فهرست مطالب

  • سال بیست و سوم شماره 3 (پاییز 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/07/09
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • مرتضی میرغلامی*، محمدرضا پورجعفر، سیدمحمود میثاقی صفحات 1-41

    روش تحقیق در این پژوهش کیفی از نوع توصیفی -تحلیلی و مبتنی بر مطالعات اسنادی و کتابخانه ای بوده است که با قیاس تطبیقی تکمیل گردید.ابتدا مولفه های تجربه شده بین المللی در دانش ارزیابی تطبیقی شناسایی شده و سپس مبتنی بر شرایط ایران و چهار کشور مسلمان دیگر مولفه های 7 گانه و 4 گانه در ابعاد "محتوایی" و" رویه ای" برای مفاهیم "برنامه ریزی" و "برنامه ریزی فضایی" تدوین شده و قیاس تطبیقی برای وضعیت 5 کشور صورت پذیرفت.  بر اساس یافته ها در حوزه نظری (اسنادی- محتوایی) نظام برنامه ریزی کلان اغلب کشورهای موردبررسی مشابه هم و نیز همسو با کشورهای پیشرفته تر صنعتی با شدت و ضعف های مختصری بوده ولیکن در حوزه عمل (رویه-نتیجه) تفاوت های موجود بسیار محسوس بوده اند. این وضعیت در برنامه ریزی فضایی این کشورها ضعیف تر از برنامه ریزی کلان آن ها بوده است. یافته های نهایی نشان دادند که در" نظام برنامه ریزی کلان "، تمام کشورها دارای افق برنامه ریزی مداوم با دوره های مشخص، رویکرد غالب اقتصادی، مشارکت پذیری پایین و شریعت پذیری گفتمانی قوی ولی اجرایی ضعیف بوده اند.در "نظام برنامه ریزی فضایی" ،ایران در مولفه های سطوح سلسله مراتبی برنامه ریزی ، رویکرد و مکانیسم برنامه ریزی فضایی،و ساختار سازمانی  مشابه 4 کشور دیگر و در مولفه  سیستم اجرا- کنترل -نظارت عقب تر از 4 کشور هم وزن خود بوده است ، درمجموع مالزی در غالب معیارها و سپس ترکیه پیش تر از ایران، مصر و عربستان بوده اند.

    کلیدواژگان: ارزیابی تطبیقی، نظام برنامه ریزی، برنامه ریزی فضایی، کشورهای در حال توسعه، ایران
  • سعیده اسدی*، علی شرقی صفحات 43-64
    گسیختگی هویت و دلبستگی های مکانی ازجمله پیامدهای سوانح هستند که به نپذیرفتن تغییرات مکانی و ناهنجاری هایی در سلامت اجتماعی- روانی جامعه، به دلیل نیاز به هویت و نادیده گرفته شدن آن در فرآیند بازسازی، منجر می شوند. باتوجه به تاثیرات عمیق سوانح بر منظر عینی و ذهنی ساکنان از هویت مکان، ایجاد فرآیندهایی برای بازیابی در چارچوب تئوری تاب آوری، به عنوان گسترده ترین رویکرد مواجهه، ضروری است. تحقیق حاضر دارای ماهیت اکتشافی با استفاده از روش تحقیق کیو با دو رویکرد کیفی و کمی است. مرحله ی کیفی با ترکیب روش دلفی در سه دور و نظریه ی زمینه ای برای استخراج مفاهیم و مقولات انجام شد. در مرحله کمی، پرسشنامه ای با سوالات بسته درقالب گزاره هایی با طیف لیکرت تدوین گردید. اعضای پانل شامل 17 متخصص از اعضای هیئت علمی و محققان در این زمینه است که ابتدا با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری غیرتصادفی هدفمند و در مرحله ی بعدی با نمونه گیری غیرتصادفی شبکه ای انتخاب شدند. درنهایت، روی داده ها تحلیل عامل Q انجام شد »، دربین متخصصان شناسایی شد. به منظور شناسایی وزن هریک از معیارها، از الگوریتم و پنج نحله ی  فکری شامل «پیوندهای عاطفی- شناختی مکان- مبنا»، «مکان بازتابی از فرد و جمع»، «فرصت سازی به واسطه ی عناصر و قابلیت های مکانی»، «کالبد، ملجا ارزش و محتوا»، «کارآمدی در مکان برای بازیابی ابعاد تاب آور هویت و دلبستگی مکانی و درنتیجه سازگاری با تغییراتشانون استفاده شد. با همپوشانی یافته های حاصل از این دو روش، فرآیند بازیابی ابعاد تاب آور هویت و دلبستگی مکان پس از تغییرات ناشی از سوانح پیشنهاد شد.
    کلیدواژگان: هویت مکانی، دلبستگی مکانی، سانحه، تغییر، تاب آوری
  • مهدی بازرگان، مصطفی امیرفخریان* صفحات 65-98
    در این مطالعه با بهره‏ گیری از شیوه های استدلال قیاسی و استقرایی، ویژگی های «رویکرد آمایشی» در محدوده‏ذهای دارای عناصر فعال باارزش هویتی بررسی می‏شود. درمواجهه با عناصر هویتی، رویکرد آمایشی، با تکیه بر چهاربعد؛ الگوی تجمع، کارکرد(عاریتی،غیرعاریتی و فاقدکارکرد)، کلی‏ نگری(جایگاه عنصر در هویت بخشی به شهر) و جزئی‏نگری(توجه به ابعادکالبدی) به دنبال ارتقای وضعیت محدوده و اثرگذاری آن، با هدف هم‏آوایی و انسجام مجموعه عناصر با یکدیگر است. محدوده میدان‏شهدا در شهرمشهد بعنوان مجموعه‏ای باعناصر هویتی متعدد؛ازجمله دبیرستان‏شریعتی (قدیمی‏ترین مرکزآموزشی مدرن مشهد)؛ در شرایط فعلی، وضعیت مناسبی از نظر کیفیت زندگی ندارد. بنابراین وجه اثرگذاری آن درقالب مجموعه‏ای باارزش در ارتقای هویت شهر مشهد کاهش یافته است. این درحالیست که رویکرد طرح جامع مشهد، تاکید بر ارتقای هویت و کاهش تراکم این محدوده است. نتایج این بررسی، بیانگر نقش «کارکرد عناصر یاد شده» در شکل‏گیری وضعیت نابسامان آن است. به شکل خاص، استفاده از شیوه استدلالی استقراء و بهره‏گیری از مدلهای مسافت استاندارد و تحلیل شبکه از جابجایی470دانش‏آموز دبیرستان‏شریعتی، نشان داد که روزانه 3800کیلومتر سفر در شهر در پهنه‏ای به شعاع 6کیلومتر(بیش از3برابر میزان استاندارد) تولید می‏شود. این مطالعه روشن ساخت تداوم «کارکرد عناصر» از یکسو سبب ارتقای هویت و ازدیگرسو شلوغی محدوده وکاهش کیفیت محیط را موجب شده است. رویکرد آمایشی با تکیه بر ابعاد یادشده، با هدف دستیابی به انسجام، در ارتباط با «کارکرد عناصر»، ملاک را در تعادل قرار می‏دهد. بگونه‏ای که در سایه آن خواهد توانست علاوه بر حفظ کارکرد، از طریق مدیریت آن، کاهش تراکم و افزایش کیفیت محیط را به دنبال داشته باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: رویکرد آمایشی، میدان شهدا مشهد، عناصر باارزش هویتی، دبیرستان شریعتی
  • رحمان جهانی دولت آباد، اسماعیل جهانی دولت آباد* صفحات 99-124

    مطالعات و پژوهش های انجام یافته، کم و بیش بر نارسایی های کارکردی مناطق آزاد در کشور ایران اذعان داشته اند. از نگاه این مطالعه، ریشه نارسایی های کارکردی در منطقه آزاد مستتر در الگوهای فضایی فعالیت های اقتصادی آن است. این مقاله در نظر دارد نارسایی های کارکردی- فضایی و منطق شکل گیری آن در حوزه تجارت و بازرگانی منطقه آزاد ارس را با رویکردی انتقادی و با تاکید بر ابعاد و زوایای پنهان آن، مورد کشف و احصاء قرار دهد. گردآوری داده ها بر اساس روش کیفی و با استفاده از تکنیک مصاحبه های انجام یافته است. از روش تحلیل محتوای جهت دار یا هدایت شده برای تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات و از روش گلوله برفی نیز جهت انتخاب نمونه ها استفاده گردید. تعیین میزان حجم نمونه نیز بر اساس روش اشباع نظری صورت گرفت.  نتایج مقاله نشان می دهد که کارکرد و فضاهای حوزه تجارت و بازرگانی در منطقه آزاد ارس با نارسایی هایی عمده ای همچون ضعف مدیریتی، اقتصاد ناسالم، عدم برون گرایی و اقتصاد ناپایدار عجین شده است. شکل گیری فضای ناسالم اقتصادی همچون قاچاق کالا، خرید و فروش پروانه و... در این حوزه توام با تغییرات پی درپی مدیریتی و تشدید سیستم بوروکراتیک، همه نشان از استفاده ابزاری از فضاهای این حوزه و ناپایداری اقتصاد منطقه بواسطه عملکردهای فضایی آن دارد. از این منظر و با روند موجود، به جای اینکه منطقه آزاد روزنه ای برای خروج کشور از اقتصاد وابسته و ضعیف باشد، برعکس محلی برای یادگیری و تمرین خصیصه های چنین اقتصادی است.

    کلیدواژگان: نارسایی های کارکردی، فضا، اقتصاد سیاسی رادیکال، منطقه آزاد ارس
  • عبدالرضا رکن الدین افتخاری*، هدایت درویشی، بیژن رحمانی، مظفر صرافی صفحات 125-146

    توسعه روستایی را می توان فرآیند بازسازی جامعه روستایی براساس اندیشه و بینش جدید(علم باوری،انسان باوری،محیط باوری-مکان باوری، تعامل باوری، آینده باوری) به منظور ساماندهی یک زندگی شرافتمندانه و حق توسعه یافتگی دانست. دراین چارچوب، آینده سرزمینی مناطق روستایی با توسعه فضایی نیازمند طراحی سناریوهای فضایی است که بتواند در هر پیشامدی، راهگشای حل مسائل گردد .در این فرایند، شناسایی پیشران های کلیدی و آینده های بدیل هرکدام و تحلیل اثرگذاری و اثرپذیری متقاطع آینده های بدیل بر یکدیگر  درمناطق روستایی استان های کردستان،کرمانشاه، ایلام، لرستان و همدان از اهداف مورد نظر پژوهش حاضر است. با این توصیف سوال راهبردی این است که متناسب با پیشران های کلیدی و آینده های بدیل هرکدام، سناریوهای توسعه فضایی در مناطق روستایی کدام است؟ برای پاسخ به این سوال، روش شناسی بکار گرفته شده از یک سو، مبتنی بر استفاده از روش دلفی (مبتنی بر نظرات 20خبره موضوعی و موضعی) و بهره گیری از شیوه گردآوری کتابخانه ای به منظور شناسایی پیشران های کلیدی و از دیگر سو به منظور تحلیل اثرات متقاطع پیشران ها و آینده های بدیل آن ها و تدوین سناریوهای توسعه فضایی در مناطق روستایی از نرم افزار سناریو ویزارد استفاده شده است. نتایج پژوهش بیانگر این واقعیت است که تعداد 36 سناریو مشخص شده است؛که در این میان 27 سناریو ضعیف، 6 سناریو ناسازگار و 3 سناریو با سازگاری قوی مشخص گردیده است. در این بین، براساس معیارهای ارزیابی سناریوها(معقولیت و باورپذیری، تمایز، سازگاری درونی، محتوای سودمند، چالش برانگیزی)، سه سناریوی «بهار زاگرس»،«به استقبال بهار» و «خزان سازگار» با سازگاری قوی امکان وقوع بیشتری داشته است.

    کلیدواژگان: فضا، سناریو، توسعه فضایی، منطقه سه آمایش سرزمین
  • منیژه لاله پور* صفحات 147-174

    آمادگی مردم و اجتماعات محلی به منظور مواجهه با چنین حوادثی از اهمیت بالایی برخوردار است. بر اساس این ضرورت؛ تحقیق حاضر سطح آمادگی خانوارهای شهر ورزقان را در برابر بلایای طبیعی مورد بررسی قرار داده است. شهر ورزقان از شهرهای آسیب پذیر در برابر بلایایی همچون زلزله، سیل و کولاک است. بدین منظور، بر اساس مطالعه ادبیات نظری و پیشینه ی پژوهش، مفهوم آمادگی در  قالب 4 مولفه، 10 شاخص و 43 گویه تعریف شده است. روش تحقیق این پژوهش توصیفی- تحلیلی است. جامعه آماری پژوهش کلیه ی خانوارهای شهر ورزقان هست که با استفاده از فرمول کوکران حجم آن 305 خانوار تعیین شد. شیوه جمع آوری داده ها و اطلاعات تحقیق به صورت کتابخانه ای-اسنادی و میدانی (پرسشنامه) بوده است. یافته های تحقیق نشان می دهد که، آمادگی عملیاتی (0.088) و ذهنی- نگرشی (0.241) وضعیت نامطلوب دارند و آمادگی فیزیکی- کالبدی با بازه اطمینان (0.005)در وضعیت مناسبی قرار دارد. همچنین بر اساس نتایج تحلیل واریانس یک طرفه بین محلات (قدیم، میانی، جدید) ورزقان از نظر آمادگی خانوار در برابر بلایای طبیعی تفاوت معناداری وجود ندارد. ولی نتایج این آزمون برای تفاوت مولفه ها در بین خانوارها نشان داد که آمادگی کالبدی- فیزیکی با میانگین 3.100 در مقایسه با آمادگی عملیاتی با میانگین 2.947 دارای معناداری است.

    کلیدواژگان: بلایای طبیعی، آمادگی، خانوارها، شهر ورزقان
  • زهرا جمالی، مجید اونق*، عبدالرسول سلمان ماهینی صفحات 175-194

    این تحقیق با هدف بررسی ارتباط دمای سطح زمین با پوشش گیاهی و کاربری اراضی دشت گرگان به کمک داده های سنجش از دور انجام شد. در گام نخست، تصویر لندست 8 متعلق به سال 2018، پیش پردازش و آماده گردید و نقشه کاربری/پوشش سرزمین در 8 طبقه تهیه شد. سپس، برای اندازه گیری دمای سطحی از باند حرارتی تصویر و معادلات مربوط استفاده گردید. سرانجام، از شاخص اختلاف گیاهی نرمال شده یا NDVI برای محاسبه گسیل مندی سطحی استفاده و نقشه دمای سطح زمین LST استخراج شد. به منظور خنثی کردن اثر ارتفاع بر LST، پیکسل های انتخابی از نقاط هم ارتفاع در هر کاربری انتخاب شدند. نتایج نشان داد کاربری بایر به دلیل نداشتن پوشش حفاظتی دارای دمای بیشتری (96/45 درجه سانتی گراد) است، درحالی که کاربری زراعت آبی (با بالاترین میزان سبزینگی) با دمای 03/34 درجه سانتی گراد کم ترین میانگین دمایی را در بین سایر کاربری ها داشت. از آنجاکه کاربری جنگل در ارتفاعات بالاتری قرار دارد، دمای سطحی آن بصورت جداگانه بررسی گردید. مقایسه دمای سطحی پیکسل های مربوط به کاربری جنگل و بخش جنگل تراشی شده نشان داد که میزان LST در بخش جنگل تراشی شده حدود 5 درجه سانتی گراد بیشتر از کاربری جنگل است. در مجموع، مناطقی که پوشش گیاهی متراکم تری مانند جنگل دارند میزان LST به مراتب کمتری از سایر کاربری ها داشتند.

    کلیدواژگان: دشت گرگان، دمای سطح زمین، کاربری اراضی 2018، لندست 8، شاخص NDVI
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  • Morteza Mirgholami*, Mohammadreza Pourjafar, Seyed Mahmoud Misaghi Pages 1-41
    Introduction

    "Understanding and evaluating of spatial planning system" without recognizing of "planning and development system" of countries and without the Understanding of similar situations and lessons learned from others' experiences are not achieved to goals. In This paper isn’t "deliberately" used the experiences of advanced and developed industrial countries, and focus on "developing countries. " Because based on realistic approaches to development, the experiences of similar countries provide more appropriate territorial development strategies to the decision takers. Therefore, four countries (Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Turkey and Malaysia) have been selected for this assessment and analogy because based on social, economic, political and . . . characteristics, there is a greater relative and homogeneous relationship between the Islamic Republic of Iran and these countries, which is the main reason for this choice and comparison

    Methodology

     . In this analogy, two types of cognition include: basic knowledge (general and geographical status, economic and internal divisions), and special recognition (macro planning system and spatial planning system) were obtained from four countries and analogy with Iran. The method of research was descriptive-analytic and based on documentary and library studies that was completed by comparative analogy. First, the experienced international components were identified in the comparative evaluation knowledge and then based on the conditions of Iran and four Muslim countries The other seven and four components in the "content" and "procedural" dimensions for the concepts of "planning" and "spatial planning" were formulated and a comparative analogy was made for the situation in the five countries.

    Results and discussion

     according to the findings in the theoretical field (documentary-content), the macro-planning system of most of the studied countries is similar and in line with the more advanced industrial countries with some weaknesses, but in the field of action (process-outcome) the existing differences are very tangible. The situation in the urban planning of these countries has been weaker than their large-scale planning. In spatial planning at urban and metropolitan levels for planning and optimized spatial management, most often pursue the goal of sustainable development in varying degrees, and it is a way of responding to their challenges, but because of government features, lack of practical motivation and the lack of evaluation, monitoring and lack of cultural contexts in achieving the goals, they have a lot of obvious weaknesses.

    Conclusion

    The final findings showed that in the "macro planning system", all countries have a continuous planning horizon with distinct periods, a dominant economic approach, low participation, and a strong, but not executive, discursive chastiality. Iran, in terms of a theoretical approach similar to Saudi Arabia, Similar participation of Egypt and Saudi Arabia in the actors of development similar to Egypt and almost Turkey, and in other components, is the same as that of any other country. In the "Spatial Planning System", Iran has been involved in the components of the hierarchical levels of planning

    Keywords: Comparative Evaluation, Planning System, Spatial Planning, Developing Countries, Iran
  • Saeedeh Asadi*, Ali Sharghi Pages 43-64
    Introduction
    Disaster occurrence undermines the basis of the place and one of its consequences is the rupture of place identity and attachments, followed by a variety of psychological and social anomalies. On the other hand, the community health is linked to its sense of identity. Contradictions become apparent when this need is distorted or overlooked in the reconstruction process. Considering the profound effects of disasters on the objective and subjective landscape of the residents, and its inevitable effects on place identity and attachment, the need to create solutions aimed at rehabilitating them during the period of reconstruction and within the framework of resilience theory as the broadest approach to dealing with disasters, is seen.
    Methodology
    The current research has an exploratory nature so Q Methodology with a combination of qualitative and quantitative approach has been used. In the qualitative stage, the combination of the Delphi method in three stages and the grounded theory were used to codify and extract concepts and categories. The concepts that were effective on the subject of the research were used in the formulation of closed questions of questionnaires in the form of propositions with a Likert scale of 0 to 9. Panel members included 17 experts from the faculty members of three universities in Tehran, Which were initially selected using non-random sampling method, and in the next step, a non-randomized network sampling was selected. Finally, the Q factor analysis was performed on the data. Based on the findings of the grounded theory method, 6 dimensions including, emotional-cognitive, functional, physical, semantic / historical, social and cultural and 62 indicators of place identity and attachment were identified. The findings were evaluated based on the eight criteria influencing the resilient dimensions of place such as continuity, distinction, self-esteem, self-efficacy, readiness, sustainability, creativity and flexibility. After the initial pilot by 5 experts, the most relevant target - content relationship with resiliency criteria were determined.  In the next level after Q factor analyzing on the data, five schools of thought were identified among the experts. Then Shannon algorithm was used to determine the process of rehabilitating resilient dimensions of place identity and attachment.
    Result and Discussion
    Based on the findings, the experts identified five schools of thought including place-based cognitive-emotional connections; place as the resonance of individual and collective characteristics; providing opportunities by the features and spatial affordance of place; place as the body of values and contents; and place efficiency, which rehabilitate resilient dimensions of the place identity and attachment, and as a result adaptability to Changes caused by disasters. It was also found that according to the experts' view, place identity and attachment priority order are: emotional-cognitive, physical-functional, and ultimately cultural-social dimensions.
    Conclusion
    it seems that place distinction along with continuity, self-efficacy and sustainability of emotional-cognitive, functional, physical, cultural, social and semantic dimensions of place, enhances self-esteem in the place, sustain dimensions of place attachment, creativity, and innovate in place belonging, and therefore resilient place identity.
    Keywords: place identity, place attachment, disaster, change, resilience, resilience theory
  • Mehdi Bazargan, Mostafa Amirfakhriyan* Pages 65-98
    Introduction
    Among the various subjects, historical and cultural elements are among the factors influencing the formation of the city's identity. However, some of these elements, while maintaining their function, are considered as an active ingredient in the city's atmosphere as well. Hence, in addition to the "heritage value", they have "functional value". Also, along with the functional value of these elements, the method of gathering and deploying them should not be left out of view. This suggests that in a certain area of ​​the city, how many valuable elements are deployed and how they affect each other. Regardless of the need to plan for these valuable elements, only attention to their physical and physical dimensions is not important. But besides that, the issue of their work and their distribution pattern should be considered. However, this is the subject in many ways in interfering with worn-out tissues such as recreation, rehabilitation, and so on. In other words, it does not make clear what the difference in type of entry and planning for the mentioned patterns should be considered. Hence, personal effects are seen in the context of any of the interventions in the worn out tissues faced with these elements. On the other hand, in the current context, the projects developed for these emphasis on highlighting their physical value.
    The study seeks to demonstrate the "amateurish approach" to face-to-face value identity collections in urban textures (both worn and non-worn). How does this approach, while emphasizing inclusiveness, does not ignore Ryan's details? On the other hand, these collections are considered in the form of a coherent whole, and, in the shadow of such a look, it seeks to integrate and enhance the collection. Such an approach has been less considered in urban studies in dealing with historical and active collections. Therefore, the study can be considered as one of the first research activities in this field.
    Methodology
    Research methodology this study is based on descriptive and analytical methods and quantitative and qualitative methods was applied. The use of reasoning methods of analogy and induction is the basis of the work in this study. In this way, using the logic of induction and review of each user of Shariati high school (including 470 students), their daily distance from home to school and vice versa was determined. This step was carried out using GIS and the creation of a database of all students' residence locations, using network analysis methods and standardized distance. Also, in this section, the type of travel means of each student and the amount of travel they generated to this area was determined. For this purpose ArcGis and SPSS software were used. On the other hand, based on the method of analogy, the study of the documents and resources related to land use and its adaptation to the city's space and areas with valuable elements, was designed to develop a theoretical model. Then, while adapting the results of moving and moving students in the area of ​​Shohada Square, the theoretical model, identified the procedures and the results of this adaptation, and, while discussing and analyzing, suggestions were made.
    Research variables include the amount of student's passing, the student's transfer, the position of the valuable elements within the  shohada area, as well as the "words and names" of the valuable elements located within the martyrs field in order to find their place in the field of social justice. Is.
    Result and discussion
    The results of this study indicate the role of "the function of these elements" in shaping its disadvantage. In particular, the use of inductive reasoning and the use of "standard distance" and "network analysis" models from the displacement of 470 high school students in Shariati showed that a daily 3800 km journey in a 6 km radius (More than 3 times). This study, which clarifies the continuity of "elemental function", has, on the one hand, fostered identity and, on the other hand, congestion and reduced environmental quality. An approach based on these dimensions, balances the criterion in order to achieve coherence in relation to the "function of elements".
    Conclusion
    Therefore, according to the key points obtained, the confrontation and dichotomy of identity enhancement / degradation in the area of ​​martyrs can be viewed from the perspective of (1) the evaluation of the results of the function of valuable elements (such as Shariati high school) in the area of ​​the martyrs, and (2) To evaluate the pattern of the master plan for the area, as follows.
    1) Examining the results of the function of valuable elements (such as Shariati high school) in the area of ​​the Shohada Square: It can be said that part of the traffic and busy area of ​​the Shohada Square, as a result of the activities of its valuable elements such as Shariati high school. This bustle has degraded the quality of the environment.
    2) Evaluation of the master plan pattern for the shohada area: The findings of the study showed that in Mashhad's comprehensive plan to improve the status of this area, two important issues were considered: 1) improving the identity of the complex; and 2) reducing congestion and congestion.
    Keywords: Territorial Approach, Mashhad Shahada Square, Value Elements of Identity, Shariati High School
  • Rahman Jahani, Smail Jahanidowlatabad* Pages 99-124
    Introduction

      Aras Free Zone with economic activities in different areas, like other free zones, though rooted in classical and neoclassical theories, and Adam Smith's free trade theory, in particular, plays a decisive role in establishing it, but ignoring the principles governing the structure , Its function and its spatial evolution, is a kind of fall in the same abyss of absoluteism in the form of maximizing the profit and utility of individuals. From the perspective of this study, the root of functional failure in the free zone is the spatial patterns of its economic activity. One of the major areas of activity in the free zones is the trade and commerce sector, which has considerable scope in the Aras Free Zone. This paper intends to discover the functional-spatial imperfections and the logic of its formation in the commercial spaces of the Aras Free Zone, in order to provide an appropriate implementation of the objectives for the region.

     Methodology

    This study is an exploratory research in nature and catagorised iv fundamental-applied research type. The discovery of the mechanisms and logic governing the social content of the spaces was based on qualitative methods and, in particular, conducting field observations and in-depth and semi-structured interviews with the stakeholders. commercial spaces in this study also included more spaces that were firstly allocated to land levels, secondly, with the exemptions and privileges of the region, and, thirdly, indicative spaces related to the realization of the goals of the Free Zone be. In this study, the content-oriented analysis method was used to analyze the information and interviews conducted. The sampling method used for this method was snowball sampling method and the sample size was determined using theoretical saturation method. 20 experts from free zones and 48 trade and business activists were selected and interviewed.

    Results and Discussion

    The investigations showed that Aras Free Zone has allocated vast spaces to small businesses to achieve their transcendental goals; but the performance of these spaces is associated with major failings such as managerial weakness, unhealthy economy, lack of outsourcing and unsustainable economy, and is far from the ideal model based on the goals and foundations of free zones. Generally, the domain of small business in the Free Aras area is important in several ways. First, the lack of production conditions due to the macroeconomic policies of the state and the existence of renting and speculation in this field in order to gain more profit on the one hand and the adoption of early policies and measures in line with the periodic revenues due to the weakness of the management of the Aras Free Zone, on the other hand, The capital has been largely driven into this sector, thus providing the basis for its false growth. Second, according to the claims of the officials and experts of the Aras Free Zone, the business of microeconomy has been thriving for the purpose of developing tourism tourism, with the aim of attracting tourists to the region and the economic prosperity of the region, which is quite a look inwardly and in line with the mainland. There are conflicting goals with the outsourcing of the free zone. Third, the prosperity of other areas of the Free Arar Free Zone relies heavily on the entry of goods and its supply in these commercial spaces, which in some way reproduce the relations of the dependent capitalist economy, such as the intensification of consumerism and the formation of an unhealthy economy. In total, the currency is withdrawn from the country.

     Conclusion

    The results of this paper show that the function and spaces of trade and commerce in Aras Free Zone are associated with major failings such as management weakness, unhealthy economy, non-extroversion and unstable economy. The formation of an unhealthy economic environment, such as the sale and purchase of licenses, smuggling of goods and etc in this area, with the subsequent changes in the management and personal effects, as well as the intensification of the bureaucratic system for more revenue, all indicate the use the toolkit of the spaces in this area and instability of the region's economy is due to its spatial functions. From this perspective and with the current process, rather than a free space to leave the country dependent on the economy, it is the opposite of learning and practicing the characteristics of such an economy.

    Keywords: Functional failures, space, radical political economy, Aras Free Zone
  • Aftekari Abdolreza*, Hedayt Darvishi, Bejan Rahmani, Mozaffar Sarrafi Pages 125-146
    Introduction

     Rural areas, as geographical space, have different dimensions that require decision making for spatial development. The spatial development as a rare resource (sarrafi,2015,16) requires strategic policy-making, planning and governance in the current and future situation, so the optimal allocation of the spatial development in territorial policymaking is important; (sarrafi,2015,16) the scope of territorial expansion Rural Settlements, Variety of Territorial Capabilities of Rural Areas in Different Dimensions of Natural-Ecological, Social, Economic and Spatial, Territorial Integration, sectoral and Organizational in Spatial Development (Kidd, 2007), Collaboration Between sectoral and Territorial (Dominic Acid, Ayurte Meijer, 2009), context orientation (Lewis Albert, 2006), integration and participation of development actors Disability (Paul Carynclas, Sophia Hatzpia Neely, 2010) and (F. Van Weillin (2012), Implementation and Policymaking systems, Attitudes toward Rural Development, Policy-Making Policies, Rural Development Laws and Regulations Framework (Dervishes & Partners , 1396) are among the key factors influencing the complexity of spatial organization and the design of spatial development scenarios in rural areas. In this regard, the present study seeks to answer the following questions:1. What are the key driving forces and alternative futures of spatial development in rural areas?
    2- Which scenarios are appropriate for spatial development in rural areas?

    Methodology

    The present research is applied in terms of targeted and analytical in nature. The method of data collection is based on the use of data collection techniques such as the questionnaire or Cross Impact Matiex, the techniques of reduction of data (factors) Delphi methodology and data analysis techniques are based on cross-impact analysis. According to the requirements of using expert-oriented method, 20 experts and managers of national levels were selected using stratified sampling method. Data analysis has been done using the scenario wizard software, so that after identifying strategic driving force and identifying the alternatives for each of them, in order to measure the effect of different situations on each other , A range of positive effects, ineffective and negative effects were identified. In this framework, based on three attributes, increasing, decreasing and decreasing, the effects of alternative futures were identified in a range of numbers between 3 and +3.

     Results and Discussion

    Identifying the main driveing for spatial development, mapping of the Cross Impact Matiex and compiling spatial development scenarios in rural areas based on strategic drivers are among the most important findings of the research.
     In this regard, research findings have shown that the driving forces of the "policy framework and implementation of the programs", " attitude towards the development of rural areas", "rural development laws and regulations", "oil revenues and rural development" " inconsistency of policymaking-based policy making", " decision-making system (policy-making, planning and goodgovernance) in rural development" has been identified as the main (strategic) driving in the design process of spatial development scenarios. In addition, the propulsion has 19 possible modes (alternative futures).

     Conclusion

    Based on the results of the Cross-Impact Balance Analysis, 36 scenarios have been developed in scenario-driven software, in which 27 are weak scenarios, 6 are incompatible scenarios and 3 are highly adaptive scenarios. In the meantime, based on the criteria for assessing scenarios, three scenarios with a high degree of adaptability are possible. These scenarios include Zagros Spring, Spring Welcome, and Zagros Autumn, which are derived from a combination of a range of alternatives for six strategic driving forces strategic.

    Keywords: Space, Scenario, Spatial Development.Region Three
  • Manijeh Lalehpour* Pages 147-174
    Introduction

    Humans awareness of hazards and reaction to them, depends on the past experience and information and knowledge received from family, environment and society. Getting knowledge and experience about hazards is an educational process and need guidance in order to stay in the right way. Although the response is very important, the other way of reducing the impact of crises on societies is consideration the process of preparation in order to reduce vulnerability and improve flexibility. Elimination of hazards is impossible, but reduction of its damage is possible and society readiness is considered as part of decrease in damage and vulnerability program. More emphasis of readiness phase is empowerment and capacity building in the society which is at risk. Since every crisis is a local event, readiness begins from home with some simple steps in order to enhance the level of safety in life, protect life and property against events. Regarding importance of the subject, the present research has considered the level of readiness of Varzeqan city's households against natural hazards. Among 41 types of natural hazards in the world, 31 disasters occur in different regions of Iran. In Varzaghan based on its location, geological structure and existence of natural elements various disasters happen every year. One of the hazards that threatens Varzagan is flood, earthquake, snowfall, severe cold, blizzard and etc. Varzaghan is one of the most vulnerable areas which locating at the Alborz and Zagros Mountains encountering. Varzaghan is considered as one of the earthquake prone regions of the country. There is an earthquake hazard in the whole of the region, and the latest earthquake in the area occurred at 16:53, August 11, 2012, with a magnitude of 6.4 near the cities of Ahar and Varzaghan.  Considering the importance of investigation of this subject in the study area, the research hypotheses are as follows: The readiness of households against natural hazards in the Varzgan city is not appropriate. There is a significant difference among the urban neighborhoods of Varzaghan in readiness against natural hazards. There is a significant difference among the readiness components of Varzaghan city's households against natural disasters.

    Methodology

     The research method is descriptive-analytic, which is done using library-documentary and field study (questionnaire). The statistical population of the research is the households of Varzaghan city, which according to the statistic of 2015 were 1401 households. The sample size was estimated 305 households using Cochran formula. The analysis unit has been selected the households of old, middle and new textures of Varzaghan city. For sampling a cluster (neighborhoods), class (context) and simple random sampling (households) have been used. Validity of the questionnaires was confirmed by the experts. Cronbach's alpha method was used to reliability evaluation of measure instrument, which indicates the data is reliable (0.935). In order to find answer to the first hypothesis and measure the level of desirability of household readiness, one sample T test was used. To answer the second hypothesis and study of significance difference in readiness level among the neighborhoods of Varzaghan city, one-way analysis of variance has been used. To answer the third hypothesis and study of significance difference among the components of Varzaghan household's readiness, one-way analysis of variance and Tukey test has been used.

    Results and Discussion

     The results of t test for readiness of the Varzagan households against natural disasters indicate that the P-value (0.312) is greater than the alpha level (0.05); As a result, the state of readiness is not suitable and the first hypothesis of the research is confirmed. The neighborhoods difference has been studied in terms of readiness components among the old, middle and new textures. The results of one-way analysis of variance for differences in the level of readiness of households living in these neighborhoods indicate that there is no significant difference in the level of readiness among neighborhoods of Varzaghan city. The P-value obtained in this test is 0.743, which is greater than the alpha value of 0.05; Therefore, H0 is confirmed and the second hypothesis of the research is rejected. The reason for the lack of significant difference among neighborhoods is that of the homogeneity of the social and economic conditions of the people of the city, the lack of difference and discrimination among the city's textures and the equal consideration of them for the planning and implementation of programs, low population and small size of the city, which makes every program and training course to be considered for the whole city so that the entire population of the city is in a same state of readiness. The results of one-way ANOVA test showed the difference among the components. P-value in this test is 0.004, which is below the alpha level of 0.05; therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected and the third hypothesis of research is confirmed. The results of the Tukey test in determining the difference among the components show that group A contains physical readiness with an average of 3.1 and operational readiness with an average of 2.947 is in group B. Mental-attitude readiness with an average of 3.037 is in both groups. In the output of the second part of this test, there is only a difference between the operational readiness and physical readiness, and there is not significant difference between the other components.

    Conclusion

    Households' readiness has been studied in terms of three components, namely operational, mental-attitude and physical. The society preparation goal is rapid response to reduce the damages and short-term and long-term problems caused by a hazard and, ultimately, to reduce the damage and prevent them. The present research considered the level of readiness of Varzeqan city's households against natural hazards. In Varzaghan based on its location, geological structure and existence of natural elements various disasters happen every year. In general, the results of this study indicate that this region need to take the risks resulted from natural hazards seriously and increase the readiness of citizens against it. This requires serious attention to the public education of all classes and households by institutions and organizations which are responsible for this field.

    Keywords: : Natural hazards, Household readiness, Varzeqan City
  • Zahra Jamali, Majid Ownegh*, Abdol Rasoul Salman Mahini Pages 175-194
    Introduction

    Land surface temperature (LST) is controlled by the equilibrium of ground and atmosphere energy, as well as superficial and sub-surface thermal properties, and is considered as an important parameter in many environmental models. Knowing the extent of LST contributes to a wide range of issues related to earth sciences, such as the urban climate, global environmental changes, and the study of human-environment interactions. Land use and land cover information are recognized as an essential and important component of data used in various aspects of regional planning, research on global change, and applications in the field of environmental monitoring. On a global scale, changes in land use / land cover resulted in changes in regional and local temperature regimes. Land use patterns affect LST and can be considered as an indicator for the trend process. Using LST, everyone can find useful information about the physical and physical characteristics of the earth and climate that play a significant role in environmental processes. LST is an important factor in many fields of study such as global climate change, hydrology, agriculture, and land use / land cover.

    Methodology

    The aim of this study was the investigating the relationship between surface temperature and vegetation cover and land use in Gorgan plain using remote sensing data. In the first step, the Landsat 8 image of the year 2018 was pre-processed and prepared and the land use / land cover map was prepared in 8 classes. Then, to measure the surface temperature of the thermal bonding of the image and the related equations were used. Finally, the normalized difference vegetation index or NDVI was used to calculate surface mapping and the LST surface temperature map was created. In order to neutralize the effect of altitude on LST, selected pixels from the elevation points were selected in each land use. All LST computational steps and the NDVI index were performed using the ArcGIS10.4.1 software and the 2018 land use was created using the Idrisi software. In this research, the linear regression method was used to obtain the effect of NDVI and its effects on LST. Evaluation of LST extracted from meteorological stations It should be noted that the surface temperature, which indicates the surface heat of the body, is slightly different from that of the air contained in that body. Using the following equation, the air temperature can be obtained from the values of LST:Equation (1)
     In order to prove the accuracy of the work for the preparation of the surface temperature map, the temperature values measured by the three synoptic stations (Kordb ku-Blok, Gorgan and Nomal-Dam Kowsar) were compared on the same date with the obtained values of air temperature from the surface temperature values.

    Results and Discussion

    The results showed that bare land class has a higher temperature (45.96 ° C) due to lack of protective cover. Since the vegetation is very limited and dispersed in the bare land areas, the Earth is more exposed to solar waves. On the other hand, the surface of the bare solid ground is bright, which affects energy absorption and increases surface temperature. While the use of irrigated agriculture and water resources was 29.95 and 34.33 degrees Celsius, the lowest average temperature was observed among other classes. Considering the time taken to get the image of products cultivated in agriculture, they had an acceptable level of growth and greenness (high NDVI index highlighted the greenery of arable crops on this date) and by influencing evaporation reduction and maintaining soil moisture in effective thermal modification Which have led to less solar heat absorption and eventually reduced temperature. Water resources also reduce the surrounding air due to its high heat capacity and low solar energy absorption. Since forest class is at higher altitudes, its surface temperature was studied separately. The comparison of the surface temperature of the pixels related to the use of forest and the forestry sector showed that the LST in the forestry sector was about 5 degrees Celsius above the forest class. According to the results, the correlation between the NDVI index and the surface temperature is 0.65. The negative correlation obtained between this index and the surface temperature indicates an inverse relationship between this index and the surface temperature, and it can be deduced that in areas with high vegetation density such as forest use, surface temperature is much lower than other uses, which suggests a type of relationship Usage with surface temperature. According to Sig, this correlation is significant at 95% confidence level. Evaluation of surface temperature map prepared with ground data The results of the correlation test between the surface temperature of Landsat 8 and the air temperature of the meteorological station as well as the correlation between the air temperature and the existing stations were both obtained at 0.99, which confirmed the accuracy of equation (1) used to convert the LST data to the data Air temperature. The difference in LST between stations in the area indicates that stations are located in different environmental conditions due to environmental factors such as elevation, slope, direction, distance from the sea on LST.

    Conclusion

    In this study, to determine the relationship between land use and LST, the surface temperature map of the area was prepared and the surface temperature of the area between 14 and 51 degrees Celsius was estimated. Since the height parameter has an effective effect on temperature, the samples were selected from the height points of each land use. Thus, the effect of height factor on the results of the research was neutralized. In areas where vegetation is dense, such as forest, surface temperatures are far lower than other uses. Also, the irrigated agriculture class, which had a higher density than rangelands, showed lower temperatures. On the other hand, the bare lands had the highest surface temperature. Therefore, it can be concluded that vegetation is a major factor in surface temperature, especially in areas where this coating is denser. The effect is more obvious.

    Keywords: Gorgan plain, Land surface temperature, landuse of 2018, Landsat8, NDVI Index