فهرست مطالب

زبان پژوهی - پیاپی 32 (پاییز 1398)
  • پیاپی 32 (پاییز 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/09/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 15
|
  • عادل محمدزاده، سالار فرامرزی* صفحات 7-26

    پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی اثربخشی آموزش آگاهی تکواژی از طریق بازی بر مشکلات خواندن و نارساخوانی دانش آموزان با ناتوانی یادگیری ویژه انجام شد. این مطالعه از نوع نیمه آزمایشی با طرح پیش آزمون-پس آزمون همراه گروه گواه بود. جامعه آماری پژوهش کلیه ی دانش آموزان دختر را شامل می شد که در سال تحصیلی 96-95 در پایه ی تحصیلی دوم ابتدایی مدارس شهر درچه مشغول به تحصیل بودند. از جامعه ی مذکور، با روش تصادفی ساده 30 دانش آموز به عنوان نمونه انتخاب شدند و در دو گروه 15 نفره آزمایش و گواه قرار گرفتند. سپس گروه آزمایش به مدت 10 جلسه و هر هفته 3 جلسه تحت مداخله ی آگاهی تکواژی از طریق بازی قرار گرفت. در این زمان، گروه گواه هیچ گونه مداخله ای دریافت نکرد. ابزار مورد استفاده در این پژوهش آزمون خواندن و نارساخوانی نما (کرمی نوری و مرادی، 1384) و آزمون محقق ساخته بود. داده های بدست آمده از پژوهش، با آزمون آماری تحلیل کوواریانس مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که تاثیر مداخله ی آگاهی تکواژی بر نارساخوانی دانش آموزان (در مولفه های زنجیره ی کلمات، زمان خواندن و صحت خواندن) در سطح 0.05=α معنی دار می باشد. بنابر نتایج پژوهش حاضر می توان گفت از آنجا که آگاهی تکواژی با شناخت و درک ساختار کلمات مرتبط است و همچنین در معنادهی به کلمات موثر می باشد، پیشنهاد می شود از مداخله ی آگاهی تکواژی به منظور افزایش مهارت های خواندن دانش آموزان با ناتوانی یادگیری ویژه استفاده گردد.

    کلیدواژگان: آگاهی تکواژشناختی، نارساخوانی، ناتوانی یادگیری ویژه
  • عادله مطلق، ملوک خادمی*، مریم دانشگر صفحات 27-48

    نوشتن پیچیده ترین مهارت زبانی است که برای آموزش آن نیاز به آموزش مهارت های شناختی و فراشناختی زیاد و باتوجه به بعد عاطفی و اجتماعی است. هدف از این پژوهش بررسی میزان پرداختن به این مهارت ها در برنامه درسی قصد شده و کتاب های درسی فارسی دوره ابتدایی است که مهمترین منابع آموزش نوشتن در کشور محسوب می شوند. بنیان نظری پژوهش رویکرد فرآیند محور است؛ نمونه آماری، کتاب فارسی (مهارت های خوانداری) و کتاب‎ فارسی (مهارت های نوشتاری) پایه ششم است که با روش تحلیل محتوای هدایت شده یا قیاسی ازنظر دارا بودن مهارت های پایه یا خرد و مهارت های سطح بالا یا کلان نوشتن، فرصت های نوشتن برای این مهارت ها و همچنین ایجاد اجتماعی از نویسندگان، تجزیه وتحلیل شدند. از آمار توصیفی برای استخراج و پردازش یافته ها استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که در کتاب های فارسی پایه ششم بیشتر به مهارت های خرد و پایه پرداخته می شود و نسبت به مهارت های کلان و سطح بالا کم توجهی یا بی توجهی می شود. نتایج همچنین نشان داد رویکرد غالب در این کتاب ها به آموزش نوشتن رویکردی برآیندنگر است و تناسبی میان ابعاد شناختی، عاطفی و رفتاری نوشتن وجود ندارد. بیشترین تاکید بر بعد رفتاری و کمترین تاکید بر بعد عاطفی است. برنامه قصدشده نیز رویکردی برآیند نگر دارد. هرچند رویکرد محتوای نوشته شده با برنامه قصد شده هماهنگ است، بی توجهی به رویکرد فرایندمحور که روشی موثر در امر آموزش به ویژه در آموزش مهارت نوشتن است به عنوان کاستی فراگیر و آسیبی مهم باید مورد توجه متخصصان این حوزه قرار گیرد.

    کلیدواژگان: رویکرد برآیندی، رویکرد فرآیندی، رویکرد فرآیندمحور، مهارت های پایه نوشتن، مهارت های سطح بالای نوشتن
  • محمد موسوی بفرویی*، مریم توکل نیا صفحات 49-76

    در استعاره های مفهومی؛ گوینده یک مفهوم خاص غیر قابل فهم را با تکیه بر تجربیات شناخته شده و طرح واره های تصویری، برای مخاطب قابل درک می کند، امام علی(ع) هم در نهج البلاغه از این مقوله ی زبان شناسی شناختی با وجود ابزارهایی چون ظرف «فوق» استفاده کردند، تا زبان نهج البلاغه با وجود برخورداری از امور پیچیده و معنوی برای همگان قابل فهم شود. لذا تحلیل و بررسی استعاره های مفهومی ظرف «فوق» در زبان نهج البلاغه، هدف نگارش این نوشتار قرار گرفته و به روش توصیفی و تحلیلی به آن پرداخته شده است، و بعد از باز خوانی تفاوت استعاره در رویکرد شناختی و در رویکرد سنتی می توان گفت؛ اولا در نهج البلاغه، واژه ی فوق دارای کانون استعاری قوی است که بر رابطه ی مکانی دلالت داشته و از ترکیب «بالا» و «در طول» به دست آمده است، ثانیا تغییر جایگاه مسیرپیما در مرزنما، طرح واره های دیگری را ترسیم کرده، که مفهوم مبدا را تشکیل می دهد، این طرح ها، خود مبنای ساخت یک مفهوم انتزاعی محسوب می شود. ثالثا در بررسی موردی فوق در تعبیرات نهج البلاغه، مشخص گردید، که «جهت و حرکت» مفهوم مبدا بوده، مفاهیم انتزاعی چون «تسلط، عظمت، احاطه، گستردگی، علو مقامی و...» مفهوم مقصد می باشند.

    کلیدواژگان: استعاره های مفهومی، ظرف فوق، طرح واره های تصویری، نهج البلاغه، معنای پیش نمونه
  • محمد شکری*، علی نظری، سیدمحمود میرزایی الحسینی صفحات 77-101

    این پژوهش در پی آن است که ساختار واحدهای زبانی توصیف کننده ی فعل و صفت در زبان عربی را با آنچه در زبان های فارسی و انگلیسی «قید» نامیده می شود، تطبیق دهد. بررسی تطبیقی این ساختارها برای پاسخ به این پرسش است که آیا اصولا می توانیم نقشی را که عموما قید نامیده می شود در زبان عربی نیز بازیابیم و اینکه آیا می توان بر اساس شباهت ساختارهای قیدی، میان عربی از یک طرف و فارسی و انگلیسی از طرف دیگر تعادلی ایجاد کرد که به شناسایی بهتر نقش قید در زبان عربی منجر شود. بدین منظور باید از شیوه ی دستور سنتی، که عموما مبتنی بر اعراب پایانی کلمات است و واحد دستوری را «کلمه» می داند، صرف نظر کنیم و مبنای تحلیل خود را سازه هایی قراردهیم که در آن نقش ظاهر می شوند. در این تحلیل، ما از دستاوردهای دستور زایشی-گشتاری بهره گرفته ایم و از استدلال های نحوی از قبیل همپایگی، جانشینی و جابه جایی استفاده کرده ایم. به این صورت که ابتدا یک نوع ساختاری قید را با مثال هایی از انگلیسی و فارسی معرفی می کنیم سپس برمی رسیم که این ساختار چگونه در عربی ظهور می یابد. در فارسی و انگلیسی علاوه بر واژگان قیدی، سازه هایی از قبیل «گروه حرف اضافه ای»، «گروه اسمی»، «گروه صفتی» و «جمله واره ی قیدی» می توانند در نقش نحوی قید ظاهر شوند. در پایان، از این پژوهش برآمد که همین سازه ها در عربی نیز یافت می شوند لکن عموما با نام های دیگر معرفی شده اند. به علاوه، یک ساختار ویژه ی قیدی معرفی شد که در زبان های انگلیسی و فارسی نمونه ای ندارد. ما این ساختار را با نام »گروه قیدی» معرفی کردیم.

    کلیدواژگان: قید، گروه حرف اضافه ای، جزء قیدی، جمله واره ی قیدی، دستور صورتگرا
  • ژینو ابراهیمی*، روناک مرادی صفحات 103-126

    بررسی قدرت و قاطعیت گفتار گویشوران کرد زبان براساس رویکرد تسلط لیکاف چکیده: پژوهش حاضر به بررسی گفتار گویشوران کردزبان مقیم شهرستان کامیاران (استان کردستان) بر اساس رویکرد تسلط لیکاف (1975) می پردازد. طبق نظر لیکاف، فراوانی به کارگیری برخی از ویژگی ها در زبان زنان نسبت به زبان مردان بیشتر است؛ وی از این ویژگی ها به عنوان نشانگرهای زبانی عاری از قدرت و قاطعیت یاد می کند و به همین دلیل گونه زبانی زنان را ضعیف می داند. هدف از این تحقیق بررسی این مسئله است که عامل جنسیت در کنار متغیر تحصیلات چه تاثیری در قاطعیت گفتار ایجاد می کنند. داده ها در تحقیق حاضر به صورت میدانی و از طریق مصاحبه گردآوری شدند و پس از بررسی های لازم، با استفاده از آزمون مربع خی در محیط نرم افزار SPSS به محک آزمون گذاشته شدند. نتایج حاکی از آن است که بین جنسیت، تحصیلات و فراوانی کاربرد گفتار عاری از قدرت در گویش مذکور رابطه معناداری وجود دارد. با توجه نتایج این پژوهش، باید گفت که متغیر تحصیلات در ایجاد زبانی قوی و همچنین کمرنگ کردن نشانگرهای عدم اعتماد به نفس و قدرت در کلام زنان نقش چشمگیری نداشته است.

    کلیدواژگان: قاطعیت گفتار، جنسیت، تحصیلات، سورانی، رویکرد تسلط لیکاف
  • صدیقه زینلی دستویی، عباسعلی آهنگر*، پاکزاد یوسفیان، استفن لوینسون صفحات 127-158

    توصیه های پزشکی فارسی به عنوان یکی از حوزه های گفتمان غیرروایی تاکنون مورد توجه پژوهشگران قرار نگرفته اند. از این رو، این پژوهش به بررسی و مقایسه ی کاربرد ابزارهای "پیش فرض "، "تقویت " و "تضعیف " توصیه با درنظر گرفتن شدت نسبی این ابزارها در کتاب های نسخه نویسی پزشکی فارسی و مجلات برخط پزشکی فارسی بر اساس الگوی لوینسون برای بررسی متون غیرروایی می پردازد. داده ها از 100 متن کتاب های نسخه نویسی پزشکی فارسی و 100 متن مجلات برخط پزشکی فارسی انتخاب شدند و نرم افزار آماری SPSS جهت تحلیل داده ها بکار برده شد. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد: اول اینکه، "دستورالعمل های بدون فعل" و "صورت های امری" از ابزارهای پیش فرض و "باید" و "بهتر است" به ترتیب در میان صورت های "تقویت" و "تضعیف" توصیه در کتاب های نسخه نویسی پزشکی فارسی و مجلات برخط پزشکی فارسی بودند. دوم اینکه، با توجه به توزیع ابزارهای "پیش فرض"، صورت های "تقویت" و "تضعیف" توصیه در دو پیکره پژوهش تفاوت معناداری مشاهده گردید. درنهایت، عواملی همچون "برتری دانش پزشک"، "نوع متون توصیه" و "جایگاه توصیه ها در متن" بر انتخاب نوع توصیه ها در متون پزشکی فارسی تاثیرگذار است.

    کلیدواژگان: ابزارهای توصیه، تحلیل گفتمان پزشکی، الگوی لوینسون
  • هنگامه واعظی*، یادگار کریمی صفحات 159-177

    پژوهش حاضر به تبیین ابعاد رده شناختی پیوند و همپایگی انواع پرسشواژه ها در زبان فارسی اختصاص دارد. دراین نوع همپایگی ، همسانی که شرط لازم در این فرآیند نحوی است، رعایت نمی شود وپرسشواژه هایی از دو گروه متمایز موضوع و افزوده نیز با حرف ربط((و)) پیوند می خورند. مطالعه سوابق نشان می دهد که چنین بحثی در زبان فارسی مورد پژوهش نبوده است. در این بررسی قصد داریم بدانیم که چه انواعی از پرسشواژه ها با یکدیگر همپایه می شوند و زبان فارسی در کدام رده زبانی قرار دارد. پس از ارزیابی رده ای زبان فارسی، چنین حالت هایی در شرایط حذف بندی نیز مورد مطالعه قرار می گیرند. بررسی داده ها نشان می دهد که پیوند دو پرسشواژه افزوده، یک پرسشواژه موضوعی (اجباری یا اختیاری) و یک افزوده در این زبان مجاز است. اما پیوند دو پرسشواژه موضوعی در داده ها مشاهده نشد. بنابراین زبان فارسی در هیچ یک از رده های زبانی آزاد، آمیخته و افزوده ای مطرح در زبان های دنیا قرار نمی گیرد. پیوند پرسشواژه ها دو نوع را نشان می دهد؛ متوالی و گسسته. نوع متوالی پرسشواژه ها در جملات مرکب با حذف بندی نیز به کار می روند. در فرآیند حذف بندی دو نوع با مرجع و بدون مرجع وجود دارد. در جملات با حذف بندی با مرجع، حضور پرسشواژه های پیوندی مجاز نیست. پیوند متوالی دو پرسشواژه تنها در نوع بدون مرجع مشاهده شد و حرکت هر یک از پرسشواژه ها به تنهایی در هر بند مجاز است. در این زبان، در هر بند تنها یک سازه کانونی وجود دارد و حرکت همزمان بیش از یک پرسشواژه مجاز نیست. بنابراین چنین حالتی، فرض دو بندی بودن چنین جملاتی را در زبان فارسی قوت می بخشد .

    کلیدواژگان: زبان فارسی، پرسش های چند پرسش واژه ای پیوندی، رده زبانی، همپایگی، حذف بندی
  • تینا قنبریان* صفحات 179-208

    مطالعات نظری زبانشناسی و تجربه عملی در فرهنگ نویسی، دو شاخه مستقل از بررسی های زبانی اندکه هرکدام با پرسش ها و مسائل خاص خود روبه رو هستند اما درحوزه «معنی شناسی واژگانی » کار زبان شناس و فرهنگ نویس بیشترین مرز مشترک را باهم دارند؛ و از این میان نیز بیشترین همگرائی درمبحث «چندمعنایی » به چشم می خورد. درپژوهش حاضر بررسی چندمعنایی برمقوله واژگانی «فعل» انجام شده و داده ها،که مشتمل بر حدود 500 جمله و عبارت می شوند، مربوط به فعل حرکتی «افشاندن» است. با نظر به اینکه «زبان شناسی شناختی» بحث های معناشناسی واژگانی را در مرکز مطالعات خود قرار داده، پژوهش حاضر به توصیف چند معنایی فعل «افشاندن» در چارچوب نظریه «معنا شناسی چارچوب» ، «شبکه واژگانی» و «دستور ساختی» که از نظریات موردتوجه در زبان شناسی شناختی هستند، می پردازد. در بررسی چندمعنائی فعل افشاندن به منظور ایجاد تفکیک های معنائی، به طرح دو پرسش پرداختیم: 1) مرز دو برش معنائی کجاست؟ 2) آیا بین معانی مختلف یک واژه چندمعنا ارتباط برقرار است و این موضوع چطور می تواند در فرهنگ نویسی موثر باشد؟ بر اساس نتایج این پژوهش مسئله «هم معنایی» و «شمول معنایی» و وجود «شبکه معنایی» بین معناهای مختلف یک فعل چند معنا از جمله مباحث زبان شناسی شناختی است که درمرحله «تفکیک معانی» از کار تعریف نگاری فعل و در پاسخ گوئی به پرسشهای پژوهش حاضر از اهمیت برخوردار هستند واگرتعریف نگار بتواند بیشتر از ابزار توصیفی که زبان شناسی و به خصوص شاخه شناختی در اختیار او قرار می دهد استفاده کند، کار او نظام مند تر و از خطاهای شخصی بیشتر دور می شود.

    کلیدواژگان: فرهنگ نویسی، تعریف نگاری، زبان شناسی شناختی، فعل، چندمعنایی
  • شجاغ تفکری رضایی، مصطفی خان محمدی* صفحات 209-229

    رویکرد حاشیه های نحوی چامسکی(chomsky, 2000, 2001) و خطی شدن چرخه ای فاکس و پزتسکی (fox & pesetsky, 2005) دو رویکرد مطرح در تبیین حرکت در نحو فاز بنیاد می باشند. در این مقاله نقاط قوت و ضعف این دو رویکرد با داده های قلب نحوی در کردی کلهری به چالش کشیده می شود. یافته های این مقاله نشان می دهد که براساس رویکرد حاشیه نحوی، قلب نحوی نزدیک و قلب نحوی دور در کردی کلهری هر دو از سازوکار یکسانی تبعیت می کنند. در این رویکرد عنصر مقلوب به صورت چرخه ای و منحصرا از طریق حاشیه نحوی فاز های واژگانی و نقشی به مشخص گر گروه تاکید حرکت می کند. عدم ارائه تبیینی بهینه از مرجع گزینی دور ضمیر پی چسبیey (اش) در قلب دور، از نقاط ضعف رویکرد حاشیه نحوی است. در رویکرد خطی شدن چرخه ای، قلب نحوی نزدیک و دور در حاشیه نحوی و قلب چندگانه در جایگاه غیر حاشیه رخ می دهد. توجیه بهینه مرجع گزینی دور ضمیر پی چسبی در قلب دور، از نقاط قوت رویکرد خطی شدن چرخه ای است. تبیین فراتر از واقعیت (تعمیم افراطی) در دستوری اعلام کردن قلب دور گروه فعلی برخلاف واقعیات زبانی کردی کلهری نقطه ضعف این رویکرد است. به طور کلی، رویکرد خطی شدن چرخه ای توان تبیینی بهینه تری در اغلب موارد نسبت به رویکرد حاشیه نحوی دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: قلب نحوی، رویکرد حاشیه نحوی، رویکرد خطی شدن چرخه ای، کردی کلهری
  • جواد زارع* صفحات 231-252

    هدف از انجام این پژوهش، دسته بندی و بررسی عبارات نشانگر اهمیت مطلب بر اساس نقش کلامی و موقعیت قرارگیری در ارائه های علمی فارسی بود. نتایج مبتی بر 60 ارائه مندرج در پیکره فارسی سخن عبارت است از: 1) از نظر موقعیت نشانگر، هشت ساختار برای نشانگرهای پیش مرجع و نه ساختار برای نشانگرهای پس مرجع یافت شد. در این میان، ساختارهای «نکته مهم + صفت اشاره - اسم - صفت - فعل ربطی» و «نکته مهم + سوال امتحان» برای نشانگرهای پیش مرجع و ساختار «فعل + نکته مهم» برای نشانگرهای پس مرجع دارای بیشترین فراوانی بودند. 2) تعداد نشانگرهای پس مرجع نسبت به پیش مرجع؛ از فراوانی تکرار بیشتری برخوردار بودند. 3) بر اساس نقش کلامی، پنج دسته نشانگر شامل «سازمان دهی کلام»، «تعامل با مخاطب»، «وضعیت مطلب»، «شرح موضوع» و «ارتباط با امتحان» یافت شد. از این پنج دسته نشانگر، «تعامل با مخاطب» بیشترین مقدار عددی را به خود اختصاص داد. به طور کلی، نتایج حاکی از این است که ارائه دهنده ها علمی- فارسی بیشتر تمایل دارند تا در کار خود برای برجسته کردن مطالب مهم، با مخاطب تعامل داشته باشند. به بیان بهتر، این افراد بیشتر سعی می کنند تا به جای جمع آوری اطلاعات و عدم توجه به برداشت مخاطب نسبت به اهمیت مطالب؛ از توجه مخاطب درباره اهمیت داده های مهم اطمینان حاصل کنند. این مهم، معمولا از طریق دخیل کردن مخاطبان در فرایند کلام صورت گرفته و مطالب مهم به ترتیبی ارائه می شود که مخاطب بتواند برای توجه بیشتر به آنها و یا یادداشت برداری، از پیش برنامه ریزی کند.

    کلیدواژگان: عبارات نشانگر اهمیت مطلب، عبارات فراکلامی، ارائه علمی فارسی، پیکره
  • ابراهیم کنعانی* صفحات 253-279

    «دیگری»، از موضوعات مهم طرح شده در حوزه های مطالعات فرهنگی، فلسفی، انسان شناختی و نشانه- معناشناسی است. یکی از مباحث اصلی گفتمان عرفانی شرق، «دیگری» است و اصولا در تمام عرفان مساله مهم، نگاه کردن از منظر «دیگری» است. مساله «دیگری»، از ویژگی های شاخص گفتمان عرفانی و فرهنگی مولانا نیز به شمار می آید. در گفتمان مولانا، دیگری در کارکردهای مختلف گفتمانی نمود می یابد و پیوسته تعاملی میان دیگری و من برقرار می شود. مساله مهم این است که این تعامل، چگونه تحقق می یابد و چه طور در شکل دهی به معنا دخالت می کند. بر اساس این، پرسش اصلی پژوهش حاضر این است که چگونه و بر اساس کدام کارکردهای گفتمانی، تعامل میان دیگری و من تحقق می پذیرد و این تعامل در قالب چه گفتمانی طرح و نمایه می گردد. در واقع، هدف مقاله، تبیین ویژگی های نظام «دیگر محور» و چگونگی تحقق آن، در دو نمونه از غزل های مولانا و بررسی نقش آن در شکل دهی به فضاهای فرهنگی و ارزشی است. فرضیه ما این است که در غزل مولانا «دیگری» حضوری متمرکز دارد و مرکز انرژی ها است. اما این وجه متمرکز، در فرایندی تطبیقی حضور خود را به صورت متکثر به تمام فضا تسری می دهد و با ارتقای پایگاه حضوری من، ابژه ها و سوژه ها، وضعیتی استعلایی را رقم می زند. این وضعیت، برآیند حضور بنیادی دیگری دیگری ها (فرامن) است که همه عوامل گفتمانی در پیوند با او معنا و ارزش می یابند.

    کلیدواژگان: نشانه- معناشناسی، من، تعامل، دیگری، مولانا
  • معصومه پلویی*، محمدرضا احمدخانی صفحات 281-309

    زبان مخفی یکی از گونه های زبان معیار است که در میان جوانان یا گروه های بزهکار جامعه شکل می گیرد. هدف این مقاله شناسایی روابط معنایی در واژگان زبان مخفی در چهارچوب نظریه ساختگرایی است. حجم نمونه 1507 واژه است؛ که به دو روش اسنادی از فرهنگ لغات زبان مخفی وروش مصاحبه محقق ساخته با روش نمونه گیری گلوله برفی استخراج گردیده است. پس از جمع آوری و آمایش، واژه ها بر اساس ماهیت و مفهومشان در چهارده حوزه معنایی دسته بندی شدند. علاوه بر تعیین حوزه های معنایی، مفهوم هر دسته واژگانی نیز مشخص شد. زیرا، خالقان واژگان زبان مخفی در ساختن این واژه ها و به قصد نهان نگه داشتن اسرار درون گروهی از دانش درون زبانی خود استفاده می کنند؛ در حالی که، ممکن است مصداق این واژه ها با این مفاهیم متفاوت باشد. سپس، روابط معنایی داده های واژگانی هر حوزه با روش تحلیل محتوای کیفی تعیین گردید. سوال این پژوهش این است که در صورت وجود روابط معنایی در زبان مخفی بیشترین و کمترین بسامد روابط معنایی متعلق به کدام رابطه است؟ نتایج تحلیل معنایی در این پژوهش نشان می دهد که ترادف معنایی و هم نویسه به ترتیب بیشترین و کمترین فراوانی روابط معنایی را در این واژگان دارند.

    کلیدواژگان: معنی شناسی ساختگرا، شبکه روابط معنایی، جامعه شناسی زبان، زبان مخفی، زبان عامیانه
  • عبدالله عزت دوست*، مجتبی منشی زاده، حیات عامری صفحات 311-330

    مقاله حاضر به بررسی ساخت مجهول در گویش تالشی می پردازد .این گویش در مناطقی از گیلان رایج می باشد و به سه گونه مرکزی ، شمالی و جنوبی تقسیم بندی می شود. روش انجام این پژوهش میدانی و کتابخانه ای است. چون در آن داده های زبانی به صورت میدانی و از طریق مصاحبه با 30 گویشور بومی روستای سه سار جمع آوری شده است . در بخش چارچوب نظری این مقاله از آثار نوشتاری دیگر نویسندگان نیز استفاده می شود. گونه مورد بررسی در این مقاله از نوع جنوبی است که در روستای سه سار رایج می باشد . این گویش دارای دو نظام حالت فاعلی - مفعولی و کنایی - مطلق است . بنابراین این مقاله به چگونگی ساخت مجهول در این دو نظام حالت می پردازد تا به این سوالات پاسخ دهد که آیا در این گویش ساخت مجهول وجود دارد ؟ و با وجود این دو نظام حالت ، مجهول سازی در آن چگونه انجام می گیرد؟ نتایج به دست آمده از این پژوهش نشان می دهد که در گویش تالشی سه سار ساخت مجهول وجود دارد و در آن هر چند ساخت مجهول با حذف عامل صورت می گیرد اما در مواردی نیز عامل از جمله حذف نمی شود بلکه ، با تغییر جایگاه ، بعد از مفعول به صورت شناسه مبهم متصل می آید. و ساخت مجهول تنها در صورتی بطور همزمان در ساخت های کنایی رخ می دهد که عامل از جمله حذف نشود.

    کلیدواژگان: ساخت مجهول، ساخت معلوم، گویش تالشی سه سار، حالت فاعلی - مفعولی، حالت کنایی - مطلق
  • زینب قاسمی اصل*، شهریار نیازی صفحات 331-355

    پژوهش حاضر با هدف تحلیل نمود زبان شناختی ساخت های گفتمان مدار در متون عربی و تبیین استراتژی های معنایی که در شکل گیری گفتمان متن نقش دارند، صورت گرفت. بدین منظور 20 سرمقاله روزنامه الحیاه عربستان با موضوع مسائل ایران، انتخاب و با استفاده الگوی ون دایک مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها بیانگر این است که بیشترین نمود زبان شناختی ساخت های معنایی گفتمان مدار در روزنامه الحیاه، مربوط به دو استراتژی فاصله گذاری و قطبی شدگی است و نویسندگان به استفاده از مولفه هایی مانند تلویح تمایل چندانی نشان نداده اند که متناسب با تقابل و درگیری های لفظی دو کشور در سال های اخیر است. با توجه به مولفه های بررسی شده، ایدئولوژی حاکم بر ذهن نویسندگان، «معرفی ایران به عنوان تهدیدی برای امنیت منطقه» بوده که از ساختار کلان به ساختار خرد انتقال یافته و در محور معنا که مورد نظر این پژوهش است، به صورت ساخت های زبانی مثل پیش انگاشت، تعمیم، فاصله گذاری، به نمایی و... مورد استفاده قرار گرفته است.

    کلیدواژگان: تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی، ساخت های گفتمان مدار، ایدئولوژی، ون دایک، روزنامه الحیاه
  • شراره چاوشیان*، مریم شریف صفحات 357-376

    در جامعه ی پسامدرن، جایی که سیستم اقتصادی افراد را به مصرف گرایی سوق می دهد، شرکت های بزرگی تاسیس شده اند که با در دست گرفتن تولید، از جمله تولید "هنر پرفروش"، عرض اندام می کنند. این شرکت ها اکثرا در ساختمان های بسیار بلند قرار دارند، برج هایی شبیه " یومی موتو" در کتاب ترس و لرز اثر املی نوتوم. معماری این گونه ساختمان ها با توسعه ی پسامدرن حاصل از پیشرفت صنعتی قرن بیستم مطابقت دارد. برج، که یکی از بارزترین اشکال معماری توسعه ی معاصر شهری است، در واقع نماد سلطه ی تجارت بر زندگی است. آسیای دور، جایی که داستان در آن به وقوع می پیوندد، با پیشرفت سریع اقتصادی پس از جنگ جهانی دوم دارای آسمان خراش های متعددی شده است. با این وجود، شایان ذکر است که روابط میان برج شهری و ترس و لرز املی نوتوم به رابطه ی این کتاب با ژانر به اصطلاح تجاری محدود نمی شود. چراکه در خوانش رمان درمی یابیم که معماری برج، هم با ساختار روایی و هم با ساختار نوشتاری داستان در ارتباط است که حاصل آن متن-سازه ای نظام مند است. بدین منظور در ابتدا به مرور رابطه معماری و ادبیات، سپس به تحلیل کتاب ترس و لرز و نقش های عاملی معماری و عناصر آن در متن خواهیم پرداخت.

    کلیدواژگان: معماری، برج، سلسله مراتب، فضا، سقوط
|
  • Adel Mohamadzade, Salar Faramarzi * Pages 7-26

    Specific learning disability (SLD) is disability or disorder that the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) definition refers to it, affects a specific academic skill or domain. According to IDEA, SLD is defined as follows: The term “specific learning disability” means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which disorder may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, spell, or do mathematical calculations. Such a term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. Such a term does not include a learning problem that is primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities; of mental retardation; of emotional disturbance; or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage (Jacobs, Flanagan and Alfonso, 2016). One of the main problems of students with SLD is Dyslexia. Developmental dyslexia is the most widely used term for children who experience severe difficulties in learning to decode print. Children with dyslexia find it hard to recognize printed words, have great difficulties ‘sounding out’ unfamiliar words, and often also read slowly. In European languages, which have more regular writing systems than English, the main symptoms of dyslexia are poor reading fluency and spelling but the predictors of reading (and dyslexia) are the same, namely letter knowledge, phoneme awareness and rapid naming (RAN) skills (Hulme and Snowing, 2016). Theretofore, several intervention have been used to improve Dyslexia in students with SLD, that one of them is morphological awareness instruction. Researchers have documented that a conscious awareness of the morphological is related to reading skills (Cunningham and Carroll, 2015). Words are composed of morphemes, the smallest units of language that convey meaning. Morphemes can be free (i.e., base1 words; book, clap, good, hook) or bound (i.e., prefixes and suffixes, collectively known as affixes; books, clapped, goodness, unhook). Words that consist of only a free morpheme are monomorphemic, and words that contain both free and bound morphemes are multimorphemic. Multimorphemic words can be inflected or derived. Inflected morphemes change the tense or number of a free morpheme (e.g., clapped, books), whereas derived morphemes change the part of speech and/or meaning of the base word (e.g., goodness, unhook). Prefixes always modify the meaning of a base word, whereas suffixes may or may not affect base words’ meanings (Apel and Werfel, 2014). Morphological awareness refers to an individual’s ability to consciously consider the structure of words in terms of the smallest meaningful units and to analyze and manipulate these units (Larsen and Nippold, 2007; Apel and Werfel, 2014). Morphological awareness can be operationalized as an individual’s performance on tasks that require conscious analysis of the morphological structure of words (Berninger, Abbott, Nagy and Carlisle, 2010; Apel and Werfel, 2014).

    Purpose

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency of play therapy based of morphological awareness on dyslexia in students with SLD. Material &

    Methods

    This study was pre-test/ post-test control group design. The statistical population of this study included all female students with SLD that studied at grade 2 in schools of Dorche city in 2016. The sample included 30 students that were selected by Simple Random Sampling from this population and then assigned in two groups of 15 people (experimental group and control group). The experimental group received the play therapy based of morphological awareness in 10 sessions and 3 times a week. At this time, the control group didn’t receive any intervention. The study data collected by the NAMA reading and dyslexia test (korminori & Moradi, 2005) and teacher-made test of reading. MANCOVA analysis was used to analysis of data.

    Results

    The results showed efficiency of play therapy based of morphological awareness on dyslexia in components of chain words (F=9.270 and P=0.006), reading time (F=5.596 and P=0.027) and correct reading (F=5.264 and P=0.030) is significant in α=0.05 level. But, it is not effective on reading words (F=1.696 and P=0.206) and Reading nonwords (F=0.660 and P=0.425) in this students.

    Conclusions

    According to the results of this study, since that morphological awareness is related to perceiving Words and also, it is effective in Meaning words. This results is in accordance with the results of various studies, as such as (Apel & Werfel, 2014; Good & et al; 2014; Wouters & Ghesquière, 2015; Cunningham & Carroll, 2015; Vaknin-Nusbaum & et al, 2016; Lyster & et al, 2016). Therefore, suggest to be used of play therapy based of morphological awareness for decrease dyslexia in students with specific learning disability

    Keywords: morphological awareness, dyslexia, specific learning disability
  • Adeleh Motlagh, Molok Khademi *, Maryam Daneshgar Pages 27-48

    In each country, educational systems play an important role in reaching goals and adapting the changes in society. Language skills are the main objectives of the primary curriculum. Clearly, the competence in it requires education while any education needs a program and this program should be evaluated to improve. Writing is an integral part of contemporary education because of its relation to thinking and reading. Writing is a valuable factor both for current education reform and individual success at school and at work, therefore it is essential for educators to define the strengths and weaknesses of the current school curriculum while In the field of writing, there have been fewer researches in the country and they do not suggest changes in writing as a result of the transformation of philosophical and theoretical foundations. Therefore, in this research, it was attempted to evaluate the written curriculum of primary writing instruction based on the theoretical foundation and the written curriculum. There are two main approaches to writing: Product Approach and Process Approach. The Product Approach is derived from the behavioral theory and the Positivism Philosophy while the emphasis is on the teacher and the lower-level cognitive functions. In this approach, educational methods are more one-dimensional and teacher-centered. Writing in this perspective is based on grammar and regularization through direct teaching. Students write in one step and teacher also score in one step to the final writing. Therefore, in this approach, the emphasis is on basic skills such as handwriting, spelling and linguistic knowledge (word-formation and grammar). By changing the philosophy of teaching from positivism to post-positivism, the process-writing approach transformed the old approach (the product approach). In this approach, the emphasis is on the student, problem, and process. The process of writing transforms thoughts and ideas into the final text and emphasizes the construction of meaning and its transition. Over time, the process approach evolved and introduced other dimensions. This research is upon the process approach which merges other approaches. Effective elements derived from other approaches are well combined with the writing process and show positive results in research. Thus, a pattern of writing education used that takes into account the training and opportunities writing for high-level skills such as strategies, goals, criteria of evaluation, and growth of self-regulation strategy as well as basic skills in an interactive and collaborative context. Since the process of Writing is the central element in this approach, the theoretical foundation of this research is called the process-oriented approach. The textbook is one of the most important references and resources for the students learning the educational system in our country. In Iran, most educational activities are carried out within the framework of the textbook and the most educational activities and experiences of students and teachers are organized by it. In this research, we tried to study the writing skills in Reading and Writing Textbooks of elementary schools and their approach to writing based on the teacher's guidebook. This research seeks to answer the two fundamental questions: "How is the approach of reading and writing textbooks to writing instruction?" And "Is the approach of reading and writing textbooks to writing instruction coordinated with the intended approach in the teacher's guidebook?" The method of measurement in this research is guided content analysis or analogy-based content analysis. In a guided or analogy-based approach, the basis of the analysis is the existing theory or the results of previous research as initial codes. The content of these textbooks was analyzed based on basic or micro level skills and high or macro level skills, writing opportunity for these skills and providing writers community. The statistical population of the study is reading, writing textbooks and teacher guidebooks for primary schools. In grade selection, it is expected that the higher grade will be more advanced in writing. Therefore, the sixth grade, as the final year of the selected period, was targeted and the data were collected. Descriptive statistics were used to obtain the results. The results showed that in sixth-grade reading and writing textbooks there is more attention to basic and micro-level skills and low-paid or no paid attention to macro and high-level skills. Results showed that the writing instruction model does not consist of the process approach while it has the traditional approach component, so there is no balance between the cognitive, affective and behavioral dimension of the writing instruction in the written content. The most value is for the behavioral dimension while the least value is for the effective dimension. In addition, the more attention was for basic skills in the cognitive and behavioral dimension. Findings also showed that the written curriculum is coordinated with the intended curriculum.

    Keywords: process approach, product approach, proces- based approach, basic writing skills, high-level writing skills
  • Mohammad Mousavi B. *, Maryam Tavakolnia Pages 49-76

    A conceptual borrowing; the speaker speaks of a certain unclear concept by relying on known experiences and visual schemas can be understood by the audience. Imam Ali (AS) also used this category of cognitive linguistics in the Nahj al-Balagh with tools such as "above" Until the language of Nahj al-Balaghah is comprehensible to everyone, despite having complex and spiritual matters. Therefore, the purpose of writing this article is to analyze and analyze the conceptual metaphors of the "above" container in the Nahj al-Balagha language descriptive and analytical method has been discussed, and after reading the difference of metaphor in the cognitive approach and in the traditional approach, Firstly, in Nahj al-Balaghah, the word above has a strong metaphorical focus which implies a spatial relationship and is derived from the combination of "high" and "longitudinal" Secondly, changing the position of the route path in the borderline, has drawn other schemas, which constitute the concept of the source, These designs are the basis of the construction of an abstract concept. Thirdly, in the above-mentioned case study of Nahj al-Balaghah, it was revealed that "direction and movement" was the concept of origin, and abstract concepts such as "domination, majesty, enumeration, extent, affection, and ..." are the meaning of the destination. Key word: Conceptual metaphors, supermodel, visual schemas, Nahj al-Balagh, meaning of the preview, semantic network Abstract A conceptual borrowing; the speaker speaks of a certain unclear concept by relying on known experiences and visual schemas can be understood by the audience. Imam Ali (AS) also used this category of cognitive linguistics in the Nahj al-Balagh with tools such as "above" Until the language of Nahj al-Balaghah is comprehensible to everyone, despite having complex and spiritual matters. Therefore, the purpose of writing this article is to analyze and analyze the conceptual metaphors of the "above" container in the Nahj al-Balagha language descriptive and analytical method has been discussed, and after reading the difference of metaphor in the cognitive approach and in the traditional approach, Firstly, in Nahj al-Balaghah, the word above has a strong metaphorical focus which implies a spatial relationship and is derived from the combination of "high" and "longitudinal" Secondly, changing the position of the route path in the borderline, has drawn other schemas, which constitute the concept of the source, These designs are the basis of the construction of an abstract concept. Thirdly, in the above-mentioned case study of Nahj al-Balaghah, it was revealed that "direction and movement" was the concept of origin, and abstract concepts such as "domination, majesty, enumeration, extent, affection, and ..." are the meaning of the destination. Key word: Conceptual metaphors, supermodel, visual schemas, Nahj al-Balagh, meaning of the preview, semantic network Abstract A conceptual borrowing; the speaker speaks of a certain unclear concept by relying on known experiences and visual schemas can be understood by the audience. Imam Ali (AS) also used this category of cognitive linguistics in the Nahj al-Balagh with tools such as "above" Until the language of Nahj al-Balaghah is comprehensible to everyone, despite having complex and spiritual matters. Therefore, the purpose of writing this article is to analyze and analyze the conceptual metaphors of the "above" container in the Nahj al-Balagha language descriptive and analytical method has been discussed, and after reading the difference of metaphor in the cognitive approach and in the traditional approach, Firstly, in Nahj al-Balaghah, the word above has a strong metaphorical focus which implies a spatial relationship and is derived from the combination of "high" and "longitudinal" Secondly, changing the position of the route path in the borderline, has drawn other schemas, which constitute the concept of the source, These designs are the basis of the construction of an abstract concept. Thirdly, in the above-mentioned case study of Nahj al-Balaghah, it was revealed that "direction and movement" was the concept of origin, and abstract concepts such as "domination, majesty, enumeration, extent, affection, and ..." are the meaning of the destination. Key word: Conceptual metaphors, supermodel, visual schemas, Nahj al-Balagh, meaning of the preview, semantic network Abstract A conceptual borrowing; the speaker speaks of a certain unclear concept by relying on known experiences and visual schemas can be understood by the audience. Imam Ali (AS) also used this category of cognitive linguistics in the Nahj al-Balagh with tools such as "above" Until the language of Nahj al-Balaghah is comprehensible to everyone, despite having complex and spiritual matters. Therefore, the purpose of writing this article is to analyze and analyze the conceptual metaphors of the "above" container in the Nahj al-Balagha language descriptive and analytical method has been discussed, and after reading the difference of metaphor in the cognitive approach and in the traditional approach, Firstly, in Nahj al-Balaghah, the word above has a strong metaphorical focus which implies a spatial relationship and is derived from the combination of "high" and "longitudinal" Secondly, changing the position of the route path in the borderline, has drawn other schemas, which constitute the concept of the source, These designs are the basis of the construction of an abstract concept. Thirdly, in the above-mentioned case study of Nahj al-Balaghah, it was revealed that "direction and movement" was the concept of origin, and abstract concepts such as "domination, majesty, enumeration, extent, affection, and ..." are the meaning of the destination. Key word: Conceptual metaphors, supermodel, visual schemas, Nahj al-Balagh, meaning of the preview, semantic network

    Keywords: Conceptual metaphors, supermodel, visual schemas, Nahj al-Balagh, meaning of the preview
  • Mohammad Shokri *, Ali Nazari, Sayyed Mahmoud Mirzaei Al, Hosaini Pages 77-101

    This article is based on a doctoral thesis and compares syntactic characteristics of linguistic units that modify verb (adverbial) as well as adjective in Arabic on one hand and adverbial in Persian and English languages on the other. This comparison first tries to see is it ever possible to find in Arabic what other languages regard as adverb; and then seeks to develop an equivalent balance between Arabic on one hand and Persian and English on the other hand in terms of adverbial affinities and disparities between these languages that might be used to shed more light on Arabic adverbial rules. In theory, we must first let go of traditional grammar which is mostly based on final word declension (suffix vocal inflection) and considers words as the basic linguistic unit. Instead, we should focus on syntactic function or parts of speech. Second, this study distinguishes the lexical category ‘adverb’ and syntactical function ‘adverb’ in order to demonstrate what constructs can qualify as the latter. The scope of the study includes grammar and particularly adverb and adverbial constructs without dwelling upon other areas of this science. Research population also is modern Arabic; therefore, does not include traditional usage or the dialects and colloquial Arabic. In addition, the Persian and Arabic items are derived from contemporary sources. This article employs some useful tools from structural linguistics, namely, transformational - generative grammar (TGG) and applies syntactic analytical concepts like adjunction, substitution and movement. In this manner, an adverbial from English and Persian is presented along with examples; and we try to find if that form exists in Arabic. It was found that Persian, English and Arabic languages all contain constructs, other than category adverb, such as ‘prepositional phrase,’ ‘noun phrase,’ ‘adjective phrase’ and ‘adverbial clause’ which function as adverb. These construct are as follow: 1- Lexical adverb: made of a word belongs to adverb category and appear in adverb function. Such as "never" in English example (1) , "هرگز" in Persian (2) and "ابدا" in the Arabic example (3). (1) I'll never forget you. (2) هرگز تو را فراموش نخواهم کرد. (3) لن انساک ابدا. 2- Adjectival phrase: A word that belong to adjective category, with its modifiers, may appear in adverb function. Such as "very well" in English example (4), "بسیار خوب" in Persian (5) and "جیدا جدا" in Arabic (6). (4) She plays piano very well. (5) او بسیار خوب پیانو می‌نوازد. (6) هی تعزف البیانو جیدا جدا. 3- Noun phrase as adverb: Sometimes, a noun head or a noun phrase can take adverb place. For example "last year" in (7), "سال گذشته" in Persian (8) and "السنه الماضیه" in the Arabic (9). (7) I saw him last year. (8) سال گذشته او را دیدم. (9) السنه الماضیه التقیت به. In fact, this kind of adverb structure has a preposition in the deep structure which reduced in the surface structure. 4- Prepositional phrase as adverb: A structure made of "preposition + noun phrase" can also take adverb rule in the any of these three languages. Such as "with a load angry voice" in the English example (10), "با صدای خشم‌آگین بلندی" in the Persian (11) and " بصوت عال غاضب" in the Arabic example (12). (10) My mother called me with a load angry voice. (11) مادرم مرا با صدای خشم‌آگین بلندی صدا زد. (12) نادتنی امی بصوت عال غاضب. 5- Adverbial clause: A structure made of "adverbial particle + sentence" can make an adverbial clause and take adverb rule in the any of these three languages. Such as "When I arrived" in English example (13), "وقتی که من رسیدم" in the Persian (14) and also "حین وصلت " in the Arabic (15). (13) When I arrived, she was waiting for me. (14) وقتی که من رسیدم، او منتظر من بود. (15) حین وصلت ، کانت بانتظاری. 6- Adverbial phrase: This construct was found only in Arabic while neither Persian nor English has similar category. The core of this construct is made of lexical items such as ‘ بعد, قبل, حین, اثناء, قباله … ’ that, despite being nouns, function preposition and appear before noun phrases to make new phrase which we call ‘adverbial phrase.’ Look at examples (16) to (18): (16) بعد وصولی، بدات المحاضره. (17) غرقت السفینه قباله السواحل المصریه (18) اربط حزام المقعد اثناء الجلوس Finally, several results led from this research and the most important ones are: those constructs which are regarded as adverb are also available in Arabic. However, they are known by different names. By virtue of substitutional transformation, all Arabic adverbial constructs can potentially replace each other.

    Keywords: Adverb(s), Prepositional phrase, Adverbial clause, structural grammar, adverb particle
  • Zhino Ebrahimi *, Ronak Moradi Pages 103-126

    Power and Certainty in Language; a study on Kurdish based on Lakoff's Dominance Theory "If a little girl 'talks rough' like a boy, she will normally be ostracized, scolded, or made fun of" (Lakoff, 1973: 47). Lakoff believed that society keeps children in line, in their place; which means the society needs girls and boys to behave according to their sex in every aspect of their social life. She reflected, although, "this socializing process is harmless and often necessary in many aspects", it has the potential to raise serious problems when it is used in language, due to the fact that "the acquisition of this special style of speech will later be an excuse others use to keep her in demeaning position, to refuse to take her seriously as a human being". This was a big claim, which urged many linguists to investigate how true it is. Although more than four decades have passed since Lakoff first introduced her think, still the question whether gender is responsible for the way women talk has not been answered and requires more debate; the reason for this article be written. We think if Lakoff's claim is true, it can be easily surveyed in Middle East, with the dominant soul of patriarchy stronger than that of western world. In this article, we interviewed 20 women of two educational levels (attending university versus non-attending university) and 20 men, again with the same two educational levels. Age was controlled and all the interviewees were between 25-35 years old. All the interviewees were speakers of Sorani Kurdish, living in Kamyaran, a town in Kurdistan Province, Iran. Lakoff explored what she called 'Dominance Theory' "with regard to lexicon (color terms, particles, evaluative adjectives), and syntax (tag-questions, and related aspects of intonation in answers to requests, and of requests and orders)" (1973: 45), and asserted that there are systematic linguistic differences between men and women's talking, showing that women's language conveys components which bring uncertainty and lack of self-confidence to them. In other means, Lakoff knows "talking like a lady" a powerless language. In order to investigate this powerlessness, we extracted some data out of the interviews, and then, re-extracted it after some months through internal validity test to be sure of its validity. The results of the data by chi-square test demonstrates that there is a significant relation between gender and 'lady talk' in Kurdish. The female interviewees, regardless of their education, employed all the points raised in the theory more than the men, except for taboos; 37 taboos by women against 60 ones by men, which is in line with Lakoff's claim. However, education plays differently; we expected that educated women and men use stronger version of language, on the grounds that education seems to bring self-confidence. But, comparing higher educated ones with less educated ones did not prove that education makes speech stronger. Among the 10 components pertaining to the power of language, higher education lessens 5 of them (including hedgings, expletives and vulgar expressions, tag questions, emphatic stress and rising intonation) while reinforcing the other 5 (empty adjectives, super polite forms, indirect requests, color terms and weak quantifiers), regardless of gender. To better understand it, look at the following bar graph. In sum, by the help of the effects of education on language, one can deduce that the features of the language been regarded as powerless by Lakoff are correct choices; when a person's knowledge grows, s/he happens to be more conscious that her/his understanding of the world is imperfect, then s/he uses less certain terms (like weak quantifiers). Furthermore, more education makes a person be more sensitive to her/his social status, driving her/him to use more 'polite forms' and 'indirect requests'; a kind of withdrawal from boasting to be super strong, and in response, getting more respect. Our study, not only, confirms Lakoff's general notion that gender is the main variable in the certainty of language, but admits that the features she declared for her theory, except for color terms, are key ones in considering the power of language. Some of the references: • Hudson, R.A. )1990(. Sociolinguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge university press. • Lakoff, R. (1973). "Language and Woman’s Place". Language in society, 2, pp. 45-80. • Lakoff, R. (1975). Language and Woman’s Place. New York: Harper & Row. • Lakoff, R. (2004). Language and Woman's Place, Text and Commentaries. Oxford: Oxford University Press. • Longobardi, E., Spataro, P., & Frigerio, A. (2016). "Gender Differences in The Relationship Between Language and Social Competence in Preschool Children". Infant Behavior and Development, 43, pp. 1-4. • Trudgill, P. (1983). Sociolinguistics. An Introduction to Language and Society. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.

    Keywords: power, certainty, Gender, Sorani dialect, Lakoff
  • Seddigheh Zeynali Dastuyi_Abbas Ali Ahangar *_Pakzad Yousefiyan_Stephen H Levinsohn Pages 127-158

    Longacre (1996) recognizes four major discourse genres including narrative, procedural, behavioral and expository discourse. He considers exhortations to be a sub-branch of behavioral discourse, which “deals with how people did or should behave” (Longacre 1996: 9 as cited in Dooley and Levinsohn, 2000). Accordingly, this study is going to analyze Persian hortatory texts of two genres: Persian General Practitioners’ Books (GPBs) and Online Medical Journals (OMJs). In particular, it looks at the relative potency of different forms of exhortation, distinguishes between default, highlighted and backgrounded hortatory forms based on Levinsohn (2015). The corpora of this study consisted of 100 texts from two written Persian GPBs and 100 texts from two Persian OMJs. The addressees of the GPBs were general practitioners and students of medical sciences, though writers sometimes directed their exhortations to patients. The addressees of OMJs were the public with some medical knowledge. Our initial step to perform this research was to classify each sentence as an exhortation or setting it aside as a supportive material; then 2) listing the different hortatory devices used; 3) counting the frequency of each one; 4) then deciding: a) which one was default, b) and whether using the others had the effect of highlighting or backgrounding the exhortations concerned; and 5) analyzing the statistical significance of the findings through the use of SPSS software version 24. Results of the research indicated that the default devices and the most frequent hortatory devices used in GPBs were “verbless commands” (in the prescription sections of the GPB texts) and “imperatives” (in non-prescription parts of GPBs). Highlighted forms of exhortations found were “must” and “it is necessary” in GPBs. Backgrounded forms of exhortations in GPBs included “it is better”, “it is recommended” and “indirect exhortations”. Example 1, 2 and 3 show the use of the default (verbless command), highlighted (bαyæd ‘must’) and backgrounded hortatory forms (it is better) in GPBs: 1) brj-e control-e tngi-j-e nfs for controling-EZ tightness-EP-EZ breath "For controlling shortness of breath" - Inhaler salbutamol N=1 2 puffs if necessary - Inhaler beclomethasone N=1 2 puffs every 6 hours" (Attar, 2016: 191, Bronchiectasis, PP) 2) kæpsul-e αmperαzol rα bαyæd betorekαmel væ qæbl capsule Omeprazole OM must completely and before æz qæzα mæsræf nemud æz ʤævidæn væ from food consumption do.PAST.3SG from chewing and bαz kærd-æn-e kæpsul bαjæd eʤtenαb open do.PAST-INF-EZ capsule must avoidance æv-æd SUBJ.become.PRES-3SG "Omeprazole capsule must be consumed fully before eating food. Chewing and opening the capsule must be avoided." (Ayati Firoozabadi and Fallah, 2015: 17, Tennis elbow, DPG) 3) behtær æst ʤæhæt-e tæzriq-e epinefrin æz better be.PRES.3SG for-EZ injection-EZ epinephrine from soræng-e ænsolin estefαde æv-æd syringe-EZ insulin use SUBJ.become.PRES-3SG - "It is better to use Insulin Syringes for injecting Epinephrine." (Ayati Firoozabadi and Fallah, 2015: 99, Anaphylaxis, DPG) The default device in OMJs was “imperative”. Highlighted hortatory forms found in OMJs were “must” and “it is necessary”, “imperatives used with immediately” and “it is highly recommended” were used, as well. Backgrounded hortatory forms in OMJs included “it is better”, “it is recommended” and “indirect exhortations”, “imperatives directed to 1st person plural”, “(it) is helpful”, “infinitives” and “very indirect exhortations”. Example 4, 5 and 6 illustrate the use of the default (imperatives), highlighted (hætmæn ‘must’) and backgrounded hortatory forms (infinitive): 4) dær suræt-e dαt-æn-e sαbeqe-j-e bimαri-j-e in form-EZ have.PAST-INF-EZ preexistence-EP-EZ disease-EP-EZ xαs jα mæsræf-e dαru be pezek-e-tαn special or consumption-EZ drug to physician-EZ-CLIT.3PL etelα dæh-id information IMPER.give.PRES-2PL "If you have a special disease or consume some drugs, inform your physician." (Angiography of coronary vessels, DB, http://www.pezeshk.us/?p=31745) 5) dær suræt-i ke sαbeqe-j-e bimαri-hα-j-e in form-INDEF that preexistence-EP-EZ disease-PL-EP-EZ eneqαdi-j-e xun-i dαr-id hætmæn pezek rα coagulation-EP-EZ blood-INDEF have.PRES-2PL must physician OM motæle sαz-id informed IMPER.do.PRES-2PL "If you have the pre-existence of blood coagulation, you must inform your physician." (Angiography of coronary vessels, DB, http://www.pezeshk.us/?p=31745) 6) kαhe-e mæsræf-e qæzα-hα-j-e hejvαn-i decreasing-EZ consumption-EZ food-PL-EP-EZ animal-ATTR bexosus gut-e qermez specially meat-EZ red "Decreasing the consumption of animal foods especially red meat." (Prevention from breast cancer, DB, http://www.pezeshk.us/?p=86035) Chi-square test results of the study confirmed significant differences between the application of the default, highlighted and backgrounded hortatory forms used in GPBs and OMJs. In addition, the results confirmed that the factors mentioned by Levinsohn (2015) affected the choice of hortatory forms in GPBs and OMJs; in this regard, the findings demonstrated that the "physician's superior knowledge", "the type of the hortatory texts", "the position of the exhortations in the text", "the degree of prominence each exhortation is to receive", and "its scope" all influenced the form of exhortations chosen by the writers of GPBs and OMJs. Our study, further, reached some contradictory results with the ones obtained by Levinsohn (2015) which may be related to language- and culture-specificity and different discourse types studied by the authors of these studies: a. using "it is necessary" as a highlighted form of exhortation, not a backgrounding one as mentioned by Levinsohn (2015); b. using "imperatives" directed to 3rd person with equal potency of "imperatives" directed to second person, despite the assertion stated by Levinsohn (2015) where he claims that "imperatives" directed to second person are more potent than "imperatives" directed to 3rd person; and finally, c. revealing a different result in Persian medical texts from that of Levinsohn (2015) regarding the arrangement of highlighted forms of exhortations and backgrounded ones.

    Keywords: exhortation devices, medical discourse, Levinsohn’s model
  • Hengameh Vaezi *, Yadgar Karimi Pages 159-177

    Conjoined Multiple WH-Questions in Persian: A Typo-syntactic analysis This paper examines the typological aspects of coordinated WH-Questions in Persian language. Coordination is one of the syntactic operations to make a compound or complex phrase or sentence. It is widely assumed that two conjuncts have to be alike in their grammatical and semantic functions. Williams (1981) proposed the Law of Coordination of Likes; that is, the coordinated constituents must be the same in terms of their syntactic category; 1) a. John ate the apple and the orange. b.* John ate the apple and yesterday. In example (1b) the constituents the apple (NP) and yesterday (ADVP) differ in their syntactic categories. So it violates the Law of Coordination of Likes. Despite the above description, the coordination of WH- words with different functions is possible in languages such as; 2) a. Ki es mikor latta Marit? (pre verbal coordination in Hungarian) who-nom and when saw-3Sg Mary-acc ‘Who saw Mary and when?’ b. Mikor es hol lattad Marit? when and where saw-2Sg Mary-Acc ‘When and where did you see Mary?’ 3) a. Ki latta Marit es mikor? (post verbal coordination) who-Nom saw-3Sg Mary-Acc and when ‘Who saw Mary and when?’ b. Mikor lattad Marit es hol? when saw-2Sg Mary-Acc and where ‘When and where did you see Mary?’ (Lipták, 2003:143) In these coordinated WHs (e.g.2a&3a), an argument WH-word and an adjunct WH- word are coordinated; where the Law of coordination of Likes does not seem to be held and the sentences are, yet, grammatical. She classified the strategies of WH- coordination into 4 types. Adjunct CMWQ, only adjuncts can be coordinated like Dutch; Free CMWQ, any type of constituents can be coordinated like Hungarian; Mixed CMWQ, only optional materials can be coordinated like German and NO CMWQ, the coordination of WH- words is not permitted like Chinese(Lipták, 2011).These cases have not been afforded due consideration in the previous studies in Persian language. Thus this paper attempts to find out what types of WH- words can be coordinated; Whether Persian type is Mixed, Free or Adjunct type of languages and finally which coordinated WH- words are permitted in sluicing. In Persian two adjunct- WH- words; one argument WH- word (obligatory or optional) and one adjunct WH- word are coordinated. However, the coordination of two argument WH- words has not been observed in the data gathered for this research. So this language has its own properties which are different from the types( Adjunct, Mixed and Free) proposed by Lipták(2011). Its properties are given in table(1). Furthermore, The Persian coordinated WH-words are used in two types: sequential and split. 4) a. key va kojâ be donyâ âmadi? (sequential) When & where were born.Sg.3. “When and where were you born?” b. Če kasâni va čerâ dar Tehrân be xiâbân âmadand? Who & why in Tehran to street came.Pl. “ ??Who and why did they come to the street? ” c. * Ki va či xarid? Who & what buy.Sg.Past. “Who and what did she buy ?” 5) a. key be donyâ âmadi va kojâ ? (split) When were born.Sg.3. & where “When and where were you born?” b. Če kasâni dar Tehrân be xiâbân âmadand va čerâ? Who in Tehran to street came.Pl. & why “ ??Who and why did they come to the street? ” c. * Ki xarid va či? Who buy.Sg.Past. & what “Who and what did she buy ?” Table-1-Characteristics of Persian coordinated WH- questions Persian coordinated WH-questions Adjunct + Adjunct Obligatory argument + Adjunct Arbitrary argument + Adjunct argument + argument yes yes yes No In this language, one WH-fronting is permitted; that is Persian does not have multiple WH-fronting like Bolgarian language. It was supposed if a language does not have wh-fronting, it cannot have CMWQ. The movement of one WH-word is permitted in Persian, so it has the coordination of WH- questions in Persian. Each clause only has one focus constituent (Rizzi, 2004). Eventually, It has been hypothesized that the coordinated constructions are probably bi-clausal, because it was supposed that if a language does not have multiple WH-fronting, it can have bi-clausal CMWQs only. As mentioned above, Persian has two types of sequential and Split types of WH- coordination. In sluicing constructions, the sequential type of coordinated WH-words has just been observed. All these sentences showed the sluicing without any antecedent for WH-words. 6)Šenidim tasâdof karde amâ nemidunim bâ ki va key. (without antecedent) Heard accident but not- know with who & when “ I heard she had an accident but I don’t know with whom and when.”

    Keywords: Persian language, Conjoined Multiple WH-questions, language type, Coordination, sluicing
  • Tina Ghanbarian * Pages 179-208

    The work of a linguist and a lexicographer in the field of lexical semantics has the largest common border. This research aims to study how these two domains can influence each other in order to increase their efficiency. Among the topics of lexical semantics, this research has selected Polysemy as the subject and tried to investigate it from both theoretical and practical perspectives. Among the various linguistic approaches, it seems that Cognitive Linguistics is a better choice because, in this approach, Polysemy has received more consideration; some of the findings of this approach are the basis of the present research. This study is conducted on the lexical category of "verb", which has the most semantic complexity, and to this end, the motion verb of Afshandan has been chosen as the case study. The data of this research have been extracted from the corpus of the Academy of Persian Language and Literature, which contains about 500 sentences and phrases containing this verb. The present research introduces and explains some aspects of the theory of Lexical Network and Construction Grammar that are considered as the influential theories in cognitive linguistics. Hyponymy and synonymy problem and the existence of different types of connectivity between different meanings in the lexical network of the polysemous verb, are the main issues, which are described in the process of lexicography of the verb, in this paper.

    Keywords: lexicography, cognitive linguistics, polysemy, verb
  • Shoja Tafakkori Rezaee, Mostafa Khanmohammadi * Pages 209-229

    Movement is one of the basic properties of human languages. Studying and accounting different movements in generative linguistics is one of the main concern. One of the movement which attracts the intrest of many linguist is Scrambling. Scrambling is special to languages with free word order including Kalhori Kurdish. Kalhori Kurdish is an Iranian language spoken in Kermanshah and Ilam provinces, west part of Iran. .In this article, We attests the merits of two rival movement approaches, namely Syntactic edges (Chomsky 2000, 2001) and Cyclic linearization (Fox &Pesetsky, 2005). Chomsky (2000) introduces phase-based approach minimalism. He argues that syntactic derivation creates syntactic unites, called phase. Chomsky (2000, 2001) claims that full argument structure v*P and CPs are strong phases and spell-out applies to these strong phases. Spell-out is viewed as an operation that transfers syntactic objects in each strong phase to phonology and logical form. the consequence of such an approach is Phase Impenetrability condition (PIC). An important consequence of PIC is that edges or syntactic escape hatches must be postulated at each strong phase. IN phase-based approach, spell-out makes elements in the complement of strong phases inaccessible to further operations in the higher phases and movements triggered by features in higher phase only occur through the edges of strong phases in successive cyclic fashion, therefore “edges” provides a path of any upward movement. In the other hand, Fox and Pesetsky (2005) argue that movement can occur in nonedge zones as object shift in Scandinavian languages. They claim that movement is possible without postulating Phase Impenetrability condition (PIC) and edges. Fox &Pesetsky, (2005) claim that spell – out is an operation which changes asymmetric hierarchical structure in syntax into linear structure in phonology. They argue that even after spell- out syntactic objects can be accessible to operations in upper phases if they donot violate linear preservation principle. In this article, we try to compare strengths and weaknesses of these approaches in the light of Scrambling in Kalhori Kurdish. In Kalhori Kurdish SOV is the unmarked word order. Scrambling provides marked interpretation by changing this unmarked word order. Scrambling is a common operation and feature _ based process in Kalhori Kurdish. In both approaches , Scrambling in Kalhori Kurdish triggers phrases with contrastive focus feature to move cyclically from lexical phase to functional phase through phase edges to the spec of focus phrase. By using some evidences such as the position of sentence adverbs and phrase adverbs and the presence of overt subject in tag question, we proved that EPP feature on TPP can’t trigger short distance scrambling in Kalhori Kurdish. Therefore short distance scrambling is an A’ – movement to the spec of focus phrase which is located in the top of TPP. Also, long distance scrambling is also an A’ – movement to satisfy focus feature. Based on Syntactic edges approach, scrambling in Kurdish occurs exclusively in the specs of v*P and CPs. Uniformity in short and long distance scrambling is the main outcome of analyzing scrambling in this approach .Although this approach provides a unified mechanism in explaining short and long distance scrambling in Kalhori Kurdish, It can,t provide an adequate explanation for long distance binding of / ey / as a eclitic pronoun. Miagawa(2006) claims that scrambling occurs at the edges of phases and proposes two kinds of movement to the Spec of CP , movement of WH phrase and long –distance scrambling. He argues that only WH phrase inter agreement with the head of Cp and long_distance scrambling doesnot inter agreement relationship with the head of CP .Miagawa claims that long-distance scrambling occurs as an optional movement only to satisfies edge feature. Scrambling evidences in Long distance scrambling manifests that unlike Miagawa (2006) the landing site of scrambled phrase in Kalhori Kurdish isn’t the spec of Cp but spec of FocP. In the other hand, in cyclic linearization , scrambling in Kalhori Kurdish can occur both in edges zone ( short and long distance scrambling ) and in nonedge zone (multiple scrambling). This approach explains long distance binding of / ey / as a clitic pronoun properly because the binding relationship between clitic pronoun and its antecedent dose not violate linear preservation principle , so it is an licit movement, which is one of its merits over syntactic edges. Contrary to Kurdish data and writers linguistic intuition, long distance scrambling of verb phrase is licit movement in cyclic linearization. This is one of the weaknesses of cyclic linearization. At whole, Cyclic linearization in spite of lack of consistency in its concepts can suggest more adequate explanation for Scrambling in Kalhori Kurdish than Syntactic edges.

    Keywords: Scrambling, Syntactic edges approach, Cyclic linearization approach, Kalhuri Kurdish
  • Javad Zare * Pages 231-252

    Extended abstract Background Academic lectures play a significant role in academic education. The importance of lectures in academic education has made some scholars believe that comprehending lectures is critical to the students’ academic success (e.g., Olsen & Huckin, 1990). Yet, understanding academic lectures is a considerable challenge for students in English-medium classes (e.g., Olsen & Huckin, 1990;). Even advanced EFL/ESL learners suffer from this problem. Part of this difficulty is because academic lectures are highly packaged. On the other hand, lectures are full of expressions that structure the discourse. Therefore, it is important to investigate these expressions. Some of these expressions help students distinguish between important and unimportant information which are referred to as relevance markers (Crawford Camiciottoli, 2007; Deroey & Taverniers, 2012; Hunston, 1994) and ‘selection cues’ (Titsworth & Kiewra, 2004). Thompson (2003) investigated text-structuring metadiscourse in academic lectures. Thompson distinguished text-structuring metadiscourse statements according to the three features of (i) reference to the content, or topic, (ii) reference to the talk, or part of the talk, and (iii) interpersonal reference, or referring to the speaker or the audience. Specifically, some of the statements that refer to the lecturer or the audience are instances of importance marking (e.g., ok now let me make two points about how nonverbal communication functions). Analyzing a small corpus comprising 12 Business Studies lectures delivered by UK, US and NNS lecturers and 10 MICASE lectures from different disciplines, Crawford Camiciottoli (2004, 2007) observes six retrospective and prospective patterns for relevance markers with various combinations of deictics, determiners, relevance adjectives, metalinguistic nouns, and the linking verb ‘is’. The retrospective patterns include ‘DEIC + IS + ADJ (e.g. This is important), DEIC + IS + ADJ + META N (e.g. That’s a key question), DEIC + IS + (-ADJ) + META N (e.g. That’s the point), IT + IS+ ADJ + THAT + DEIC (e.g. It’s crucial that this is clear), IT + IS + ADJ + TO-INF + DEIC (e.g. It’s important to see this) and THERE + IS (-ADJ) + A LOT (e.g. There’s a lot to be said about that)’ (2004, p. 90). The prospective patterns are ‘WHAT + IS + ADJ + IS (e.g. What is important is), DET + ADJ + META N + IS (e.g. The main point is), DET (-ADJ) + META N + IS (e.g. The thing is), IT + IS + ADJ + THAT (e.g. It’s crucial that), IT + IS + ADJ + TO-INF (e.g. It’s important to see) and THERE + IS + (-ADJ) + META N (e.g. There is an issue here about)’ (2004, p. 90). Methodology The Persian corpus of SOKHAN based the foundation for this research. The Persian corpus of SOKHAN was developed at the Science and Technology Park of North Khorasan, Iran under the directorship of Javad Zare and Zahra Keivanlou-Shahrestanaki. Corpus development was assisted by funding from the Technology University of Esfarayen and the Science and Technology Park of North Khorasan. SOKHAN consists of audio and video recordings, and the transcripts of 60 Persian academic lectures, totaling 480,526 words. The lectures of SOKHAN were recorded between 2010 and 2015. They are delivered mainly by male native speakers of Persian lecturers. The lectures of SOKHAN evenly spread in the four disciplinary groups of engineering (es), humanities (hs), medicine (ms), and base sciences (bs). A mixed-methods (exploratory) approach and a corpus-driven method were adopted in this study. Importance markers were first derived from the Persian Corpus of Sokhan by reading their transcripts. 293 concordances of importance marking expressions were retrieved from the corpus and were analyzed in terms of positioning—anaphoric, cataphoric, —and discourse functions. Results and conclusion Analysis of the importance markers led to some findings that are worth noting. As regards the position of the importance markers, eight patterns were found for anaphoric importance markers. Among these, the patterns ‘hd (highlighted discourse) + exam points’ and ‘hd + deic mn v-link (adv) ADJ’ were more frequent than others. For cataphoric importance markers, ten patterns were found, among which ‘V + hd’ outnumbered others. Generally, cataphoric importance markers were found to be substantially more frequent than anaphoric importance markers. Moreover, as regards the discourse functions of the expressions that signal importance of points, five discourse functions were found. These include discourse organization, audience engagement, subject status, topic treatment, and relating to exam. Importance markers dealing with audience engagement were found to be the most frequently used expressions. On the whole, the findings suggest that lecturers tend to function interpersonally in Persian academic contexts when it comes signaling importance.

    Keywords: corpus, importance marker, metadiscourse, the academic lecture
  • Ebrahim Kanani * Pages 253-279

    “The other” is among the important subjects raised in various fields of cultural, philosophical, anthropological, “The other” is among the important subjects raised in various fields of cultural, philosophical, anthropological, and semiotics studies. One of the main subjects in the mystical and cultural discourses of the East is “the other”. In principle, an important subject is to look from the perspective of “the other” in all mysticism.The subject of “the other” is also a feature of Rumi’s mystical and cultural discourse. In Rumi’s discourse, the other is manifested in different discursive and cultural functions and interactions are continuously made between the other and the ego. The problem being posed is how this interaction is realized and how it interferes in shaping the meaning. Therefore, the main question in the present study is how and according to which discursive and cultural conditions and functions, interaction between “the other” and the ego is realized and in what form of discourses these interactions are presented. In fact, the purpose of the present article is to explain the features of the “other-oriented” system Rumi had intended and the interaction between “the other” and the ego in two of Rumi’s sonnets and examining their role in shaping cultural and normative atmospheres. Our hypothesis is that in the Rumi's sonnets “the other” has a centralized presence, which is the center of accumulation and energy. But this centralized aspect continuously extends its presence in a variety of ways, in the form of discursive interaction, to the whole of space, and provides the context for the ego transcendence. Such a situation is the result of the fundamental presence of the superego, which all levels of the sign of his presence depend on him and connect with him in the presence of themselves meaning and value. In Rumi’s discourse, superego as being ‘the other’ is manifested in a vast variety of discursive functions and placed in the core of all discourse anaphora. This refers to the universal aspect of the presence of ‘the other”, which stores all energies and compressive and extensive accumulations. Accordingly, such centralized aspect of presence is torn apart, so it becomes ‘he’, ‘ego’, and ‘you’ as various fragments of presence, on the one hand, and every moment, it transforms to a certain seeming as of the rover’s idol, on the other. When it takes the place of énonciateur, it is regarded as audience and while taking an audience’s place, it is regarded as énonciateur. In another manifestation, it is a meta-subject or meta-actor that takes control of everything it is both act and patience, both actor and patient, both value and meta-value. Due to the presence of ‘other’, ‘ego’ is sometimes pluralized and transforms into two present fragments of ‘self’ and ‘ego’; as well, it occasionally paves the way for the fusion of these two distinct parts. Sometimes it degrades subject to the level of exclusion, breakdown and unsubjectness, and at the time of adaptation, starts a discursive and interactive dance with self to accompany it to the level of transcendence. This high capacity thereof relates Rumi’s poetry to different discourses, some of which are introduced in this study. Based on a semiotics approach, Rumi’s standpoint to ‘the other’ and its contribution to forming cultural and normative atmosphere is clarified. A model of the ontological and other-oriented aspect of Iranian mysticism, according to Rumi’s idea, is hereby presented in this study too. In Rumi’s discourse of his sonnets, ‘the other’ is manifested in a variety of faces and with different ways and properties, only with some of which this study has dealt. There is a constant interaction between ‘ego’, ‘the other’ and superego in the discourse. This interaction is realized in the framework of its transcendental, phenomenal, tensional, emotional and identical functions. In such interaction, ‘the other’ is in its peak of power and competency and enjoys a sublime capability of pressure and extension. It, nonetheless, constantly calls for ego to itself and receives it in its territory of presence in a democratic way. As well, it does not have a suggestive descending mode, it’s not an absorption of ‘ego’ into ‘the other’, and it does not even lead to the humiliation of ‘ego’; instead, it is a matter of transcendental presence of ‘ego’, what reminds me of the concept of mortality followed by survival and my present transcendence. Superego is the phenomenal aspect of presence, which takes control of everything, even the énonciateur itself. It is a meta-actor consisting of all present modes as the root of all acts, beings, values, and meta-values. Such state is the outcome of full and fundamental presence of the otherhood of ‘other’ or superego, which forms a specific phenomenal setting in discourse, whose result is the realization of mystical aesthetic system.

    Keywords: Semiotics, Ego, interaction, The other, Rumi
  • Massumeh Poloie *, Mohammad Reza Ahmadkhani Pages 281-309

    The Argot language is one of the standard varieties of language that forms among young people or group of delinquents. Each social group has its own terms and expressions that must be learned in order to enter that group. Argot language is not separate from the language. Rather, it is one of its various varieties. This language represents a heterogeneous society, with each group having an impact in language. One can argue beyond this, claiming that the difference between each Argot language and the language commonly depends on the group attribute that uses this Argot language. The more different these groups are, the more they use different language forms to establish and maintain a relationship with the linguistic community. Young people form a large part of the active population of our community, and the tendency towards peers and differences with adults is an important feature of this group. They have a particular language system that consists of the norms, values, behaviors and the core of their subculture. It is a secret code and a special communication symbol that transmits messages and creates certain rules and behaviors. Therefore, young people have their own subculture and use special vocabulary. The use of these vocabulary by young people and their influence on the youth subculture has created a certain verbal and non-verbal communication among young people that requires a scientific review. Groups of friends and circles are friends, SMS, social networking messages, television movies, virtual social media, print media such as fictional characters, borrowing from other languages, and other forms of creativity and dissemination of these words. The purpose of this paper is to identify semantic relations in the language of the secret language within the framework of the theory of constructivism. Constructive semantics is one of the most important methods of achieving analysis using structuralism theory. In this view, the network language is one of the systematic relationships. Structural meanings mean that what is the equivalent of a semantic unit? And how are they connected? The constructive semantic label is usually limited to lexical semantics. One of the most fundamental and general principles of constructivist linguistics is that languages, systems, and sub-systems or their constituent levels-grammatical, lexical, and phoneme levels are interdependent. An important aspect of lexical semantics is how semantic relations of vocabulary are with each other; in particular, the discovery of the four classes of semantic relations, Opposition hyponymy, synonymy, and member-collection is important. Semantic Relationship is the relationship between a lexical categories with other vocabulary, which confronts the speaker with the choice of different lexical categories. This term has different types. In other words, the meaning of the semantic relation means that the language has a semantic structure and the words are related in groups. Of course, these groups are formed on the basis of the semantic relations between the words. According to the tradition of studying meaning, these relations are in the semantic system of language between concepts that at first glance may seem independent, but have a close connection with each other, which is sometimes impossible to distinguish one another. Conceptual relationships have two types. Some of them are substitutions, and the other are synthetic, or, according to the famous statement, according to the Saussure's attitude, is a function of substitution and conjunction. The substitution relationships between concepts arise between members of a grammatical category and with their replacement. This category of conceptual relationships, typically and not necessarily, consists of words from various grammatical categories that together create well fromedness. In order to achieve the purpose of the article, we first discuss the categories of semantic, synonymy, polysemy, Opposition, hyponymy, meronymy, collocation, portion-mass, member-collection, homophony and Homography. After processing and identifying these relationships in the Argot language vocabulary derived from an interview of the 15-30 year old young people of Tehran subway, as well as the Persian Dictionary of Argot of Samai's work the frequency of each semantic relationship was determined. The sample size is 1507 words; it has been extracted by two methods of documenting the Persian Dictionary of Argot and a researcher-made interview with a Snowball Sampling method. After collecting and deletion, the words were classified according to their nature and meaning in fourteen semantic areas. These classes include tools and objects, automobiles, moods, ethics and behavior, secret communication, the condition of organs, numbers, organs, eating and drink, people, actions, opiates, clothing and places. The information of each word includes the semantic domain, the concept, the lexical entry and the Encyclopedia meaning. In addition to identifying semantic domains, the concept of each lexical category was also identified. Because the creators of the Argot language vocabulary use these words to create these words in an attempt to keep secrets hidden within a group of their inherent knowledge, while the words reference may be different from these concepts. Then, the semantic relations of lexical data in each area were determined by qualitative content analysis method. The question of this research is that if semantic relations exist in the secret language, what is the relationship between the highest and lowest frequencies of semantic relations? The results of the derivation of semantic analysis show that the highest and lowest lexical frequencies belong to the domains of people and clothing, respectively. Also, synonymy with the frequency of 63.05% has the highest semantic and homography with the frequency of 0.11% with the least semantic relation. The high frequency of synonymy relation in the vocabulary of this language represents the main reason for the use of Argot language; that is, to hide the meaning of these words. If its meanings are revealed to others, a new term replaces the previous word.

    Keywords: Semantic Structure, semantic relationships, Sociolinguistics, Argot, Slang
  • Abdullah Ezzat Doust *, Mojtaba Monshizadeh, Hayat Ameri Pages 311-330

    This article surveys passivization in Taleshi dialect. This dialect is common in some areas of the Guilan province. This dialect , i.e, Taleshi dialect is divided into three different branches which are called central , northern and southern dielects of Taleshi dialect . The methodology which is used in this research is of a field and library one . Because the language data are driven through a field study and the author goes into the people and selects thirty native speakers of Sehsar village. These native speakers mostly of forty years old or more than forty years old ; construing that they are not affected by the neighboring dialects which are spoken around them. The author interviews these thirty native speakers of Sehsar , who mostly reside in the village of Sehsar. He records their speech and selects the items which are applicable for fulfilling this research. It should be mentioned here that, the framework and the literature of this article take great advantages of other written works which appeared before. The dialect which is surveyed here , is of southern type which is spoken in Sehsar village. This dialect is the only means of communication among the people of this village. From linguistic perspective ,this dialect has two different case systems which are called nominative- accusative and ergative-absolutive case systems. Nominative - accusative case system is the one in which the subjects of the intransitive and transitive verbs behave similarlyand these two subjects are not differenciated by any case marker , hence the object of the transitive verb is different. In an ergative-absolutive case system , it is the reverse , that is , the subject of a transitive verb behaves differently from both the subject of intransitive verb and the object of the transitive verb. In other words , in this case system the object of a transitive verb and the subject of an intransitive verb behave similarly. This case is shown by case marker in ergative languages . In Taleshi dialect , ergative case is shown by the case marker <– i >. Regarding this two case systems , this article focuses mainly on how passivization is done in these two different case systems which are called nominative- accusative and ergative-absolutive case systems and exist in this dialect and , based on the evidence gathered in a field study , tries to answer these questions as well : Does passivization exists in this dialect which is of southern type? And how it is done in these two different case systems? Do these different case systems apply different methods of passivization , or they apply the same method of passivization ? Do passivization and ergativity coincide in the same structure? The results of this research , which are obtained after analyzing the language data gathered through a field study , show that passivization exists in this dialect and it is commonly done by omitting the agent from the sentence while the object of the verb moves to the position of the omitted subject and the verb agrees with this dummy subject. In instances of passivization , by omitting the subject ,the morpheme which means < with > follows the object which occurs in the subject position . The author believes that in this kind of passivization , the emphasis is on the object which the verb is accomplished with and as different morphemes are in action in this process of passivization, he calls this process of passivization as a complex passivization ; but in some cases the agent is kept but its position is changed and attaches the object . Although the subject is kept and comes after the object , it goes through some changes and represents a third singular or plural pronoun. That is the subject appears as or <– šun >. The choice depends on the context which they occur. These two morphemes need a past tense and perfect aspect to occur. And this context is a prerequisite for occurring the ergative case. Based on what is said , it can be concluded that this type of passivization along with ergativity requires a similar context to occur. The other point is , only in such cases passivization can coincide with ergative - absolutive construction , where the agent is present in the sentence . This finding contradicts Atlamaz ( 2012 ) that claims ergativity does not occur in a passive structure , in other words , these two structures do not coincide in a structure. Hence in cases where the agent is absent , ergative construction is absent too.

    Keywords: passivization_active_Taleshi Dialect_ergative – absolutive case_nomanitive – accusative case
  • Zeinab Ghasemiasl *, Shahryar Niazi Pages 331-355

    Study of discourse-semantic structures in Arabia Alhayat newspaper with emphasis on Van Dijk schema This research was performed with aim of discourse-semantic structures analysis in Arabic texts and semantic strategies clarification that have a role in texts discourse. Hence, 20 editorial of Arabia Alhayat newspapers were selected with issue of Iran s problems and investigated with use of Van Dijk schema. The analysis of data demonstrate that, maximum of linguistics appearance of discourse-semantic structures in Alhayat newspaper is related to distancing and polarization strategies and authors did not show any trend to use implicitness, that this subject is equal to contrast and literal contest of two countries in recent years. According to studied factors, the dominant ideology in authors mind is that, Iran is a threat for locale security which transferred from huge surface to little surface and the definition axis that is important for this research was used in forms of presupposition, generalization, distancing, euphemism and ….

    Keywords: critical discourse analysis, discourse-semantic structures, ideology, Van Dijk, Alhayat newspaper
  • Sharareh Chavoshian *, Maryam Sharif Pages 357-376

    In the postmodern society, where the financial system encourages consummation, huge companies which dominate productions, even artistic ones, qualify them as "best sellers". The "best seller" artistic origins are consumer societies, in other words, societies identified by their towers. Towers like "Yumimoto" in Stupor & Tremor, by Amélie Nothomb. The architecture of these towers coincides with the postmodern development leading to industrial development of 20th century. Towers which represent contemporary urbanization, have turned into symbols of the commercial hold on the urban life. The Far East, where the story takes place, with the fast industrial development succeeding the World War II, owns huge towers. Meanwhile, the relationships between the story and its towers are not limited to "commercial gender". While reading the story, we realize that the architecture of the tower has a direct relationship with its narrative structure and its writing, and as a result, a systematic "text-structure". Architecture, as the best identity revealing any thought structure and therefore any social structure will be the center of our interest. According to our research, the presence of architecture in this novel has not been studied yet, so in order to achieve a supported article, we are going to resort to Philippe Boudon and Emile-Auguste Chartier (the philosopher called Alain) to find some definitions of the notion of space and architecture. As for Stupor & Tremor, the tower as a symbol of masculinity, and the tower hierarchy, encompassing misogyny, are the most dominant relationship among all the elements of this novel: precisely like in a tower, where the upper stages are occupied by wealthier and most powerful ones, the same hierarchy will form the relationship among company staff. Regarding the connection between architecture and literature, we are going to restudy the theories put forward by Philippe Hamon and Marc Augé, and then we are going to analyze Stupor & Tremor and the acting roles of the architectural elements in this text. Since we have to look for any signs, significant words, sentences, mimics or behaviors, to prove the presence of the same hierarchy in the structure of the novel, we will opt for discourse analysis as the most suitable methodology for our research. The same analysis will be applied to lexical field, sentence structure and grammatical elements in order to highlight the relationship mentioned above, throughout the novel. All through our analysis, we will see that the hierarchy which has conditioned the tower structure, dominates different spaces, in particular, the communication: the one between employees, no matter its type –oral expression, body language, mimic or look. Tower, in spite of being a symbol of progress and development in the world, is still considered as advocating masculine power: only five percent of employees in Yumimoto are women; among these five percent the only woman who has got a remarkable promotion, has a masculine behavior, in spite of her original beauty. In order to make progress, she has to be hard-working, without a heart, resistant and ambitious. If not, she has to accept the destiny of all the other Japanese women reluctantly: to be an obedient wife and mother, to be silent and to have no wish for herself. So if a woman in this hierarchical system wishes to make progress, she has to be single and to behave like a man towards women employees who are inferior to her. The novel is, to some extent, autobiographical because Amélie Nothomb, the author, was born in Belgium and passed her childhood in Japan till the age of five. She returned to Japan to work in Tokyo. Her experience of that period provides the necessary elements to write this novel, in which, the principal character is also named “Amélie”. She was first known as the author of a type of novels known as "Roman de la gare" by French readers, which means an easy novel to read that could be bought at any train station and be read in a short time while the reader is traveling. However with Stupor and Tremor, Amélie Nothomb obtained the most important price of the French Academy and gained a different status. Amélie, the principal character of Stupor and Tremor, is Belgian; Japan is her childhood land. She admires Japanese art and style and always dreams of returning there. Therefore, having obtained her Master degree in Japanese language, she restarts her life in this country as a translator. We will gradually follow Amélie from her entrance in Yumimoto as a Japanese/French language translator, through her progressive fall and ultimately we are going to find her as a toilet cleaner: Yumimoto ate her like a digestive system and threw out the rest of her; that is why we will find her at the end of her professional life in Yumimoto, as the person in charge of the toilet cleanliness. Yet resigning and getting free from this system and this tower, she will get over her fall and failure and make progress quickly. There is a saying from Aristotle mentioning that nothing will equalize literature: as the first novel of Amelie is published and sent to her ancient superior, she can finally obtain the approval of those who did not tolerate her as a member of Yumimoto.

    Keywords: Architecture, Tower, Hierarchy, Space, Fall