فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:8 Issue:4, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/05/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • Abbas Davoodi, Naser Panjekeh, Kobra Moslemkhani*, Abdolhossein Taheri Pages 379-388

    Some samples were collected from tomato fields in Qazvin from tomato plants with big bud symptoms such as plant droop and purplish vein under the leaf, enlarged and sac-like pistils and malformed buds. DNA was extracted from the veins and vascular tissues of the plant with CTAB-based methods. In symptomatic plants, DNA fragments of 1800 and 1200bp were amplified by PCR using P1/P7, R16F2n/R16R2 primers. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of nested R16F2n/R16R2 primed PCR product (1200bp) showed that the tomato big bud phytoplasma from Qazvin (TOM-Qazvin) is a member of clover proliferation (16SrVI). Phylogenetic analysis of 16SrRNA and putative restriction site analysis of the R16F2n/R16R2 primed sequence classified TOM phytoplasma in clover proliferation (16SrVI) group and belonged to subgroup 16SrVI-A. Virtual RFLP by using 1200bp sequencing of 16SRNA and 17 restriction enzymes confirmed that TOM-Qazvin belonged to the subgroup 16SrVI-A and16SrVI group. To our knowledge, this is the first report of tomato big bud disease in Qazvin province.

    Keywords: big bud, iphyclassifier, RFLP, tomato, phytoplasma
  • Forough Rahimi Namin, Gadir Nouri, Ganbalani, Bahram Naseri*, Jabraeil Razmjou Pages 389-402

    Red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is a cosmopolitan and serious pest of cereal grains and their products in storage. In this research, nutritional indices and digestive enzymatic activity of T. castaneum fourth instar and adults were studied on ten barley cultivars (Fajr30, Behrokh, Sahra, Makuyi, Neek, Lout, Bahman, Nosrat, Abidar, and Sahand) at 30 ± 1 °C, relative humidity of 75 ± 5% and darkness conditions. The results showed that fourth instars and adults reared on cultivars Makuyi and Fajr30 had the lowest weight gain, efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), relative growth rate and growth rate (GR) values. However, T. castaneum fed on cultivar Lout showed the highest weight gain, ECI and GR. The highest amylolytic activity of larvae was on cultivar Bahman, whereas the lowest activity was on cultivars Makuyi and Neek. Amylolytic activity of adults was the highest on cultivar Makuyi, and the lowest on cultivar Lout. Moreover, proteolytic activity of fourth instar was the highest when larvae were fed on cultivar Sahra and the lowest when they were fed on cultivars Behrokh and Makuyi. The highest proteolytic activity of adults was on cultivar Abidar, and the lowest on cultivar Bahman. The results of this study indicated that cultivars Fajr30 and Makuyi were less nutritive and cultivar Lout was more nutritive to T. castaneum. Therefore, more attention should be paid to manage the pest on cultivar Lout as a susceptible cultivar.

    Keywords: Nutritional index, digestive enzyme, barley, red flour beetle
  • Maryam Zolfaghari*, Mohammad Ghadamyari, Reza Hassan Sajedi Pages 403-416

    The toxicological and biochemical properties of four organophosphate (OP) insecticides, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, phosalone and dichlorvos, were examined in terms of the diamond back moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) susceptible (Gu-S) and resistant (Kar-R) to OPs. The Kar-R population had significantly high resistance to chlorpyriphos (69.3 fold), medium resistance to diazinon (14.49-fold) and phosalone (10.3-fold), and had less resistance to dichlorvos (5.17-fold) compared to Gu-S population. DEM and TPP reduced Chlopyrifos resistance of Kar-R population as an inhibitor of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and esterases (EST), respectively. Biochemical studies clarified that GST and EST kinetic parameters in the Kar-R population were significantly higher than parameters of Gu-S population. Moreover, this study examined the Kinetics of hydrolysis of acetylthiocholine iodide, butyrylthiocholine iodide as artificial substrates by AChE of resistant and susceptible population. IC50 of monocrotophos, neostigmine bromide and eserine were also determined on AChE of resistant and susceptible populations. Kinetic analysis and inhibition tests indicated that an alteration in AChE of Kar-R population has an effect on both kinetic and inhibition results. The results distinctly showed that multiple mechanisms such as GST, esterases and altered AChE created chlorpyrifos resistance in the Kar-R and insensitivity of AChE is a significant factor for resistance to conventional OP compounds.

    Keywords: Plutella xylostella, organophosphate pesticides, biochemical mechanisms, detoxification enzymes, acetylcholinesterase
  • Hamideh Raeisi, Mohammad Reza Safarnejad*, Seyed Mehdi Alavi, Naser Farrokhi, Seyed Ali Elahinia, Hossein Safarpour, Farshid Sharifian Pages 417-429

    The Xanthomonas citri pv. citri (Xcc) is causal agent of bacterial citrus canker which is major disease of citrus throughout the world. The pthA bacterial effector protein is presented within the infected plants and indispensable of canker. The scFv antibodies are valuable tools for diagnosis and suppression of pathogens within plants. The present article describes developing and characterization of specific recombinant monoclonal scFv antibodies against pthA effector protein. For this aim, the gene encoding pthA protein was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and used for screening of Tomlinson phage display antibody library to pinpoint specific single chain variable fragment (scFv). In each round of panning, the affinity of phage towards pthA was checked by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The data was indicative of about 50% of the monoclonal phages to be reactive strongly against pthA protein. Among the positive clones, 5 samples (A12, B8, C1, H8 and G8) were capable of detecting Xcc-infected plant samples and recombinant pthA protein. Restriction fragment length polymorphism showed similar banding pattern for all 5 scFvs as renamed to pthA-scFG8. HB2151 E. coli cells were infected by the phage bearing pthA-scFG8, and the expression of the peptide was induced by IPTG to produce a 30 kDa recombinant molecule. I-TASSER was used for homology modeling of both scFv and pthA and docking was carried out by Hex program. The latter demonstrated binding energy of −784 kcal/mol in scFv-pthA.

    Keywords: Biopanning, citrus bacterial canker, phage display, single chain fragment variable
  • Majid Mirab, Balou, Majid Mahmoudi*, Behzad Miri Pages 431-439

    Montpellier maple Acer monspessulanum L. is one of the trees in Zagros forests (Iran) which is host to several economically important thrips species. The purpose of this study was to find the fauna of thrips on Montpellier maple trees in Ilam province, western Iran, during 2015-2016. The abundance and species diversity of thrips were examined twice a month via standard sweep net and shaking flowers and leaves to white plastic tray at two location sites including Gachan and Manesht Mountains. Out of the 7062 thrips specimens that were collected, 16 thrips species were identified, which belonged to 10 genera and four families. The estimated domination coefficient showed that in both sites Taeniothrips inconsequens Uzel was eudominant and onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman was dominant species. There were 5 and 4 species classified as subdominant for Gachan and Manasht, respectively. Four predatory thrips were found on Montpellier maple trees including Aeolothrips intermedius Bagnall, Scolothrips longicornis Priesner, Haplothrips flavitibia Williams and H. globiceps. Of these, A. intermedius was the most abundant predator in both collection sites, whereas others showed a low population density. According to diversity index calculations, the Shannon diversity, Pielou’s evenness and Margalef’s species richness indices were 1.83, 0.68 and 1.67 for Gachan, and 1.48, 0.62 and 1.26 for Manesht, respectively.

    Keywords: Thrips, diversity, population
  • Zohre Mahbobinejhad, Heshmatolah Aminian, Leila Ebrahimi, Kourosh Vahdati* Pages 441-448

    Aspergillus flavus is a saprophytic fungus contaminating different food and nut products by aflatoxin which is a major problem worldwide. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) could be an effective method for control of saprophytic fungi and their toxins and secondary metabolites production. This study gives the consequences of fungal isolates growing under MAP condition on potato dextrose agar (PDA). Two isolates of A. flavus (A42 and CHAO50) were packed under 100% CO2, 100% O2 and vacuum conditions. The mycelial growth of fungal isolates on PDA was controlled up to 80% with CO2 treatment. Under the vacuum condition, mycelial growth of the isolates was inhibited up to 30%, while 100% oxygen had no inhibition on mycelial growth. Examination of isolates A42 and CHAO50 under UV light showed that both isolates produced yellow pigments on aflatoxin producing ability (APA) medium after 10 days. The levels of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 and total aflatoxin were analyzed chromatographically. The results revealed that the highest concentration of total aflatoxin was produced by fungal isolates grown in an atmosphere of 100% O2, while the level of aflatoxins was significantly reduced in 100% CO2.

    Keywords: HPLC, modified atmosphere, aflatoxin, vacuum condition
  • Rouag Noureddine*, Hannane Abed, Moutassam Dahou, Selma Mehmah, Sabrina Benabid Pages 449-464

    Biocontrol of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris by six Bacillus species was evaluated. Also plant growth promoting potential of the bacteria was assessed. Results showed that four bacterial strains produced the chitinase and cellulase enzymes and all isolates produced indole acetic acid. Bacillus licheniformis proved to be the most productive of hydrogen cyanide and particularly, Bacillus firmus solubilized phosphorus on Pikovskaya solid and liquid media. The majority of strains were able to produce siderophore and three produced NH3. Results showed that the Flip05-156C chickpea variety was less susceptible to Foc isolates compared to Flip93-93C and there was a clear difference in pathogenicity of the Foc isolates. Thus, Foc1 and Foc2 isolates caused 31.25% and 41.66%, plant mortality, respectively. As regards PGPR effect, results showed that B. licheniformis gave the best branching number, stem length and root weight of both chickpea varieties. However, Bacillus lentus distinctly improved the root length while Bacillus amyloliquefaciens improved weight of the vegetative parts.

    Keywords: biocontrol, pathogenicity, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria
  • Amir Ghaffar Shahriari, Mohamad Hamed Ghodoum Parizipour* Pages 465-478

    Here we showed that aqueous extract of alligator plant, Bryophyllum daigremontianum L., is able to inhibit systemic and local infection of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV: family Virgaviridae) in broad bean, Vicia faba L., nettle-leaved goosefoot, Chenopodium murale L., and tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum var. Turkish, N. tabacum var. Xanthi and N. glutinosa L., hosts. Antiviral activity of the extract was retained for a period of 8 days on treated broad bean and tobacco leaves. This activity was negatively correlated with the extract concentration, and it was completely lost by washing the treated leaves of tobacco plants 2 h post application, and was ineffective when applied 24 h post inoculation. No inhibitory effect was found against agro-inoculated strain of Beet curly top virus (BCTV: family Geminiviridae) on sugarbeet, Beta vulgaris L., seedlings. To determine the antiviral agent, Bryophyllum bulk protein designated BBP was isolated from the extract. BBP exhibited RNase activity against total RNA of TMV-infected tobacco tissues and genomic RNA of TMV while it failed to degrade genomic DNA of BCTV. Additionally, BBP completely inhibited TMV on N. glutinosa leaves at concentration of 40 μg/ml. These results suggest that a ribonuclease is mainly responsible for antiviral activity of alligator plant extract. To our knowledge, this is the first report on inhibitory effect of alligator plant extract on a plant virus. This plant species can be considered as a promising source for antiviral proteins in order to develop plant-derived compounds for effective control of plant mosaic diseases caused by TMV.

    Keywords: Tobamovirus, Curtovirus, RNase activity, virus inhibition, antiviral protein
  • Samira Naghizadeh, Hooshang Rafiee Dastjerdi, Bahram Naseri*, Ali Golizadeh, Behrouz Esmaielpour Pages 479-489

    The potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) is one of the important pests of solanaceous plants, especially potato Solanum tuberosum L., in many temperate areas of the world including Iran. In this study, essential oils were extracted from Artemisia absinthium L., Achillea millefolium L. and Artemisia dracunculus L. using Clevenger apparatus. One-day-old eggs were treated by sublethal concentrations (LC30) of essential oils, and their effects were studied on reproductive parameters and population growth parameters. Probit analysis of ovicidal effects showed that LC50 values for A. absinthium, A. millefolium and A. dracunculuswere 2.60, 2.36 and 1.08 µl/l air, respectively. The percentage of larval penetration into potato tubers was lower than untreated control. The values of intrinsic rate of increase (rm) in control and treatments of A. absinthium, A. millefolium and A. dracunculus were 0.107, 0.079, 0.081 and 0.087 day-1, respectively. The results of this study showed that tested essential oils have a good potential to protect stored potatoes from P. operculella infestation.

    Keywords: Phthorimaea operculella, reproductive parameters, Solanum tuberosum, population parameters, sublethal concentration
  • Kamal Shujaei, Mahdi Azaryar, Mohammad Hajizadeh* Pages 491-500

    In this study, 174 leaf samples from main apple growing areas in Kurdistan and western Azarbaijan Provinces were examined for infection by Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV). The result of RT-PCR showed that 17 samples (9.7%) were infected by ACLSV in both provinces. Subsequently, the genetic structure of ACLSV was determined based on the full coat protein (CP) sequences of eight isolates from this study and those recently published from Iran and worldwide. In phylogenetic analysis, ACLSV isolates from apple clustered into three known phylogenetic types; B6, P205, and SHZ, which are characterized by three amino acids at positions of 40, 75 and 79. The new Iranian ACLSV isolates showed the CP amino acid sequence of Ser40-Tyr75-Glu79 which placed them with the B6 type. Further analyses showed that the Iranian ACLSV isolates (the new and previously published isolates) had lower genetic variability compared to isolates from other countries except for Brazilian population. Most of the CP codons were under negative selection (dN/dS < 1) except for one codon at position 92 which was under positive selection. This study suggests that negative selection was most important evolutionary factor driving the genetic evolution of ACLSV.

    Keywords: apple, negative selection, phylogenetic analysis, ACLSV
  • Mahdi Jalaeian*, Sheyvan Zamani, Atousa Farahpour, Haghani Pages 515-520

    White-Spotted Stink bug, Eysarcoris ventralis (Westwood) (Hem.: Pentatomidae) was reported as one of the major destructive pests attacking rice worldwide. In Iran, it has been recorded on weeds, grape, alfalfa and wheat. In a survey on rice pests in Guilan province (Northern Iran) during 2017-2018, a large number of adult stink bugs were collected on rice panicles feeding on grains. The sucking on rice grains by adults as well as nymphs caused various symptoms, either empty glumes or spots around the feeding site. This is the first report of the damage symptoms caused by E. ventralis on rice in Iran (Guilan province).

    Keywords: Paddy fields, Pecky Rice, Guilan province