فهرست مطالب

نشاء علم - سال نهم شماره 2 (خرداد 1398)
  • سال نهم شماره 2 (خرداد 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/03/14
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Ali A. Moosavi, Movahedi Page 53
  • Ahmad Shaabani Page 54

    Currently, scientific advances are accelerating, and human society is facing with data and information explosion and the importance of knowledge, innovation and discovery in the creation of wealth is constantly increasing. Recognition of creative teaching practices and methods of discovery and innovation are the most important issues and challenges in the teaching and learning process in educational and research centers. In this article, with the question of “Is it possible to shape a creative and discoverer human by education?” Different levels of education have been explained and knowledge-based teaching as a creative education using human experience in language teaching and inspiring nature as the best creative teaching methods have been introduced. Finally, in answer to the question of “How big discovery happens and what the relationship of it with creative education?” Various types of discovery methods, including question-based discovery, serendipity and accidental discovery, logic and reasoning, imagination and dreaming, biomimetics and nature-based discovery, beliefs, and planed based research are introduced and their effective relationship (their effective link) to creative education has been studied and emphasized.

    Keywords: Discovery, Creativity, Innovation, Information, Knowledge, Education
  • Farid Nasiri, Seyed Peyman Shariatpanahi*, Mohammad Rahnamay, Ali A. Moosavi, Movahedi Page 63

    The present paper attempts to provide an introduction to the new and fascinating science of quantum biology. One of the major challenges in this field is the ambiguity of the concept of quantum biology which simply means the application of quantum mechanics to biological issues or critical processes. Quantum biology is essentially a new interdisciplinary science of quantum mechanics, chemistry, physics, biochemistry and biology. Quantum biology demonstrates biological phenomena that explicitly apply quantum mechanics to gain or perform a particular action. They have been observed in the biological world, explaining the existence and effect of these phenomena on important biological processes such as photosynthesis and enzymatic catalysis. It also deals with the role of quantum mechanics in other biological topics such as bird orientation, olfaction, vision, consciousness and the beginning of life. Finally, the Quantum Biology Research Core (QBRC-IBB) hosted at Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics (IBB), University of Tehran is mentioned.

    Keywords: Quantum Biology, Biochemistry, Quantum Tunneling, Photosynthesis, Quantum Biology Research Core (QBRC-IBB)
  • Nasim Soleymani, Ali Akbar Moosavi, Movahedi * Page 73

    Nature is one of the premier journals with a long history of publishing scientific articles. It was opened in 1869 in Cambridge, England. This journal publishes scholarly articles, scientific news in simple language, advertising, and job opportunities. It has two main goals: First, to bring scientific results and achievements to the public's view so as to gain a general understanding of science and daily life. Second, helping scientists and researchers make new interdisciplinary information available. For the first hundred years of its work, the journal focused primarily on the publication of important articles of the era and began to expand and internationalize it in the 1970s and began collaborating with other publications. It is not only scientifically up-to-date but also publicly available as a website and software applications. The Nature Publisher advises and even edits emerging researchers to publish articles in appropriate journals. About 30% of Nobel Prize-winning scholars published their papers in Nature.

    Keywords: Nature Publishing, Articles of Era, Natural sciences, Popular science, Nobel Prizes
  • Samin Haghighi Poodeh, Yahya Sefidbakht*, , , Hassan Kouchakzadeh Page 82

    The annual global consumption of antibiotics by humans and other organisms is estimated about 106 tons per year, which is an issue of the increasing importance of environmental contamination by antibiotics. Consumed antibiotics by humans and other organisms do not completely degrade in their bodies, and are transmitted through the sewages or hospital wastes back to environment. Recently, the amount of antibiotics in the soil and water has been measured by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry techniques, which indicates the concentration of these compounds in the environment varies from a few nanograms to the hundreds of nanograms per kilogram, which the level of cont amination increases due to the increasing usages of antibiotics in the winter. According to studies, the antibiotic concentration in American aquatic resources is up to 15 micrograms per liter, European and African countries are more than 10 micrograms per liter and 50 micrograms per liter, and in the Asian countries, this is over than 450 micrograms per liter. The presence of these antibiotics in the water and the soil may directly affect the bacteria involved in ecosystem cycles such as nitrogen fixation cycles, methanogenesis, sulfate reduction, nitric cycle, or indirectly by the horizontal gene transfer phenomenon, low antibiotic concentrations in the range of micrograms per liter lead to resistance, genetic and phenotypic changes, or various physiologic al activities in bacteria. Studies that have conducted to remove released antibiotics into the environment indicate that methods such as coagulation, freezing, sedimentation, and filtration have failed. New inquiries have carried out in order to the removal of contamination by using advanced oxidation methods, which seem to be effective methods; however, more advanced studies are needed.

    Keywords: Antibiotics, Wastewater Treatment, Antibiotic Resistant, Environment
  • Fataneh Fatemi Page 89

    A xenobiotic is a chemical substance found within an organism that is not naturally produced or expected to be present within the organism and considered as substances foreign to an entire biological system, which did not exist in nature before their synthesis by humans. Xenobiotics include antioxidants, drugs, carcinogens, contaminants, food additives, hydrocarbons and pesticides and usually are resistant to degradation and accumulate in the environment due to their recalcitrant properties. The xenobiotic accumulation occurs particularly in the subsurface environment and water sources, as well as in biological systems, having the potential to impact human health and environment. Moreover, these compounds can be accumulated in food chain and cause harm to the different ecosystems. We are chronically exposed to over than 250,000 different xenobiotic that are considered safe or known to be safe alone. But recent research studies demonstrate that many of these compounds are suspected to impact human health and environment, and their combination in complex mixtures could exacerbate their harmful effects. This paper focus on the synergistic toxic effect of xenobiotics mixtures on environment and also on human health, notably on the endocrine system and intestinal microbiome. For the degradation of xenobiotic compounds various physico-chemical and biological methods have been used but all these methods produce toxic by-products that are hazardous to the environment. The present paper also provides a comprehensive outlook on the utilization of new technologies for removal of xenobiotic environmental pollutants.

    Keywords: Xenobiotics, Chemical Association of Xenobiotics, Human Health, Environment, Xenobiotics Removal
  • Mona Shahlaei, Maryam Saeidifar*, , Ali A. Saboury Page 97

    At present, there are many concerns about the effect of conditions in the academic environment on mental health Ph.D. students. In this regard, the suggestions that have been made on the academic achievement of Ph.D. students during the course of the study published in Nature, have led us to translate this article into Persian and we also wanted to add a section of the lifestyles of doctoral students. The results of the studies showed that Ph.D. students suffered from emotional exhaustion during their education, which could have an adverse effect on their lifestyle, performance and academic achievement, and sometimes lead to depression. Additionally, emotional exhaustion can lead to student dropout. Therefore, maintaining a balance between in own life and research work can reduce the effects of stress and play an important role in mental health and academic achievement of students. Based on reports, Supervisor support and counseling sessions by the organization or educational center can significantly reduce the psychological burden of emotional exhaustion in Ph.D. students. On the other hand, the effective factors for academic achievement and increasing the quality of lifestyle is sufficient and good sleep that causes the detoxification of the body, the appropriate nourishment and exercise make health and the physical fitness of the body, respectively. For this reason, in the end, recommendations have been made to reduce the emotional exhaustion of Ph.D. students during their study period to successfully overcome the challenges they faced during their course.

    Keywords: Ph.D. Students, Lifestyle, Academic Achievement, Relaxation, Stress
  • Seyed Kazem Alavipanah Page 101

    Much has been said about what and how the ideas of prominent scientists in the world come from different specialties and from different geographical areas. But the nature of science is such that research results and scientific achievements are not so dependent on internal factors and social and political environment conditions. Just as the intellectual and emotional outpourings of sages, mystics, artists, and poets can be a function of the inner and outer conditions, so much they can converge in feeling, understanding, and knowing inside and out, providing many questions. In this article we have tried to interpretations, the explanation and vocabulary of the words in the poems since the original order poet and reality of what has been spoken, and the literal meaning of what is desirable poet, a bridge to be struck. Along with that the convergence of scientific, literary and spiritual concepts with new ways has been considered. The spiritual connection between two thoughtful poets, Goethe from Germany and Hafiz from Iran, who have lived in two different languages and cultures for more than 500 years, demonstrates the possibility of intellectual, cultural and social connection beyond contractual boundaries. Although we were not satisfied with the two, we cite examples of Mowlana, Attar, and Sa'di to show that all the elders in the cupola had a photograph of the scene. We interpret the visage of the mistress as a shared love that knows neither the geographical boundary nor the political or cultural boundary; Not afraid of time or place. Although science also creates such convergence and connection, it brings people together in love, spirit, spirituality, and thought, and avoids disagreements and creates empathy. Today, in spite of the achievement of rationalism, not only the problems of mankind have not been resolved, but also an increase. It may be that everyone thinks of himself as common sense, while everyone is the only one who knows everything and everyone has not yet been born! So, we suggested empathy by speaking it with the language of love, perhaps with this human mechanism achieving promised peace and inner satisfaction.In this soil in this soil, in this clean farmExcept for love and affection, we should not sow any other seed (Mowlana)

    Keywords: Hafiz, Goethe, Convergence, Inside, Outside, Difference, Simila