با آب مقطر، پرایمینگ با سالسیلیک اسید، محلول پاشی با سالسیلیک اسید، پرایمینگ و محلول پاشی با سالسیلیک اسید) به عنوان فاکتور فرعی بودند. نتایج تجزیه واریانس بین صفات نشان داد که کم آبی و محرک رشد تاثیر معنی داری بر صفات عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیک، شاخص برداشت، تعداد غلاف در بوته، تعداد دانه در غلاف، وزن100دانه و ارتفاع بوته داشت. مقایسه میانگین تیمارها نشان داد که بیشترین (3362کیلوگرم در هکتار) و کمترین (1864کیلوگرم در هکتار) عملکرد دانه به ترتیب از تیمار آبیاری مطلوب و تنش خشکی شدید به دست آمد. تنش خشکی شدید در مقایسه با آبیاری مطلوب عملکرد بیولوژیک و وزن100دانه را به ترتیب به میزان 25 و 34درصد کاهش داد. محلول پاشی و پرایمینگ با اسید سالسیلیک در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد (بدون پرایمینگ) عملکرد دانه و وزن100دانه را به ترتیب به میزان 50 و 70درصد افزایش داد. تعداد غلاف در بوته نیز در شرایط آبیاری مطلوب در مقایسه با تنش خشکی شدید حدود 25درصد و در شرایط محلول پاشی و پرایمینگ با اسید سالسیلیک در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد (بدون پرایمینگ) حدود 35درصد افزایش یافت. با توجه به نتایج به دست آمده در این تحقیق، آبیاری بر اساس 60میلی متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر کلاس A و محلول پاشی و پرایمینگ با اسید سالسیلیک از طریق افزایش اجزای عملکرد دانه باعث افزایش عملکرد دانه لوبیا گردید.

    کلیدواژگان: لوبیا، محلول پاشی، کم آبی، پرایمینگ، سالسیلیک اسید
  • محمود مظلومی ممیندی، علیرضا پیرزاد*، جلال جلیلیان صفحات 75-90

    زمان پایان بارندگی های بهاره در موفقیت زراعت دیم موثر است. دو راهکار اساسی (آبیاری تکمیلی و روابط قارچ-ریشه) برای بهبود عملکرد گیاهان زراعی با اثر هم افزایی در اعمال توام آن ها وجود دارد. برای بررسی تلقیح میکوریزایی نخود دیم، آزمایشی دوساله به صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال های 1393 و 1394 در مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی آذربایجان غربی اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل زمان پایان بارندگی (20اردیبهشت ماه، سوم خردادماه و 17خردادماه)، تلقیح میکوریزا (شاهد و قارچ گونه Glomus intraradices) و آبیاری (دیم و یک نوبت آبیاری تکمیلی) بودند. تلقیح میکوریزایی تحت شرایط آبیاری تکمیلی باعث افزایش معنی دار عناصر فسفر، کلسیم و خاکستر بقایا، پتاسیم و پروتئین دانه نخود نسبت به کشت دیم شد. ادامه بارندگی تا 17خرداد، عملکرد بقایا (1451کیلوگرم در هکتار) و دانه (602کیلوگرم در هکتار) نخود در گیاهان میکوریزایی را تحت شرایط آبیاری تکمیلی نسبت به پایان زودهنگام بارندگی ها (20اردیبهشت ماه وسوم خردادماه) افزایش بیشتری داد. به طورکلی کیفیت بقایا و  دانه نخود در کشت دیم با یک نوبت آبیاری بهبود یافت. تلقیح میکوریزایی صرفنظر از زمان پایان بارندگی در میزان بهبود کیفیت و عملکرد دانه (در آبیاری تکمیلی تا 20درصد و در کشت دیم تا 24درصد) موثر بود. نتایج نشان داد که دو راهکار آبیاری تکمیلی و تلقیح میکوریزایی روش های قابل اعتمادی برای دستیابی به عملکرد مطلوب درکشت دیم نخود می باشند.

    کلیدواژگان: Glomus intraradices، پایان بارندگی، پروتئین، فسفر، کشت دیم
  • ماریا بیهقی*، حسن مرعشی، عبدالرضا باقری، مجتبی سنکیان، افسانه سادات فرساد صفحات 91-102

    کموکاین CCL21 از جمله کموکاین هایی است که خاصیت آنتی توموری دارد و در ایمونوتراپی بر پایه سیتوکنین ها بر علیه سلول های سرطانی موثر می باشد. با توجه به اهمیت فناوری جدید تولید پروتئین های نوترکیب در گیاهان، تولید پروتئین CCL21 نیز در گیاه نخود که دارای خواص آنتی توموری و ترکیبات معدنی و شیمیایی مناسب است، مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. در مطالعه حاضر از بیان موقت پروتئین CCL21 به روش آگرواینفیلتراسیون، برای تولید این پروتئین نوترکیب در گیاه نخود استفاده شده است. 72ساعت بعد از آگرواینفیلتراسیون، نتایج آزمون های RT-PCR، Real time PCR، دات بلات، وسترن بلات و الایزا نشان داد که سازه ژنی طراحی شده در برگ های نخود با میزان بالایی در سطح رونویسی و ترجمه بیان شده است. بنابراین با استفاده از روش آگرواینفیلتراسیون و انتقال سازه بیانی CCL21، نتایج نشان داد که نخود می تواند گیاه مناسبی جهت تولید پروتئین های نوترکیب باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: آگرواینفیلتراسیون، پروتئین نوترکیب، ژن ccl21، نخود
  • سهیلا افکار*، پیام پزشکپور صفحات 103-113

    نخود (Cicer arietinum) خود گرده افشان می باشد با تعداد کروموزم (16x=2n=2) که به عنوان مهمترین منبع پروتئین گیاهی در جهان شناخته شده است. پانزده ژنوتیپ نخود برای پارامترهای مختلف عملکرد در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در شرایط مزرعه ارزیابی شدند. در این تحقیق صفاتی مانند ارتفاع بوته، تعداد شاخه اولیه، تعداد شاخه ثانویه، تعداد کل غلاف در بوته، تعداد گره در ساقه، تعداد غلاف تک بذر، تعداد غلاف دو بذر، تعداد غلاف پوک، وزن دانه با پوسته غلاف، وزن دانه تک بوته، وزن صد دانه، وزن کل دانه با کاه، تعداد غلاف بارور، تعداد دانه در بوته، تعداد دانه در غلاف، وزن خشک ساقه تک بوته، عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیکی، عملکرد کاه، شاخص برداشت و تلاش زاد آوری ارزیابی شدند. نتایج تجزیه واریانس تغییرات بسیار معنی داری بین ژنوتیپ ها برای صفات وزن دانه در هر بوته، وزن صد دانه و تعداد غلاف در هر بوته نشان دادند. بر اساس نتایج مقایسه میانگین مشخص شد که ژنوتیپ های 8 G،9G،1G و6G به ترتیب دارای بالاترین عملکرد دانه هستند. نتایج همبستگی ساده، رگرسیون گام به گام و تجزیه علیت نشان داد که وزن صد دانه، وزن غلاف (دانه + پوسته) و تعداد غلاف تک بذر بیشترین تاثیر را روی عملکرد بذر دارند. می توان نتیجه گیری کرد که ژنوتیپ های 8 Gو9G از نظر عملکرد دانه و بیولوژیکی بهترین هستند. همچنین وزن غلاف (بذر + پوسته) ، وزن صد دانه و تعداد غلاف تک بذر شاخص های مناسبی برای عملکرد دانه بهتر در نخود می باشند.

    کلیدواژگان: تجزی علیت، تنوع ژنتیکی، صفات مورفولوژیکی، عملکرد دان، نخود
  • سمیه قلندری*، محمد کافی، مرتضی گلدانی، علیرضا باقری صفحات 114-125

    کم آبی امروزه از مهم ترین عوامل محدودکننده عملکرد محصولات زراعی در نواحی خشک و نیمه خشک می باشد و کاهش رشد در اثر تنش خشکی به مراتب بیشتر از سایر تنش های محیطی است. به منظور بررسی اثر تنش خشکی بر ارقام لوبیا آزمایشی گلدانی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی در گلخانه گروه زراعت دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد اجرا شد. فاکتورهای مورد بررسی در این آزمایش، رژیم رطوبتی در سه سطح (تامین 100 درصد، 75 درصد و 50 درصد ظرفیت زراعی به ترتیب نشان دهنده تیمار شاهد، تنش خشکی ملایم و تنش خشکی شدید) و سه رقم لوبیاچیتی شامل تلاش، خمین و صالح بودند. نتایج نشان داد اثر تیمار آبیاری و رقم بر ارتفاع بوته، وزن شاخساره، وزن ریشه، نسبت ریشه به شاخساره، محتوای آب نسبی، نشت الکترولیت ها، هدایت روزنه ای، عملکرد دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیک معنی دار بود. بیشترین وزن شاخساره و ریشه در بین رژیم های آبیاری از تیمار شاهد و از رقم تلاش به دست آمد. با کاهش مقدار آب مصرفی، در مرحله زایشی کلروفیل نیز کاهش یافت، به گونه ای که بیشترین مقدار کلروفیل در تیمار آبیاری کامل مشاهده شد. در بین ارقام نیز بیشترین میزان کلروفیل در رقم صالح مشاهده شد. محتوای آب نسبی در شرایط تنش خشکی متوسط 9/9 درصد و در شرایط تنش خشکی شدید 7/30 درصد  نسبت به شاهد کاهش نشان داد. در بین ارقام نیز بیشترین مقدار آب نسبی در رقم صالح ثبت شد. کاهش میزان آب برگ همبستگی مستقیم با افزایش نشت الکترولیت ها داشت، به نحوی که در شرایط تنش خشکی متوسط نشت الکترولیت های غشاء، 24درصد و در شرایط تنش خشکی شدید 37 درصد بود. کمترین میزان نشت در بین ارقام در رقم صالح مشاهده شد. کاهش مقدار آبیاری باعث شد هدایت روزنه ای در شرایط تنش خشکی متوسط و شدید به ترتیب 3/33 درصد و 3/53 درصد نسبت به شاهدکاهش یابد. رقم صالح در بین ارقام و آبیاری کامل در بین رژیم های آبیاری، بیشترین عملکرد دانه را به خود اختصاص دادند. کاهش آب مصرفی باعث شد عملکرد دانه در شرایط تنش خشکی متوسط و شدید به ترتیب 1/36 درصد و 6/71 درصد نسبت به تیمار بدون تنش خشکی کاهش یابد. رقم صالح از نظر صفاتی از جمله عملکرد دانه، محتوای آب نسبی، کلروفیل و هدایت روزنه ای نسبت به دو رقم دیگر برتری نشان داد. همچنین نشت الکترولیت ها نیز در این رقم کمتر از سایر ارقام بود و به نظر می رسد تحمل بیشتری به تنش خشکی داشته باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: کم آبیاری، محتوای آب نسبی، نشت الکترولیت، هدایت روزنه ای
  • محمدرضا اصغری پور*، حسن شهقلی، عیسی خمری، عادل غدیری صفحات 126-140

    این آزمایش به صورت کرت های خردشده با طرح پایه بلوک های کامل تصادفی با 3 تکرار در ایستگاه ملی تحقیقات لوبیای کشور واقع در خمین با هدف ارزیابی بودجه انرژی شدت های مختلف مصرف نهاده در ارقام مختلف لوبیا اجرا شد. شدت های مختلف مصرف نهاده؛ شامل اکولوژیک، تلفیقی، کم نهاده، متوسط نهاده و پر نهاده به عنوان کرت های اصلی و ارقام مختلف لوبیا (لوبیا سفید رقم درسا، لوبیا قرمز لاین امید بخش Ks-31169، لوبیا چیتی رقم صدری) به عنوان کرت های فرعی آزمایش بودند. برای ارزیابی شاخص های انرژی ابتدا مجموع انرژی خروجی، مجموع انرژی ورودی، انرژی دانه، انرژی کاه اندازه گیری و سپس شاخص های کارآیی انرژی، انرژی خالص، انرژی مخصوص، فشردگی انرژی، شدت انرژی تولیدی، مصرفی و جاری ارزیابی شد. مقدار انرژی ورودی در نظام های زراعی اکولوژیک، تلفیقی، کم نهاده، متوسط نهاده و پرنهاده به ترتیب 14121، 32432، 24260، 37118 و 57390 مگاژول در هکتار و انرژی خروجی در نظام های زراعی اکولوژیک، تلفیقی، کم نهاده، متوسط نهاده و پرنهاده به ترتیب 40135، 51382، 33824، 46417 و 60142 مگاژول در هکتار تخمین زده شد. بیشترین کارایی انرژی و کارایی زیست محیطی انرژی کمکی مربوط به نظام اکولوژیک رقم صدری به ترتیب به میزان 3/3 و 5/3 بود، که در مقایسه با نظام پرنهاده رقم صدری به ترتیب 155 و 169 درصد افزایش کارایی داشته است. نتایج این مطالعه نشان داد باوجود کاهش شدت انرژی تولیدی و شدت انرژی مصرفی نسبت به سایر نظام ها باعث کاهش کل ارزش خدمات کشاورزی اکولوژیک می شود؛ اما حرکت به سمت کشاورزی پایدار خدمات غیر بازاری بیشتری همچون حفظ سلامت نظام تولیدی و تولید غذای سالم را در بر خواهد داشت.

    کلیدواژگان: انرژی تجدیدپذیر، حبوبات، سیستم های تلفیقی، کارآیی زیست محیطی
  • راهله احمدپور، نظام آرمند، سعیدرضا حسین زاده*، گرشاسب ریگی صفحات 141-154

    کودهای آلی نظیر کمپوست می تواند نقش مهمی در رشد و تغذیه گیاهان ایفا کند و به نظر می رسد استفاده از این کود می تواند اثرات منفی ناشی از تنش های محیطی را کاهش دهد. در این راستا، به منظور بررسی اثر کود کمپوست بر خصوصیات فیزیولوژیکی، فتوسنتزی، فعالیت آنزیم های آنتی اکسیدان، محتوای پرولین و پروتئین محلول برگی گیاه عدس (رقم گچساران) در شرایط تنش کم آبی آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با سه تکرار در شرایط محیط گلخانه در سال 1395 به اجرا درآمد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل پنج سطح از کمپوست و خاک (100:0، 95:5، 85:15، 75:25 و 65:35درصد وزنی) و سه سطح تنش کمبود آب بدون تنش (75درصد ظرفیت زراعی)، تنش ملایم (50درصد ظرفیت زراعی) و تنش شدید (25درصد ظرفیت زراعی) بود. نتایج نشان داد که در شرایط بدون تنش استفاده از کمپوست در سطوح 25 و 35درصد وزنی موجب افزایش معنی دار محتوای آب نسبی، پایداری غشاء سلول های برگی، کارآیی فتوسیستمII، فتوسنتز خالص، CO2 زیر روزنه، کارآیی مصرف آب، محتوای پروتئین و پرولین برگی، فعالیت آنزیم های کاتالاز و سوپراکسید دیسموتاز در مقایسه با شاهد شد. در شرایط تنش آبی ملایم و شدید، استفاده از مخلوط کمپوست و خاک با نسبت درصد وزنی (65:35) به ترتیب منجر به افزایش معنی دار محتوای آب نسبی (3/3درصد، 17/6درصد)، پایداری غشاء سلول (4/5درصد)، CO2 زیر روزنه (3/9درصد)، فتوسنتز خالص (3/65درصد، 77/58درصد)، کارآیی مصرف آب (13/12درصد، 47/22درصد)، محتوای پرولین (در شرایط تنش ملایم حدود 3درصد)، محتوای پروتئین کل (8/18درصد، 9/7درصد+)، فعالیت آنزیم های پراکسیداز (9/18درصد، 7/3درصد)، کاتالاز (در شرایط تنش ملایم حدود 7/3درصد) و سوپراکسیددیسموتاز (3/1درصد، 5/12درصد) نسبت به سطوح شاهد شد. بر طبق نتایج این مطالعه، استفاده از کود کمپوست به ویژه در سطح 35درصد وزنی به منظور بهبود شرایط تنش آبی در کشت گلدانی گیاه عدس توصیه می شود.

    کلیدواژگان: کودهای آلی، تنش های محیطی، فتوسنتز خالص، فعالیت آنتی اکسیدان
  • محمد بنایان، فاطمه یعقوبی*، زهرا رشیدی، سیاوش برده جی صفحات 155-170

    به منظور بررسی تاثیر مقادیر مختلف نیتروژن بر عملکرد و اجزای آن و همچنین مطالعه کارآیی جذب، مصرف و بهره وری نیتروژن دو رقم عدس دیم، آزمایشی به صورت کرت های خردشده در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در سال زراعی 95-1394 اجرا گردید. فاکتور اصلی این آزمایش سطوح مختلف کود نیتروژن از منبع اوره (0، 40 و 80کیلوگرم در هکتار) و فاکتور فرعی شامل دو رقم عدس دیم (بیرجند و رباط) بود. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین تعداد دانه در غلاف و وزن100دانه به ترتیب در شرایط عدم کاربرد کود نیتروژن و رقم بیرجند و تیمار 40کیلوگرم کود نیتروژن در هکتار و رقم رباط حاصل شد. تیمار 40کیلوگرم کود نیتروژن در هکتار و رقم بیرجند حداکثر تعداد غلاف در بوته، عملکرد دانه (23/338کیلوگرم در هکتار)، عملکرد بیولوژیک (68/3291کیلوگرم در هکتار)، میزان نیتروژن زیست توده و کارآیی جذب نیتروژن را به خود اختصاص داد. بالاترین بهره وری نیتروژن بر اساس عملکرد دانه (39/3کیلوگرم دانه برکیلوگرم نیتروژن خاک) و زیست توده (48/33کیلوگرم ماده خشک بر کیلوگرم خاک) در شرایط عدم استفاده از کود نیتروژن و رقم بیرجند به دست آمد که اختلاف معنی داری با تیمار 40کیلوگرم کود نیتروژن در هکتار و رقم بیرجند نداشت. با توجه به نتایج حاصله به منظور صرفه جویی در میزان مصرف کود و جلوگیری از تبعات منفی ناشی از زیادی مصرف آن، مصرف 40کیلوگرم کود اوره در هکتار و استفاده از رقم بیرجند با رعایت تاریخ کاشت بهینه (با توجه به دیررس بودن آن) برای کشت عدس به صورت دیم در منطقه مورد مطالعه، مطلوب به نظر می رسد.

    کلیدواژگان: رقم بیرجند، رقم رباط، کارآیی جذب نیتروژن، کارآیی مصر، نیتروژن
  • الهام رفتاری*، علی نخ زری مقدم، مهدی ملاشاهی، حسین حسینی مقدم صفحات 171-181

    به منظور بررسی اثر کاربرد سطوح نیتروژن و نسبت های کشت مخلوط نخودفرنگی و کاهو، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در دانشگاه گنبد کاووس در سال زراعی94-1393 اجرا گردید. عامل های مورد بررسی شامل نیتروژن خالص در سه سطح: صفر، 25 و 50کیلوگرم در هکتار و الگوی کاشت در نه سطح: کشت خالص نخودفرنگی، کشت مخلوط جایگزین 33، 50 و 67درصد کاهو، کشت مخلوط افزایش 33، 50، 67 و 100درصد کاهو و کشت خالص کاهو بود. الگوی کاشت و نیتروژن اثر معنی داری بر ارتفاع، تعداد غلاف در بوته، تعداد دانه در غلاف، تعداد دانه در بوته، وزن100دانه، عملکرد بوته، وزن غلاف در بوته، درصد پروتئین، درصد کربوهیدرات محلول دانه و عملکرد کل داشت. ارتفاع بوته در تیمار های افزایشی بیش از جایگزین و کشت خالص نخودفرنگی بود، اما تعداد غلاف در بوته، تعداد دانه در غلاف، تعداد دانه در بوته، وزن100دانه و وزن غلاف در بوته در تیمارهای جایگزین و خالص بیشتر از افزایشی بود. بین دو تیمار مصرف 25 و 50کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار در مورد اکثر صفات تفاوت معنی داری مشاهده نشد. درصد پروتئین در تیمار کشت خالص نخودفرنگی و تیمار جایگزین 33درصد کاهو به جای نخودفرنگی بیش از سایر تیمارها بود. درصد کربوهیدرات محلول در تیمار مخلوط جایگزین 67درصد کاهو به جای نخودفرنگی و افزایش 67 و 100درصد کاهو به نخودفرنگی بیش از سایر تیمارها بود. به هر حال، عملکرد بوته نخودفرنگی در تیمار جایگزین 67درصد کاهو و 33درصد نخودفرنگی و همچنین 50درصد کاهو و 50درصد نخودفرنگی به ترتیب با 25/30 و 44/27گرم بیش از تیمارهای دیگر بود. در کلیه تیمارها و به خصوص تیمارهای کشت مخلوط افزایشی، افزایش عملکرد نسبت به کشت خالص نخودفرنگی مشاهده شد.

    کلیدواژگان: درصدپروتئین، غلاف، کربوهیدرات محلول، کشت جایگزین
  • علیرضا خداشناس*، داود صادق زاده اهری، محمد دادمند، مهدی عباس زاده صفحات 182-194

    به منظور ارزیابی واکنش ارقام و برخی توده های محلی نخود دیم به تاریخ کاشت و تراکم بذر، آزمایشی به صورت کرت های دوبار خردشده در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال زراعی1395- 1394 در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی طرق در مشهد به اجرا درآمد. تاریخ کاشت با دو سطح کشت در انتهای پاییز (انتظار) و کشت معمول کشاورزان (نیمه دوم اسفندماه) به عنوان کرت اصلی و پنج ژنوتیپ نخود شامل سه رقم جم، سارال و بینالود و دو توده محلی نیشابور و قوچان به عنوان کرت فرعی و دو تراکم بذر 40 و 50بذر در مترمربع به عنوان کرت فرعی-فرعی تیمارهای آزمایش بودند. میزان بارندگی طی سال زراعی انجام آزمایش 276میلی متر بود. نتایج نشان داد که از نظر بسیاری از صفات مورد بررسی از جمله وزن100دانه و عملکرد دانه اختلاف معنی داری بین تاریخ های کاشت و ژنوتیپ های نخود مورد بررسی وجود دارد. میانگین عملکرد دانه در تاریخ کاشت اول 860کیلوگرم در هکتار بود که نسبت به میانگین عملکرد دانه در تاریخ کاشت دوم با 380کیلوگرم در هکتار برتری قابل توجهی داشت. اثر متقابل تیمارهای مورد بررسی نیز بر تعداد دانه در غلاف، ارتفاع بوته، وزن100دانه، شاخص برداشت، عملکرد بیولوژیک و عملکرد دانه معنی دار بود. بر مبنای کمیت دانه تولیدی، ارقام سارال و جم و توده نیشابور به ترتیب با عملکرد دانه 1038، 900 و 908کیلوگرم در هکتار برای کشت در شرایط انتظار و به ترتیب با 837درصد، 144درصد و 146درصد افزایش عملکرد نسبت به تاریخ کاشت دوم، بر سایر ژنوتیپ ها برتری داشتند، اما چنانچه بازارپسندی نیز موردتوجه باشد، به علت ریز بودن دانه ها در توده نیشابور (وزن100دانه 7/17گرم)، ارقام جم و سارال به ترتیب با وزن100دانه 9/25 و 8/26گرم برای این تاریخ کاشت مناسب خواهند بود. بر اساس نتایج این مطالعه واکنش ارقام به تغییر تاریخ کاشت متفاوت بود، بنابراین در انتخاب رقم برای کاشت در هر منطقه، باید عادت رشدی و امکان تامین نیازهای اکولوژیکی آن رقم مدنظر قرار گیرد. تراکم بذر تاثیر قابل توجهی بر صفات مورد ارزیابی نشان نداد.

    کلیدواژگان: ارقام نخود، تاریخ کاشت، کشاورزی دیم
  • عبدالرضا احمدی*، مژگان ویسی، منصور آقایی، سیدکریم موسوی صفحات 195-208

    به منظور بررسی کارآیی چند علف کش در تلفیق با کولتیواتورزنی بین ردیف ها جهت کنترل علف های هرز مزارع نخود، آزمایشی در سال زراعی94-1393 در استان کرمانشاه به صورت استریپ پلات در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی در چهار تکرار به اجرا در آمد. عامل اصلی شامل عملیات کولتیواتور (کولتیواتورزنی و عدم کاربرد کولتیواتور) و عامل فرعی شامل کاربرد علف کش های پندی متالین، لینورون، پیریدیت، ایزوکسافلوتل، متری بیوزین و پاراکوآت به ترتیب به میزان های 82/0، 67/0، 5/1، 48/0، 42/0 و 05/0کیلوگرم ماده موثره در هکتار و شاهد دوبار وجین بودند. نتایج نشان داد که علف کش های پیریدیت و ایزوکسافلوتل به ترتیب با 78 و 75درصد، بیشترین و لینورون و پاراکوات به ترتیب با 29 و 34درصد، کمترین کنترل تراکم کل علف های هرز را داشتند. تیمارهای وجین + کولتیواتور، پیریدیت + کولتیواتور و پیریدیت، به ترتیب با 83/44، 46/44، 58/40درصد افزایش، بیشترین عملکرد دانه نخود را به خود اختصاص دادند. همچنین تیمارهای ایزوکسافلوتل + کولتیواتور و ایزوکسافلوتل به ترتیب 18/37 و 34درصد عملکرد دانه نخود را افزایش دادند. نتایج نشان داد افزودن کولتیواتور به تیمارهای کاربرد علف کش های پیریدیت و ایزوکسافلوتل، تاثیر معنی دار آماری از نظر کاهش علف های هرز و افزایش عملکرد نخود نداشت. مناسب ترین تیمار در جهت افزایش عملکرد دانه نخود، کاربرد علف کش پیریدیت به میزان 5/1کیلوگرم موثره در هکتار بود و کاربرد علف کش ایزوکسافلوتل از نظر عملکرد دانه، تعداد غلاف و وزن خشک بوته نخود اختلاف معنی دار آماری با علف کش پیریدیت داشت.

    کلیدواژگان: علف کش، عملکرد دانه، غلاف، کنترل تلفیقی، کنترل مکانیکی
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  • Kakaei M* Pages 12-27
    Introduction

    Abiotic stress limits crop productivity, and plays a major role in determining the distribution of plant species across different types of environments. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important legume crop in Iran. Genetic diversity information is crucial for the choice of proper parents to establish new breeding programs. A number of molecular techniques have been developed to unveil the genetic potentials of plant materials. One of the most important methods for studying genetic diversity is using of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of seed protein.SDS-PAGE seems to be a reliable molecular marker to investigate the genetic diversity of chickpea genotypes in IRAN. SDS-PAGE is practically a reliable method because seed storage proteins are largely independent of environmental fluctuation. The main objectives of present research was: (1) to investigate the power of SDS-PAGE markers for estimation of genetic diversity among some chickpea genotypes in west of Iran, (2) to investigate the genetic relationships between chickpea genotypes and (3) to determine and studying main drought indexes in chickpea genotypes could be selected main cultivars in drought and non-drought condition. This information will be useful to improve techniques for sampling chickpea genetic variation which might increase efficiency of conservation of germplasm.
     

    Materials & Methods

    Field experiment was carried out with four chickpea cultivars, based on randomized complete blocks design (RCBD) with three replications at the research farm of the Payame Noor University center of Asadabad in two different conditions (Drought conditions and supplementary irrigation) during 2010 cropping season. The cultivars were taken from Dryland Agricultural Research Institute, Sararood. In this study, seed protein profile of four chickpea cultivars include Arman, Hashem, Azad and ILC-482, were analyzed by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE using 12/5% polyacrylamide). Protein extraction and gel electrophoresis was done By Laemmle (1970) Method. The seeds were powdered separately by liquid nitrogen. Cultivars seed protein were extracted by extraction buffer. At end of electrophoresis, protein bands were revealed by Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 staining. Biplot, 3D Plot, coefficient jaccard, cluster analysis and other analyses were done using the statistical software MSTAT-C, NTSYS and SPSS. The data for each cultivar was collected on a plot basis.
     

    Results & Discussion

    SDS-PAGE analysis showed significant differences between four cultivars chickpea at 17 and 25 kilo Dalton (kDa) bands. There are strong and weak proteins bands differences between cultivars. On the basis of SDS-PAGE results, 28.75 protein bands were observed with the Molecular Weight (MW) of 14 to 100 kDa. The presence of protein bands about 17 (kDa) in protein pattern of ILC-482, Hashem and Azad Cultivars and the absence of protein bands with approximate molecular weight 14 (kDa) in protein pattern of Arman cultivar can be used as protein markers for these chickpea cultivars. The specific proteins bands of seed may be used as markers for identification of the genotypes. Correlation between agronomic and molecular traits was assessed using Mantel test and significant positive correlation was observed between them. The results of drought stress indices and Biplot analysis suggested Arman genotype was the most tolerant. Biplot analysis also showed HAM and YI selection indices were the best to identify drought tolerant genotypes.
     

    Conclusion

    In most cases, an intermediate level of polymorphism have been reported with SDS-PAGE markers, and this study showed a considerable amount of polymorphism. We recommend further studies to be conducted by using number of chickpea genotypes as well as bigger and DNA molecular markers. Results of this study can be used in germplasm management practices, developing plant geneticist and breeders for planning future explorations, and crop improvement purposes.

    Keywords: Biplot, Jaccard coefficient, Mantel test, Protein Marker, Supplementary irrigation
  • Doaei* F, Nakhzari Moghaddam A, Rahemi Karizakim, A & Aldaghi M Pages 28-39
    Introduction

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is commonly the most important food seed legume in South Asia. Nitrogen is generally a major limiting nutrient for the growth of many plants in many environments. Some plants are able to provide all or part of its nitrogen demand through biological nitrogen fixation as a result of interaction with symbiotic bacteria. Mesorhizobium have a symbiotic association with chickpea. Planting date is one of the important factors which determine the ability of the crop to stand against different environmental conditions (air, temperature and humidity) in the field, when environmental conditions are conductive for growth and development. Results obtained from other studies clearly have indicated that N application and Rhizobium inoculation had significant effects on yield and yield components. The greatest values of plant height, number of primary and secondary branches, number of pods per plant, number of grains per plant, seed yield and biological yield were obtained from the highest level of N fertilizer (100 kg. ha-1 urea) and Rhizobium Inoculation. López-Bellido et al, (2008) reported that early planting date improved chickpea yield.
     

    Materials & Methods

    A field experiment was conducted on experimental farm of the Gonbad Kavous University during the growing season of 2015-2016. The experimental layout was factorial based on RCBD with three replications and three factors. Nitrogen was in four levels (no application, application of 20, 40 and 60 kg nitrogen ha-1). Planting dates was in two levels (4th of January and 1st of February) and Mesorhizobium biological fertilizer was in two levels (inoculation with Mesorhizobium and no inoculation). Half of nitrogen was used at planting and the other half was used during grain filling stage. Seeds in inoculation treatments were inoculated with Mesorhizobium, strain SWRI14, which were obtained from the Soil and Fertilizer Research Institute, Tehran. The OD’s were adjusted so that the cell concentration was 109 CFU ml-1. Plots (1.5 m × 6 m) were designed as 5 rows per plot. To determine the yield components, 10 plants were selected and traits like plant height, branch numbers, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant, 100-seed weight, biological yield and harvest index were recorded or calculated. Seed yield was obtained by removing of two border lines and 0.5 m of each sides of three middle rows. Comparison of means was performed by LSD test for 5% probability level by using SAS statistical software version 9.1.3.

     
    Results & Discussion

    The results showed that planting date had significant effect on traits of number of stems per plant at the level of 5%, however for plant height, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant, seed yield and biological yield were significant at the level of 1%. These traits were higher planting date of 4 Jan. Number of pods per plant, seed yield and biological yield were significantly affected by nitrogen at 5% level. The greatest values of this trait were obtained from application of 60 kg.ha-1 of nitrogen fertilizer but did not have significant differences with 40 kg.ha-1 of nitrogen fertilizer. Mesorhizobium influenced the number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant and seed yield at level of 1% and biological yield at the level of 5%. Mesorhizobium inoculation increased all traits. The interaction effects of factors were not significant for any of the traits. It seems that based on the correlation between these traits with seed yield, yield components had a positive and decisive role on seed yield
     

    Conclusion

    The results showed that application of nitrogen fertilizer and Mesorhizobium biofertilizer due to the supply of part of required nitrogen of plant, and also early planting date due to more growth period, provided better opportunities for capturing the environmental resources and nitrogen. As a result, first planting date, use of nitrogen and Mesorhizobium inoculation increased plant growth and seed yield in this study.

    Keywords: Biological yield, Early planting date, Mesorhizobium, Plant height
  • Sabaghpour*, S.H Shahbazi, H. & Rezakhanlou R Pages 40-51
    Introduction

    Excessive application of chemical fertilizers for increasing agricultural production, particularly in the agricultural sector, causing environmental damage and disturbance in soil fertility. Lentil is one of the most important pulse crop in rainfed area which is grown on 132,000 hectares in 2014-15 cropping season in Iran. Major lentil areas (95%) are planted in rain fed condition and are grown in rotation with cereals mainly wheat and barley. Mean productivity of lentil 558 kg ha-1 in 2014-15 cropping season in Iran. One of the reason for low lentil productivity in Iran, is unfavorable fertilization in lentil farms. Currently biologic fertilizers as an alternative option for chemical fertilizer to enhance to soil fertility in the stable agricultural production are considered. Rhizosphere beneficial bacteria are commonly called plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and have been under researchers focus for many years. PGPRs can stimulate plant growth through different mechanisms. Solubilization of inorganic phosphate is a characteristic has been frequently used for screening these bacteria. The objective of present study was to investigate the effect of biological and chemical nitrogen fertilizers on yield and yield components of lentil (Lens culinaris L.) cultivars.
     

    Material & Methods

    An experiment was carried out in factorial based on randomized complete block design with four replications and five levels of fertilizer treatments (without consumption the fertilizer, Super Nitro Plus, Nitroxin, Rhizocheck and 20 kg nutrition fertilizer per hectare) and three lentil varieties (Kimia, Bilesevar and local check) in Ekbatan Research Station of Hamedan during 2014-2015. During vegetative and reproductive phases, weeds were controlled and data were recorded on days to flowering, days to podding days to maturity, plant height, number of primary branches per plant, number of secondary branches per plant, biomass, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, 100-seed weight, and seed yield. Data were analyzed using the SAS. Ver. 9.1 and figures drew were prepared by EXCEL and means compared by using DMRT at the 5% and 1% level.
     

    Results & Discussion

    The results of present research showed that fertilizer treatment was significant effects on days to flowering, days to poding, plant height, pod number per plant, biomass and seed yield. But fertilizer treatment had not significant effects days to maturity, number of primary branches per plant, number of secondary branches per plant and number of seeds per pod. Also the results showed that the cultivars had significant difference on days to flowering, days to poding, plant height, biomass, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, 100-seed weight, and seed yield. Varieties had not significance different on days to maturity, number of primary branches per plant, number of secondary branches per plant. Interaction of fertilizer × variety on all characters was not significant. Mean comparison showed that the highest and lowest yield belong to Rhizocheck and check respectively. The utilization of Rhizocheck had been in caused 29, 16, 28 and 49 percent higher biomass, plant height, number of pods per plant and seed yield than check respectively. Also the results indicated that Bilesevar variety produced the significant and higher grain yield (832 kg/ha) than check. Bilesevar variety had the highest biomass, plant height, number of seeds per pod, and grain yield. Most of studies have reported that using biological fertilizers have been affected grain yield of chickpea, wheat, seasame and bean. According to this study results, it is recommended to inoculate Rhizocheck on Bilesevar variety for planting under rainfed condition of Hamedan region.
     

    Conclusions

    One of the most important factor for soil fertility is microorganism ability for production. The result of present study showed the highest productivity obtained from Rhizochick application and Bilesevar improved lentil variety produced the highest grain yield. Rhizochick may enhance photosynthesis and enhancing availability of nutritional elements. Therefore grain yield have been increased. Generally, PGPR promote plant growth directly by either facilitating resource acquisition (nitrogen, phosphorus, essential element) or modulating plant hormone level. The reduction chemical application will affect decreasing environment contamination which is one of the important factor for stability. Therefore it is recommended to plant Bilesevar improved lentil variety with Rhizochick inoculation in Hamedan region.

    Keywords: Lentil (Lens culinaris L.), Nitroxin, Rhizocheck, Super Nitro Plus
  • Jalali A.H* Pages 52-62
    Introduction

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is one of the oldest pulses crops in the world and one of the seven Neolithic founder crops in the Fertile Crescent of the Near East. Chickpea cultivars are grown mainly in the Mediterranean area, the Near East, Central Asia and America. In Iran, chickpea seeds are usually consumed in the form of mature, dry seed after cooking and processing in different ways. A total pulse crop cultivation area in Iran is nearly 770000 hectares and 61% of this amount is earmarked for chickpea. The chickpea is a good source of carbohydrates and protein, and 83.9% of the total constituent carbohydrates makeup from starch. Supplemental irrigation can be practiced to achieve the best yield with the least quantity of water available during reproductive periods. The effects of supplemental irrigation in chickpea showed that supplemental irrigation would improve chickpea growth and increase yield especially under dryland conditions (<500 mm).

    Materials & Methods

    This field experiment was conducted at the Rozve Experiment Station, at Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center (32°50´ N, 50°34´ E), Esfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran, 17 Km north of Eastern of Chadegan  in one cropping season (2014) on a sandy loam soil (EC=3.78 dS m-1, pH=7.7 and OM=0.55%). In rotation before the chickpea, wheat was cultivated. The experiment was conducted as a split plot arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Two methods of planting included of rainfed and one supplemental irrigation were considered as the main plot and three new varieties of peas (Hashem, Azad, and Arman) and local control varieties were subplots. Before planting the seeds of all varieties (prepared by the Department of Dryland Research Sara Rud) were sterilized with fungicides benomyl 2 per 1000. The weed control was done manually in the spring. Based on soil test results, there was no need for phosphate and potassium fertilizers. Water productivity (based on irrigation (WPI) + rainfall (R) were computed as: WPI (kgm−3) = Grain yield (kg ha−1)/Irrigation water applied +Rainfall (m3). The data were subjected to analysis of variance by SAS and means Fisher’s Protected LSD (5%) was used for mean comparison.

     
    Results & Discussion

    Based on this study, two methods of planting in terms of yield, yield components, and water use efficiency were significantly different. Plant height ranges changed from 28.2 cm in Azad (rainfed) to 40.6 cm in Arman (supplementary irrigation). Although plant height in all three experimental varieties in cultivation methods with supplementary irrigation was higher than rainfed conditions, but in both methods of cultivation, plant height in Arman cultivar significantly increased compared to the other two varieties. However, the effect of water stress on plant height depends on the stage of water stress. Plants grown with supplemental irrigation has more height than plants grown under dryland conditions. Azad varieties in rainfed and supplemental irrigation with 605.7 and 899.8 kg ha-1 respectively, had significantly higher yield than other cultivars (P≤5%). Inadequate supply of assimilates required for the development of seeds and embryos, is the reason for the decline in grain yield under dryland conditions. Number of pods per plant, is one of the most important yield components of chickpea. In this study, the number of pods under rainfed conditions was reduced 19, 15.5 and 17.6 percent in Azad cultivars, Hashem and Arman, respectively in comparison with supplemental irrigation. Regardless of the variety, harvest index under rain fed conditions showed a significant increase compared with supplemental irrigation and Azad cultivar with harvest index equal to 34.5, had the highest harvest index. Three varieties of Azad, Hashem, and Arman, for every millimeter of supplemental irrigation produced 5.88, 4.86 and 5.44 Kg extra yield (relative to rainfed conditions), respectively.

    Conclusion

    Based on the results of this study, chickpea cultivation especially with use of supplemental irrigation can improve grain yield than dryland conditions. Among the cultivars used in this experiment Azad cultivar both in rainfed and supplemental irrigation can be recommended.

    Keywords: Chickpea, Harvest index, Number of pods, Plant height
  • Danir S., Sharafi S, & Gholinezhad E* Pages 63-74
    Introduction

    Legumes have great nutritional value and are an important source of vegetable protein. Population growth in recent decades has led to increased consumption of protein, especially red meat. The increase in cereal production as supplemental protein sources is considered the country's economic development program. Legumes grain have 18 to 32 percent protein and plays an important role in people's diet. Drought stress is among the main limiting factors for legumes production, and is able to reduce significantly the production of grains, in rainfed areas. Stress inhibits the full expression of the genetic potential of crops and thereby reducing the production. Salicylic acid (SA), a plant phenolic compound is known as a plant hormone and its role in relation to defense mechanisms against biotic and abiotic stresses, is well known. Priming seed is a technique which the seeds before dealing with the ecological condition, will gain ability for better germination in terms of physiological and biochemical functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of spraying and priming of beans with salicylic acid on common bean yield and its components. It was also tried to determine whether priming or spraying with salicylic acid or both of them can induce tolerance drought stress to or not.
     

    Materials & Methods

    This experiment was performed at Research Station of Agricultural School, Urmia, Iran, during 2015-2016 growing season. The experiment was conducted as split-plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments consisted of three levels of drought stress including severe drought stress (irrigation after 120 mm evaporation by class A pan), moderate drought stress (irrigation after 90 mm evaporation by class A pan), and control (irrigation after 60 mm evaporation by class A pan) as the main factor and treatments in five levels (control, priming with distilled water, priming with salicylic acid, spraying with salicylic acid, spraying and priming with salicylic acid) as subplots. Each experiment consisted of three replication with 5 plots. The first treatment control: conventional planting seeds. Second treatment was primed seeds of beans with distilled water. The seeds were primed for 12 hours in distilled water at room temperature. The third treatment: was seed priming with salicylic acid, so that the seeds for 12 hours in a solution of 0.5 micromoles salicylic acid was used at room temperature. The fourth plot: spraying the plants with a solution of 1 micromoles of salicylic acid on the field when the plants produced about 50 percent pod. Fifth treatment (v) was a combined treatment, priming the seeds before planting (seed for 12 hours in a solution of 0.5 micromoles of salicylic acid at 250C temperature) and spraying the plants of the plot with a solution of 1 micromoles of salicylic acid on the field at 50 percent poding. After physiological maturity of beans, the crop was harvested and biomass, grain yield, 100 grain weight, the number of pods per plant, the number of grains per pods and plant height were measured. The data were analyzed with Tukey’s test at 95 percent probability (P≤0.05) using SAS and MSTATC statistical software.
     

    Results & Discussion

    Analysis of variance showed that grain yield, biological yield, index harvest, the number of pods per plant, the number of grains per pod, pod and seed weight, 100 grain weight and plant height were significantly affected by drought stress and growth regulators. Mean comparison showed that the maximum and minimum of traits were obtained under control (without stress) and severe drought stress, respectively. The highest and lowest values of studied traits were obtained by spraying and priming with salicylic acid and control (without priming). The highest (3362 kg ha-1) and lowest (1864 kg ha-1) grain yield were obtained under control (without stress) and severe drought stress, respectively. Drought stress in comparison with optimum irrigation (control) reduced grain yield by 45 percent. Treatment spraying and priming with salicylic acid in comparison with control (without priming) increased grain yield about 50 percent.
     

    Conclusion

    According to this research, under Urmia climate conditions, for producing high grain yield of common bean, using spraying and priming with salicylic acid can be recommended.

  • Mazlomi Mamyandi, M.Pirzad*, A. & JalilianJ Pages 75-90
    Introduction

    As water supplies decline and/or the cost of water increases, it is clear that producers are being driven toward deficit irrigation management, and some level of plant water stress is inevitable. The challenge is to define management systems that minimize the negative impact of the expected stress. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., Fabaceae family), a resistant pulse plant to drought and heat, producesan acceptable yield in poor soils. Chickpea is also used as a low-cost product in semi-arid tropical regions of cropping systems. Since the chickpea production in most regions is limited caused by lack of moistureparticularly during the generative growth stage, irrigation can be effective for improving the performance and its stability. Supplemental irrigation has a key role to reduce tensions in the critical stages of plant growth, and also compensate the serious yield lost. The occurrence of drought stress in some stages of plant growth could be irreparable damages. The recognition of the critical stages of plant growth and water stress when they need to meet in order to obtain maximum yield. West Azerbaijan has a large portion of the area under cultivation and production of chickpea (66500 ha), especially in rainfed condition. Plant rhizosphere is known to be preferred ecological niche for soil microorganisms due to rich nutrient availability. Rhizosphere microorganisms (particularly fungi) can improve plant performance under stress environments and, consequently, enhance yield. There is considerable evidence to suggest that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi have the potential to increase the tolerance of their host plants to water-deficit stress. The mycorrhizal fungi improve profitability nutritional status of host plant due to water and nutrient (especially P) uptake in irrigated and rainfed conditions.

    Materials & Methods

    A two-year (2014-2015) factorial experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications at West Azarbaijan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center. Treatments were rain interrupted (10 May, 24May and 7 June), mycorrhizal symbiosis (non-mycorrhizal plants and inoculation with Glomus intraradices) and irrigation (rainfed and one supplemental irrigation). Plant residues (ash, protein, calcium, potassium and phosphorus) and grain (protein, potassium and phosphorus) quality were respectively determined at podding and seed maturity (Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 2005; AACC, 2000). Chickpea plant residuesand grain yields were measured by harvesting of 1 m2 of each plot. Data were analyzed using SAS9.1 and means were compared by Duncan's new multiple range test (MRT) at 5% level of probability.

     
    Results & Discussion

    The combined analysis of 2-year data showed a significant effects of year, rain interruption, mycorrhiza and supplemental irrigation on the forage (plant residues) yield and quality (ash, calcium, phosphorus and protein), and also significant effect on the grain yield and quality (potassium, phosphorus and protein). Significant interaction effects of year, rain interruption, mycorrhiza and supplemental irrigation on quality of plant residuesand grain exhibited varied response of chickpea to these above studied treatments. Means comparison indicated that in the studied area one irrigation improved the yield of chickpea grain and plant residues. In the current study, it was found that the inoculation of chickpea with G. intraradices regardless of irrigation regimes enhanced theplant residues (phosphorus, calcium, ash and protein) and grain (phosphorus and protein) quality. Delay in rain (from 10 May to 7 June) increased the performance of chickpea, so the highest grain and forage (plant residues) yield were obtained from irrigated mycorrizal plants in continuing rainfall until the 7 June. Chickpea grain yield was more under supplemental irrigation than dryland farming. The early rain interruption showed a bigger yield loss because of longer stress, but the supplemental irrigation compensated a part of this negative effect. The yield compensation in mycorrhizal chickpea plants was better than non-mycorrhizal one. Rainfall continued up to 7 June, increased the plant residues (1451 kg/ha) and grain (602 kg/ha) in irrigated mycorrhizal plants more than earlier rain interruption (10 and 24 May).

    Conclusion

    Generally, quality of rainfed chickpea plant residues and grain were improved by supplemental irrigation. Mycorrhizal symbiosis, regardless to rainfall interruption, enhanced the quality of chickpea plant residues and grain yield (up to 20 % for supplementary irrigation and 24% for rainfed). Results showed that the supplemental irrigation and mycorrhizal symbiosis are reliable techniques to achieve optimal performance of rainfed chickpea.

    Keywords: Glomus intraradices, Phosphorus, Protein, Rainfed, Rain Interruption
  • Beihaghi M, Bagheri* A, Marashi H, Sankian M, A F & Farsad . Pages 91-102
    Introduction

     Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21 (CCL21) has anti-tumor efficacy and used for immunotherapy based on cytokinins against cancer cells. Immune potentiating of CCL21 chemokine via DC and stromal cell-based approaches for effective recruitment and activation of APC and T cells for promotion of antitumor activity in lung cancer was evaluated. Plants are now gaining widespread acceptance as a general platform and as bioreactors for the large scale production of recombinant proteins. However, the technique suffers from major drawbacks such as low expression level and long time required for the production of the recombinant protein in plant tissues. The goal of the present study was to investigate the possibility of expressing the CCL21 protein in Cicer arietinum via agroinfiltration. In agroinfiltration, the suspension of Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring the gene(s) of interest is infiltrated into plant leaves using a needle-free syringe. This technique has been carried out in a variety of plants with different experimental purposes and it was simple, cost effective and rapid procedure. Chickpea contain several minerals and phytochemicals components for human health, for example it has selenium, that plays essential roles in liver enzyme function, and helps detoxify some cancer-causing compounds in the body, Also selenium prevents inflammation and also decreases tumor growth rates. So cheakpea known as a valuable plant for the production of recombinant proteins chickpeas also contains folate, which plays a role in DNA synthesis and repair, thus preventing the formation of cancer cells from mutations in the DNA. Also it has saponins, which are phytochemicals that prevent cancer cells from multiplying and spreading throughout the body. High-fiber intakes from fruits and vegetables like chickpeas are associated with a lowered risk of colorectal cancer. Therefore, in this study, ccl21 gene of human was synthesized and transiently expressed in Cicer arietinum.

    Materials & Methods

    To examine the possibility of expressing the CCL21 protein in Cicer arietinum, a cDNA fragment encoding the ccl21 gene was synthesized de novo, modified with a Kozak sequence, a C-terminal hexahistidine (6His) tag, and an endoplasmic retention signal (SEKDEL). The construct was subcloned into vector pBI121 and Agrobacterium colonies were verificated by PCR test. The resulting ccl21 plasmid was agro-infiltrated into Cicer arietinum. The relative gene expression of recombinant plant-produced ccl21 was measured by semi quantitatve RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR. Guided by the gene expression profile, CCL21 protein was extracted after 72 hours. A recombinant CCL21 protein was immunogenically detected by conjugated polyhistidine antibody in western blot, dot blot and ELISA assay.

    Results & Discussion

    The results of PCR assay confirmed presence of the synthetic construct in Agrobacterium clones. Also PCR test showed that, this construct was integrated in infiltrated leaves but the gene of interest is not integrated in the nuclear genome of plant cell. So, the transgene in plant tissue is higher than pure plasmid as control. RT- PCR and Real time PCR assay was also conducted to evaluate the expression of gene. Dot blot assay showed that, the protein sample obtained from transformed leaves generated a strong signal which is comparable to that of positive control, whereas wild type plant protein was not detectable. Also enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot showed that gene construt of ccl21 was expressed highly in transcription and translation level. Migration size of protein was detected at 15.5 KD by Western blotting. ELISA results showed that the CCL21 was expressed in the transfected leaves in high level.


    Conclusion

     This paper is the first research about the transient expression of the chickpea-made CCL21 protein where a synthetic sequence was used for its expression. Here, the efficacy of agroinfiltration for expression of ccl21 gene in chickpea was illustrated. Agroinfiltration expedites the process of recombinant protein expression in plant tissues. Therefore, using agro-infiltration system in chickpea plant was the appropriate strategy for ccl21 gene production in the assayed plants. Therefore, this method makes it possible to evaluate efficacy of a potential recombinant vaccine in a short time.

  • Afkar * S, & Pezeshkpour P Pages 103-113
    Introduction

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is a winter crop and mostly self-pollinated with chromosome number 2n=2x=16 that it is known as an important source of vegetable protein in the world. It is found that 70% of the total world’s Chickpea production belong to the Asian region. India, Turkey, Pakistan, and Iran are the major countries in Asia that produce chickpea. Iran is important center of chickpea diversity but the productivity of chickpea in Iran is variable and low, which may be related to limiting climatic factors, water availability, genotype and little breeding work in Iranian chickpea cultivars. Presence of genetic diversity among genotypes indicate the genotypes are a valuable resource to increase product quality and productivity. Analysis of genetic diversity can provide practical information for selection of parental material in plant breeding programs and gene-bank management. The objectives of this study were to evaluate genetic variation among chickpea genotypes and to determine the relationships among agronomic traits with seed yield using analysis of variance, comparison of means, correlation coefficient, step-wise regression and path analysis.

    Materials and Methods

    The experiment was conducted in the city of Khorramabad 2014-2015, in latitude 33 degrees 36 minutes north and longitude 47 degrees and 40 minutes east of the Greenwich meridian is located. Its height from sea level is 1200 meters. Fifteen chickpea genotypes were supplied from Dry land Agricultural Research Institute, Iran and studied for various yield parameters under field conditions in a randomized complete block design with three replications. in present study 21 morphological characteristics such as plant height, number of primary branches, number of secondary branches, number of total pod per plant, number of node per stem, number of one-seed pod, number of two-seed pod, number of empty pod per plant, pod weight (seed+shell), seed weight per plant, 100- seed weight, number of filled pod, seed yield, number of seed per pod, number of seed per plant, biological yield, straw yield, harvest index, total seed weight (seed+straw), dry weight of stem and productivity effort were evaluated.

    Results

    The analysis of variance showed highly significant variations

    Keywords: Cicer arietinum, Genetic variation, Morphological characterization, Path analysis, Seed yield
  • Ghalandari S, Kafi* M, Goldanii M, & Bagheri A. Pages 114-125
    Introduction

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important food legume and is an important source of calories, protein, dietary fiber, and minerals for human nutrition. In addition, it provides an essential source of protein for more than 300 million people worldwide including Iran. Drought is one of the most important abiotic stress factors that limits plant growth and results in significant seed yield reductions in around 60% of global bean production areas. Acclimation to water deficit in crops is the result of a series of integrated events. Upon exposure to drought stress, plants exhibit a wide range of responses at the whole-plant, cellular and molecular levels. At the whole-plant level, the effect of drought stress is usually perceived as a decrease in photosynthesis and growth, which is associated with alterations in carbon and nitrogen metabolisms. The reduction in the photosynthetic activity is due to several coordinated events, such as stomatal closure, chlorophylls cleavage and the reduced activity of photosynthetic enzymes. Stomatal closure is probably the most important factor controlling carbon metabolism, but the relative role of other limitations on photosynthesis depends on the severity of water deficit. The aim of this experiment was to determine the effect of different moisture stress levels on morph-physiological attributes of three common bean genotypes.

    Materials & Methods

    In order to evaluate the effect of moisture stress on some morphological and physiological traits of common bean genotypes, a greenhouse experiment was conducted as factorial design. The experimental factors included irrigation (100% FC; as control, 75% FC; as moderate drought stress and 50% FC; as severe drought stress) and three common bean cultivars (Saleh, Talash and Khomein). The experiment was performed at FUM (Ferdowsi University of Mashhad) glass house in 2015 with three replications. Pots (diameter 20 cm, height 30 cm) were filled with ten Kg of loamy soil and five seeds were planted in each of them. After emergence and establishment of seedlings, two plants were remained in each pot. Irrigation treatments were started at 4th leaf stage and continued up to the end of experiment. Plant height, stem diameter, shoot and root weight, root/shoot ratio, greenness, leaf relative water content, electrolyte leakage, stomatal conductance, biological and seed weight were measured. Data were analyzed using SAS software and least significant difference test (LSD) was used for mean comparisons at 0.05 level in MSTATC software.

    Results & Discussion

    The effect of Irrigation and genotype on plant height, shoot and root weight, chlorophyll at reproductive stage, relative water content, electrolyte leakage and stomatal conductance were significant. Also the interaction effect of irrigation×genotype on root/shoot ratio was significant. Drought stress decreased plant height by 8% and 21.4% in moderate and severe drought stress respectively. Shoot weight decreased by 30.1% (moderate drought stress) and 70.1% (severe drought stress) and root weight decreased by 48.9% (moderate drought stress) and 73.8% (severe drought stress) compared to control. The root/shoot ratio decreased under moderate drought stress in all genotypes but under severe drought stress, root/shoot ratio were increased in Talash and Khomein genotypes. Drought stress decreased chlorophyll content, so that under moderate and severe drought stress chlorophyll content decreased by 12.4% and 31.3%, respectively compare to control. Among genotypes, Saleh accumulated higher leaf chlorophyll content. The relative water content and stomatal conductance declined under drought stress treatments but electrolyte leakage was increased under drought stress treatments. Relative water content decreased by 9.9% and 30.7% under moderate and severe drought stress conditions, respectively compared to control. Under moderate and severe drought stress conditions stomatal conductance reduced by 33.3% and 53.3% respectively compared to control. Electrolyte leakage increased by 24.7% under moderate drought stress condition and 37% under severe drought stress condition compared to control. Also higher relative water content, stomatal conductance, and lower electrolyte leakage was observed in Saleh genotype. The highest seed yield among cultivars was found in Saleh and the highest seed weight was observed in complete irrigation regime.

    Conclusion

    Based on our results, Saleh genotype produced more seed, biomass, relative water content, chlorophyll, stomatal conductance and lower electron leakage, therefore, it seems that this genotype is more tolerant to moisture stress. However, generally, bean plant seems susceptible to drought, and it might not be feasible to impose high levels of drought stress on this crop.

    Keywords: Deficit irrigation, Electrolyte leakage, Relative water content, Stomatal conductance
  • Shahgholi H, Asgharipour* M.R, Khamari I, & Ghadiri A Pages 126-140
    Introduction

    Today, in all farming systems, the basic objective is to reduce dependence on auxiliary energy. Potential production of different agricultural ecosystems based on scientific research assists to improve the production efficiency. Since energy consumption is one of the most important necessities in different production systems (ecologic, low-input, medium-input, high-input and integrated), introduction of an efficient system of agriculture will contribution to the economic cycle of agriculture. So far, a few studies have been conducted to evaluate energy consumption of different production systems of beans in Iran, therefore this study examine energy budget of different input intensity for bean varieties. There have been many attempts to define agricultural sustainability in recent decades; In fact, the concept of sustainable agriculture has been common since the late twentieth century. But in the first decades of this century it was used as synonymous with terms such as organic agriculture, ecological, precision agriculture, biodynamic, organic and low input agriculture (De-Koeijer et al., 2002). The main objectives of sustainable agriculture are optimal production of food with increased quality and quantity of it, conserving water and soil conservation and increased economic benefits for farmers, agricultural activity accordance with ecological processes and environmental protection, the use of appropriate technologies, non-deployment of harmful inputs to the environment, human health and animal (Qiu et al., 2007).

    Materials and Methods

    The experimental design was a split plot with five intensities of inputs: ecologic, low-input, medium-input, high-input and integrated comprising the main treatments, and different bean varieties (navy bean cv. Dorsa, kidney bean cv. Ks-31169 and pinto bean cv. Sadri) as sub-treatments that were applied with three replications. The experiment was conducted in 2016 in National Bean Research Station at Khomeyn, Iran. Based on the energy equivalents of the inputs and outputs, energy use efficiency, energy productivity, specific energy, energy intensiveness, net energy and energy intensity of production were calculated.

    Results and Discussion

    The total energy input for ecologic, low-input, medium-input, high-input and integrated system was 14121, 32432, 24260, 37118 and 57390 MJ ha-1, respectively. The total energy output for ecologic, low-input, medium-input, high-input and integrated systems was estimated as 40135, 51382, 33824, 46417 and 60142 MJ ha-1, respectively. Averaged over five evaluated systems and three varieties of bean, the greatest and the least direct energy used in ecologic system of Sadri and integrated system of Ks-31169 (58% vs. 36%), indirect energy used in integrated system of Ks-31169 and ecological system of Sadri (64% vs. 42%), renewable energy used in ecological system of Ks-31169 and high-input system of Sadri (37 vs. 6) and non-renewable energy used in high-input system of Sadri and ecological system of Ks-31169 (94 vs. 63). The greatest energy efficiency and environmental efficiency of support energy was observed in ecologic system of Sadri (3.3 and 3.5, respectively), indicating 155 and 169 percent greater efficiency compared with the high-input system of Sadri. Zare-Faizabad and Kocheki (2000) compared conventional and ecological systems of wheat and concluded that yield of low-input and organic system is lower than other systems, but efficiency of energy is higher in this system. In a study to evaluate the energy efficiency of organic and conventional systems in corn and wheat reported that energy use efficiency of organic system was 29-70 percent greater than conventional system (Pimental et al., 1983). Ozkan et al. (2004) on their study on different agronomic systems reported that, in integrated management systems urea fertilizer and machinery are the most important inputs and efficient use of them are essential to improve energy use efficiency of these systems. Nassi et al. (2011) stated that low-input systems had less energy inputs compared to conventional systems. This decrease in input energy resulted in greater energy use efficiency in these systems.

    Conclusion

    It could be concluded that ecologic system improved ecosystem service, especially non-market service in comparison with other systems. Although reduction of energy intensity of production (output energy) and energy intensity of consumption (input energy) reduced total value of the services in ecological agriculture, however moving toward sustainable and ecologic agriculture resulted in more non-market services such as health maintenance system of production and the production of healthy food.

    Keywords: Environmental efficiency, Integrated systems, Pulse crops, Renewable energy
  • Ahmadpour R, Armand* N, Hosseinzadeh S.R, & Rigi G Pages 141-154
    Introduction

    Lentil (Lens culinaris M. cv. GACHSARAN) has a high percentage of protein content, in comparison with animal protein so it is an important food source especially for people on low incomes and in developing countries. Lentil is a crop grown all over the world and is compatible with different climatic conditions; from temperate to thermal and humid to arid. Water stress is the most critical environmental factor that limits crop production. Yield reductions reported from different parts of the world caused by drought stress average at more than 50%. Responses of plants to moisture deficiency in soil are different and depend on the intensity and period of stress. These responses are of two types: 1- Moisture deficiency in low intensity leads to transpiration reduction, disruption of water translocation from roots to shoots, reduction of the photosynthetic products which ultimately lowers crop and morphological traits. 2- Moisture deficiency in high intensity that produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants; it has a detrimental effect on D1 protein of PSII, electron transport and production of high-energy molecules such as ATP and NADPH. In recent decades, bio-fertilizer appli Study on the effects of organic fertilizer such as compost demonstrated that using this fertilizer can increase nitrogen in the soil by about 42%, phosphorus by about 29% and potassium by 57% cation has become a common method for improving land affected by drought. In comparison with other organic fertilizers, compost consists of high levels of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium, as well as micronutrients such as iron, zinc, copper and manganese. Compost is rich in humic compounds and researchers speculate that the hormone-like activities of humic substances play a role in amelioration of water deficit stress. Agricultural land in Iran is facing water shortage and lentil is an economically valuable crop that has a significant role in the human diet. The aim of this study was to investigate reducing the negative effects of water stress with compost fertilizer application.

     
    Materials & Methods

    In order to evaluate the effects of compost fertilizer on physiological and biochemical indices of lentil under water stress, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design was conducted with three replications in 2016 at the Khatam-Alanbia University of Technology. Treatments consisted of five levels compost fertilizer and soil ratio (0:100, 5:95, 15:85, 25:75 and 35:65) and three levels of water stress non-stress (75% of field capacity), moderate stress (50% of field capacity) and severe stress (25% of field capacity). The internal leaf CO2 concentration (ppm), net-photosynthesis (μmol m-2 s-1) and water-use efficiency (kg mm-1 ha-1) were measured on the central sector of the youngest fully-expanded leaf and non-detached young. Measurements were performed between 9:00 and 11:00 am using a portable infrared gas analyzer (KR8700 system; Korea Tech Inc. Suwon., Korea). Evaluation of the Fv/Fm ratio was determined for lentil plants using a portable chlorophyll fluorometer (Pocket PEA, Hansatech, Instruments Ltd., King’s Lynn, Norfolk, England). Proline assay was determined according to the method cited in of Bates et al. (1973). Leaf soluble protein was measured by the Lowry method. Peroxidase enzyme (EC 1.11.1.7, POX) activity was measured by Holy protocol. To measure activity of catalase enzyme (EC 1.11.1.6, CAT), the Candlee & Scandalios (1984) method was used. The method cited in Beauchamp & Fridovich (1971) was applied for measuring superoxide dismutase activity (EC 1.15.1.1, SOD).
     

    Results & Discussion

    All of the physiological traits were mainly affected by severe water stress. Results showed that under non-stress, compost fertilizer application (25 and 35 Wt %) resulted in a significant increase in all studied traits. Under moderate and severe stress, application of compost (35 Wt%) significantly increased RWC (3.3%, 6.17%), Cell membrane stability (5.4%), leaf CO2 consenteration (9.3%), net-photosynthesis (58.77%, 65.3%), WUE (12.13%, 22.47%), proline (3%), total protein (18.8%, 7.9%), POX (3.7%, 18.9%), CAT (3.7%) and SOD (1.3%, 12.5%). Compost containing high levels of nutrients, plant hormones, and with good water storage capacity leads to improved uptake of nutrients that serves to reduce the detrimental effects of drought stress. Humic and fulvic acids and other organic acids found in compost, as well as the frequency of nutrients, especially nitrogen can stimulate physiological traits.
     

    Conclusion

    In summary, due to the structural properties and mineral nutrients in compost it has several advantages compared to cultivation in the soil alone. This study demonstrated that the addition of compost to soil (25 and 35 Wt%) increased RWC, Cell membrane stability, leaf CO2 consenteration, net-photosynthesis, WUE, proline, total protein, POX, CAT and SOD. The use of compost in the soil increased N content of soil leads to increased proline and protein biosynthesis in plants, and these compounds have the role of protecting osmosis (compatible osmolyte) in water deficit conditions. Using the ratio of 35:65 (compost:soil) presented the most effective levels of compost for reducing the negative impact of water deficit stress.

    Keywords: Antioxidant enzyme activity, Environmental stresses, Net-photosynthesis, Organic fertilizers
  • Bannayan*M, Yaghoubi F, Rashidi Z, & Bardehji S Pages 155-170
    Introduction

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medic.) is an important grain legume adapted to cool climates. It is cultivated on 155700 hectares in Iran with 94.7 % of this area under rainfed conditions. The average lentil yield in Iran is 1195 and 476 kg per hectare in irrigated and rainfed farms, respectively. Low productivity is due to use of local varieties, which have low yield potential, and poor agronomic management practices applied by the farmers such as limitation or inappropriate distribution of fertilizer. Nitrogen is an essential element for the growth of crops and its deficiency exists almost everywhere. It is the limiting factor in the crop growth more than any other element, unless use the nitrogen as a fertilizer. Despite the numerous advantages of nitrogen fertilizers, excessive consumption of nitrogen can cause pollution of surface and ground water through leaching and erosion and also increases costs. According to an adequate supply of nutrient elements by careful use of fertilizers, especially in poor soils, yield increases and nitrogen use efficiency improves. The objective of this study was evaluation of yield of two lentil cultivars under the influence of nitrogen fertilizer and also, investigation the nitrogen uptake, utilization and use efficiency to determine the best level of nitrogen fertilizer and cultivar for the study area.

     Materials & Methods

    The experiment was conducted as split plot based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during growth season 2015-16. Nitrogen fertilizer (in three levels i.e. 0, 40 and 80 kg per hectare) and cultivar (Birjand and Robat) were in main plots and sub plots, respectively. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied as urea to the plots before sowing. The sowing date was 9th March in 2016. Sampling was done at harvest time and included pod number per plant, seed number per pod, 100 seed weight, seed yield, biological yield and harvest index. Percentage of biomass nitrogen were measured with the Kjeldahl method and the efficiency index calculated by using the following equation:NupE= Noff/ Ns
    NutE b= B/ Noff
    NutE s= Sw/ Noff
    NUE b= B/ Ns
    NUEs= Sw/ Ns                                                                                                                            
    Where NupE is the nitrogen (N) uptake efficiency, Noff is the N in above ground dry matter, Ns is the soil N supply, NutEb is the N utilization efficiency based on biomass basis, B is the total above ground biomass at harvest, NutEs is the N utilization efficiency based on seed yield, Sw is the seed weight, NUEb is the N use efficiency based on biological yield, NUEs is the N use efficiency based on seed yield. Data were analyzed with the SAS software; obtained averages compared with LSD test at the 5% level.

    Results & Discussion

    The results showed that the interaction effect between nitrogen fertilizer and cultivar was significant on yield components, seed and biological yield. 40 kg nitrogen fertilizer per hectare and Birjand cultivar showed that maximum of pod number per plant (33.47), seed (338. 23 kg per hectare) and biological yield (3291.68 kg per hectare). Maximum of seed number per pod and 100 seed weight were obtained in treatment of non-use of nitrogen fertilizer and Birjand cultivar and treatment of 40 kg nitrogen fertilizer per hectare and Robat cultivar, respectively. Interaction effect between nitrogen fertilizer and cultivar was significant on nitrogen content of biomass, nitrogen uptake, utilization and use efficiency based on seed and biological yields. 40 kg nitrogen fertilizer per hectare and Birjand cultivar showed that maximum of nitrogen content of biomass and nitrogen uptake efficiency. The highest nitrogen use efficiency based on seed yield (3.39 kg seed per kg Ns) and biological yield (33.48 kg biomass per kg Ns) were obtained in treatment of non-use of nitrogen fertilizer and Birjand cultivar that the difference was no significant with the treatment of 40 kg nitrogen fertilizer per hectare and Birjand cultivar. Analysis of correlation showed that, yield and nitrogen use efficiency had positive and significant correlations with the pod number per plant and nitrogen uptake efficiency, respectively. Also, there was positive and significant correlation between nitrogen uptake efficiency and yield.

    Conclusion

    The results of this study indicated that treatment of 40 kg nitrogen fertilizer per hectare and Birjand cultivar are able to achieve maximum yield and nitrogen use efficiency. However, Birjand cultivar is a late cultivar and requires the optimum planting date for cultivation in this region. According to the observed correlations, breeding of this plant should be cultivars that they absorb nitrogen with more efficiently, so that in addition to improving nitrogen use efficiency and reducing environmental pollution also yield increase.

    Keywords: Birjand cultivar, Nitrogen uptake efficiency, Nitrogen utilization efficiency, Robat cultivar
  • Raftari* E, Nakhzari Moghaddam A, Mollashahi M, & Hosseini Moghaddam H Pages 171-181
    Introduction

    The practice of growing two or more crops simultaneously in the same field is called intercropping and it is a common feature in traditional farming of small landholders. It provides farmers with a variety of returns from land and labour, often increases the efficiency with which scarce resources are used and reduces the failure risk of a single crop that is susceptible to environmental and economic fluctuation. This approach is increasing agricultural production per unit area by growing more than one crop in a year. Intercropping will be successful when competition for sources is less than competition within a species. Plants in the mixture can be chosen in a way that a species benefits from environmental changes caused by other species in mixed cultures directly. Intercropping inhibits the growth and development of weeds and leads to increased production. Since the system will reduce the pesticide use, environmental pollution will be also less proportionally. According to studying the intercropping of peas and lettuce in Gonbad Kavous despite the lack of need for the plant to irrigate and harvest earlier and unloading earlier land for cultivation next, objectives of the present study were to study the effect of nitrogen fertilizer and planting ratios mixture two plants on the performance of the plant, LER and some qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the pea.

    Materials & Methods

     In order to study the effect of nitrogen rates and planting patterns of pea and lettuce on quality and quantity of green pea seeds, a factorial layout based on a Randomized Complete Block Design was conducted with three replications at Gonbad Kavous University during 2014-2015 growing season. The treatments of planting pattern were included 9 levels of sole pea, 67% pea + 33% lettuce, 50% pea + 50% lettuce, 33% pea + 67% lettuce, 100% pea + 33% lettuce, 100% pea + 50 % lettuce, 100% pea + 67% lettuce, 100% pea + 100% lettuce and sole lettuce and nitrogen factor was included three levels of non-application and application of 25 and 50 kg N/ha. Row spacing was 30cm. Density of pea was 33.3 plants/m2 and lettuce was 16.7/m2. For analysis variance of data software of SAS Ver.9.1.3 were used and treatment mean differences were separated by the least significant difference (LSD) test at the 0.05 probability level.

    Results & Discussion

    The results showed that planting patterns and nitrogen rates had significant effect on plant eight, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, number of seeds per plant, 100-seed weight, seed weight per plant, pods weight per plant, protein percent, solution carbohydrate percent and total yield. Plant eight in additive intercropping was more than replacement intercropping but number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, number of seeds per plant, 100-seed weight, seed weight per plant and pods weight per plant in replacement treatments and sole cropping of pea was more than additive treatments. Protein percent in sole cropping of pea and replacement intercropping of 67% lettuce instead of pea was greater than other treatments. At least percent of protein obtained from additive intercropping and replacement intercropping of 50 and 67% lettuce instead of pea. Solution carbohydrate percent in replacement intercropping of 67% lettuce instead of pea and additive intercropping of 100% pea + 67% lettuce and additive intercropping of 100% pea + 100% lettuce was more than other treatments. However, plant yield
    lettuce and 33% pea and 50% lettuce and 50% pea with 30.25 and 27.44 respectively, was greater than other treatments. Land equivalent ratio in intercropping treatments was greater than sole cropping. The maximum land equivalent ratio with 1.48 belonged to additive intercropping of 100% pea + 100% lettuce. Therefore, intercropping of pea and lettuce especially in additive series was appropriate.

    Conclusion

     Of the two plants of pea and lettuce, lettuce plant produced more yield than pea plant in all treatments. Additive treatment of 100% lettuce to pea and lettuce sole crop with 61565 and 61473 kg/ha produced the maximum yield and pea sole crop with 11759 kg/ha produced the minimum total yield. With increasing of nitrogen fertilizer consumption, yield was increased. Protein percent in sole cropping of pea and replacement intercropping of 67% lettuce instead of pea was greater than other treatments.of pea in treatment of 67%

    Keywords: Intercropping, Percent protein, Replacement cropping, Soluble carbohydrates
  • Khodashenas* A, Sadeghzadeh, Ahari D, Dadmand M, & AbbaszadehM Pages 182-194
    Introduction

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is a pulse crop with high nutritional properties and is an important source for food, feed and forage. It is a drought-tolerant crop that is mainly cultivated in dryland farming and able to fix nitrogen at least 20-60 kg/ha. Nitrogen fixation and other characteristics of this crop are the reasons for expansion of chickpea cultivated land and use of this crop in rotation with other crops. It has been reported that planting date, cultivar and seed density have the important effects on quantity and quality of chickpea seed. Traditionally chickpea is planted in early spring in mostly cultivated land in Mediterranean regions and specially in our country and Khorasan Razavi province, while this crop could be cultivated in autumn or early of winter and reported that these planting dates had improved seed yield. Diverse cultivars of dryland chickpea with special characteristics have been introduced in our country that have the ability to adopt in dryland regions and increase the yield in unit area of dryland cultivation. Also has been reported that seed density affects on chickpea yield in dryland conditions. With attention to these matters, the aim of this experiment was determination of optimum planting date, introduction of proper chickpea cultivars and seed density for improvement of seed yield and developed chickpea cultivated land in dryland conditions of khorasan Razavi provinces.

    Material & Methods

    In order to evaluate the effects of planting date and seed density on three cultivars and two landraces of chickpea, an experiment with split-split plot in randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted on Torogh agricultural and natural resources research station in 2015-2016. Treatments included of two planting dates, end of autumn (2015 Dec. 27) and usual planting date (2016 Mar. 8) as main plot, five genotypes of chickpea, included of Saral, Jam, Binalood cultivars and Neyshaboor and Ghouchan landraces as sub plot and two seed density of 40 and 50 seed/m-2 as sub-sub plot. After moldboard plow and disc, base fertilizer added to soil and plots determined. Each plot included of 6 row with 4 meter length and 25 centimeter row width. Weeding was made by hand and pest control was made by pesticides. Growth stages recorded weekly and in ripening stage, 5 plants harvested from each plot for determining of yield components and then whole plant of each plot harvested for seed yield determination.

    Results & Discussion

    Results showed that besides of yield and yield components, growth stage of studied genotype was affected by planting dates. Saral cultivar that was early maturity in first planting date, in second planting date was late. Also results showed that most of studied traits significantly were affected by planting date and with delay in planting date they significantly reduced. There was significant differences between planting dates and studied chickpea genotypes for many traits such as plant height, number of pod per plant, harvest index, biological yield, 100seed weight and grain yield. Mean grain yield of first planting date was 860 kg/ha that had significant advantage to second date (360 kg/ha). Jam cultivar and Neyshaboor landrace with mean yield of 761 and 764 kg/ha had the greater mean grain yield than other cultivars in two planting dates, but Jam and Saral cultivars and Neyshaboor landrace with grain yield of 1038, 900 and 908 kg/ha, respectively in first planting date, had the most yield and Binalood cultivar in second date with 30 kg/ha had the least seed yield among cultivars in this experiment.

    Conclusion

     First planting date (27 Dec. 2015) improved the quantity and quality of produced grain in all cultivars and therefore is preferred to traditional planting date (8 Mar. 2016) and recommended. In the end of autumn planting date Saral and Jam cultivars and Neyshaboor landrace are best for cultivation from quantity aspect of grain production but if marketing is considered, because of small grain of Neyshaboor landrace (100seed weight was 17.7 g), Jam and Saral cultivars with 100seed weight of 25.9 and 26.8 g, respectively are appropriate for first planting date. In this study reaction of cultivars to planting date was differed and this point must be considered in selection of cultivars for each planting date. Seed density had not significant effect on the most important traits and therefore lower density will be recommended. With this considerations, chickpea has the potential as a useful crop in rotation with other dryland crops.

    Keywords: Chickpea cultivars, Dryland agriculture, Planting date
  • Ahmadi * A, Veisi M, Aghaei Haji Abadi M, & Mousavi S.K Pages 195-208
    Introduction

    Chickpea is important due to its grain high protein. Chickpea is weak to compete with weeds because of the retard growth at the early stages. Therefore, weed control at this time plays an important role to gain high production. Chickpea is being grown in both dry land and irrigated systems, and growers in both systems are finding weed control to be a major obstacle to profitable production. Weed control is essential for maximum seed yield and seed quality. Selection of the herbicide plus cultivator between rows can effectively control weeds. Herbicide due to efficiency and cost savings play a basic role in weed management. Application of Isoxaflutole controlled weeds in chickpea fields with very low phytotoxicity on chickpea. But the risk of crop injury from Isoxaflutole has been reported to be greatest in soils with low organic matter content and high pH. The only herbicide registered for chickpea in Iran, is pyridate in 1998.Considering the importance of agriculture chickpea in Kermanshah and high cost of hand weeding in the fields, this study was projected to achieve the most appropriate herbicides in combination with mechanical methods (row cultivator), in order to optimally control weeds and increase the yield of chickpea. The objective of this research was to identify efficacious chemical weed-control plus cultivation options for rainfed production of chickpea in Kermanshah.

    Materials & Methods

    The experiment was carried out as strip plot based on complete randomized block design with four replications during 2014-2015 in Kermanshah province. The main factor included inter-row cultivation and without inter-row cultivation and the sub factor consisted of applications of Linuron (pre planting), Isoxaflutole (post emergence), Metribuzin (pre emergence), Paraquat (post emergence), Pendimethalin (pre emergence), Pyridate (post emergence) at rates 0.67, 0.48, 0.42, 0.05, 0.82, 1.5 kg a.i./ha respectively and hand weeding. Chickpea (ILC482) were sown on March 3th placing 45 seeds m-2 in rows 0.6 m apart. All herbicides were sprayed with an Elegance 18 electric knapsack sprayer equipped with flooding nozzle and calibrated to deliver 300 L/ha of spray solution at a pressure of 2.5 bar. Herbicides were applied in one-half of each plot, and the other half kept as its control. The inter-row cultivation was applied on April 29th 2014.  Percent weed population and biomass reduction in all treatments was measured separately for each weed species by counting the number of weeds 30 days after treatment within two fixed 1m2 quadrates that were dropped in the treated and untreated halves of each plot. The data were subjected to the analysis of variance using SAS. Means were compared using Duncan's Multiple Range test at P=0.05 level of significance.

    Results & Discussion

    Results showed that cultivation between rows reduced population of Lambs quarters and Redroot Pigweed significantly. Linurin and Paraquat could not provide acceptable biomass and population reduction. But Pyridate, Isoxaflutole and Metribuzin could control satisfactorily weeds. None of herbicide treatments could reduce Field binweed populations satisfactorily, so that the highest population reduction was observed in Lambs quarters (100%) where sprayed with Metribuzin. Percent total weed density reduction by pyridate and Isoxaflutole was highest (78% and 57%). Metribuzin reduced total weed density by at least 71%. Hand weeding plus cultivation, Pyridate plus inter-row cultivation and pyridate, caused chickpea grain yield to increase by 44.83%, 44.46%, 40.58% respectively compared with weedy check. Isoxaflutole plus inter-row cultivation and Isoxaflutole caused chickpea grain yield to increase 37.18% and 34% respectively. The highest chickpea phytotoxicity (30%) was achieved where Linuron applied.

    Conclusion

    Overall results showed that pyridate at rate 1.5 kg a.i./ha is a suitable option for control of weeds and increasing the chickpea grain yield. The results also showed that inter-row cultivation had no significant effect on weed reduction and grain yield by pyridate and Isoxaflutole. In this study, isoxaflotle controlled a wide range of weeds. It is suggested that further studies be carried out on the use of this herbicide at different times of application (pre emergence and post emergence) and different amounts.

    Keywords: Grain yield, Herbicide, Integrated control, Mechanical control, Pod