- Volume:13 Issue: 6, 2019
- تاریخ انتشار: 1398/08/22
- تعداد عناوین: 8
Spectral karyotyping is a novel method for the simultaneous visualization of the entire chromosomes of an organism by painting the chromosomes using a combination of fluorochromes. This allows improved identification of chromosomal aberrations that cannot be identified by conventional banding methods. Since introduction of cancer as a disease of the genome, researchers have employed various molecular techniques for a better understanding of malignancies. This review discusses the role and contributions of spectral karyotyping in the study and characterization of both solid and hematological malignancies.Keywords: Spectral karyotyping, Neoplasms, Chromosomes
Association of Liver Aminotransferases with Lipid Profile in Patients with Type II Diabetes MellitusPages 11-16Background and Objectives
Reduced insulin secretion in Type II Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) results in fat accumulation in hepatocytes and increase in liver enzymes. The hepatocyte destruction due to non-alcoholic fatty liver is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the association of liver transaminases with lipid profile in T2DM patients compared to healthy subjects.Methods
A total of 1000 subjects (500 males and females with T2DM and 500 healthy subjects) participated in this case-control study. Diagnosis of T2DM was made based on the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Fasting blood samples (5 ml) were obtained from all subjects in the morning and the serum was extracted for the assessment of biochemical parameters was used to compare parameters between healthy and T2DM patients. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20 and using Mann-Whitney test and Spearman correlation coefficient.Results
The serum total cholesterol (TCH), triglyceride, Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Transaminase (AST), TCH/high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) ratio and atherogenecity index plasma were significantly higher in T2DM group compared to healthy individuals (p≤0.006). Among the lipid profile parameters only Risk ratio (TCH/HDL-C) was positively correlated with ALT (p=0.037) while no significant correlation was observed for other variables (P>0.05)Conclusion
T2DM Patients have higher lipid profile, atherogenecity index and liver enzymes compared to healthy individuals. Furthermore, TCH/HDL-C was significantly correlated with ALT.Keywords: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus_Lipid profile_ALT_AST_Atherogenecity Index Plasma
Exogenous Lung Surfactant Decreases Interleukin-8 Production and Increases Leukocytes Population and Total Immunoglobulins in RabbitsPages 17-22Background and Objectives
Exogenous lung surfactant (ELS) obtained from extraction of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, is prescribed in some respiratory disorders, which could affect production of lung-related cytokines. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a major cytokine that could affect severity of lung diseases. In this study, we investigate the possible impact of ELS on IL-8 expression, hematological parameters and IgG and IgM levels in rabbits.Methods
ELS solution obtained from fresh calf’s lung bronchoalveolar lavage was infused into the lungs of five rabbits via tracheal tube. Blood samples were collected before and after ELS treatment for 30 days.Results
Serum IL-8 levels decreased over time following ELS administration. IL-8 expression also decreased after exposure to ELS, but leukocytes count increased significantly 24, 48 and 72 hours after ELS therapy compared to baseline values (P<0.05). IgM level increased significantly 72 hours after the ELS therapy and returned to normal range at the end of study.Conclusion
Our findings suggest that ELS could down-regulate IL-8 expression in mononuclear cells while increasing leukocytes population and total immunoglobulins level, which can trigger immune responses without lung damage. However, further studies should be performed to confirm the regulatory effects of ELS on inflammatory responses in lung diseases.Keywords: Exogenous lung surfactant, IL-8, Immunoglobulins
Effects of Exercise Preconditioning on Neurotrophin-4 and Tropomyosin Receptor Kinase B Expression in the Hippocampal CA1 Region Following Transient Global Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion in Wistar RatsPages 23-28Background and Objectives
Cerebral ischemia causes irreversible structural and functional damage in certain areas of the brain, especially in the hippocampus. The aim of this study was to examine effects of exercise preconditioning on neuronal cell death and expression of neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) in the hippocampal CA1 region following transient global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rat.
Twenty-one male Wistar rats (weighing 250-300 g) were randomly divided into three groups (control+healthy, control+ischemia and exercise+ischemia). The rats in the exercise group ran on a treadmill five sessions a week for eight weeks. Ischemia was induced by occlusion of both common carotid arteries for 45 minutes. Cresyl violet staining was performed to assess cell death, and real-time PCR was carried out to evaluate expression of NT-4 and TrkB.
Cerebral ischemia was associated with significant neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region (P<0.05). Exercise significantly decreased the ischemia-induced cell death (P<0.05). NT-4 expression was significantly lower in the control+ischemia group and in the exercise+ischemia group compared to the control+healthy group (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference between the control+ischemia group and the exercise+ischemia group in terms of NT-4 expression (P˃0.05). Moreover, TrkB expression did not differ significantly between the groups (P˃0.05).
When used as a preconditioning stimulant before the induction of cerebral ischemia, exercise could have neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia-induced cell death, but it has no significant effect on NT-4 and TrkB expression.Keywords: Exercise Preconditioning, Ischemia, Reperfusion, NT-4, TrkB, Cell death
Pages 29-35Background and Objectives
T helper (Th) lymphocytes play a key role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. As a new subset of lymphocytes, Th9 is thought to be involved in a wide range of disorders including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we evaluated frequency of Th9 and Th2 cells and its correlation with disease activity in patients with different stages of RA.
The frequency of circulating interleukin 9- and/or interleukin 4-producing CD3+CD8-T cells was determined among 41 patients with established RA, 14 patients with very early RA (VERA) and 23 healthy controls by flow cytometry analysis. Then, correlation of cell frequencies with disease activity score 28 (DAS-28) was assessed. Serum levels of interleukin 6 and anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Frequency of Th9 cells was significantly higher in RA patients compared to healthy controls (P=0.009). Moreover, mean percentage of circulating Th9 cells in patients with inactive VERA was significantly higher than that in those with active disease (P=0.046). In addition, mean percentage of Th9 cells had a negative correlation with the DAS-28 (r=-0.568, P<0.05). There was no significant correlation between the mean serum level of interleukin 6 and percentage of Th2 and Th9 cells (P>0.05).
Our results suggest that Th9 cells may have a potential role in RA initiation. Thus, targeting Th9 cells could be a promising strategy for advanced RA therapies.
Keywords: Rheumatoid arthritis, Th2 cells, Th9 cells
Investigating Effects of Vitamin D Injection during a Course of Endurance Training On Anthropometrical Parameters of Wistar Rats with High-Fat Diet-Induced ObesityPages 36-43Background and Objectives
The purpose of this research was to determine effects of vitamin D supplementation during a course of endurance training on anthropometrical parameters of Wistar rats exposed to a high-fat diet.Methods
In this experimental study, 38 Wistar rats aged 5-6 weeks were assigned to five groups: 1. Control with normal diet (n=5), 2. Control with high-fat diet (n=5), 3. High-fat diet and vitamin D supplementation (n=10), 4. High-fat diet and endurance training (n=10), and 5. High-fat diet, endurance training and vitamin D supplementation (n=10). The animals were subjected to a high-fat diet (40%) for 13 weeks, followed by 12 weeks of exercise and vitamin D supplementation.Results
Weight (P=0.02), BMI (P=0.001), Lee index (P=0.01) and energy efficiency (P=0.001) differed significantly between groups 1 and 2. Feed efficiency (P=0.03) and energy efficiency (P=0.01) of groups 2, 3 and 4 were significantly different from that of the control group.Conclusion
The results of the present study indicate that endurance training and vitamin D supplementation could significantly decrease some anthropometric indices.Keywords: Endurance Training, Vitamin D, High Fat Diet, Anthropometric Indices
Investigating Effects of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles on Candida albicans Biofilm FormationPages 44-50Background and Objectives
Candida albicans is one of the most common fungal pathogens that can form biofilm, particularly on surface of medical devices. In recent years, C. albicans has shown increased resistance to antifungal agents. In this experimental study, we aimed to study effects of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 nanoparticles or SPION) on biofilm formation by C. albicans.
First, the SPION were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation. The formation of nanoparticles was confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of SPION were determined. Then, antibiofilm effects of the nanoparticles were investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Finally, data were analyzed using SPSS 22.0 at significance level of 0.05.
According to the results of X-ray diffraction, the SPION had a mean diameter of about 70 nm. MIC and MFC values of SPION against C. albicans were 100 ppm and 200 ppm which reduced biofilm formation by 87.2% and 100%, respectively. SPION showed significant inhibitory effects on C. albicans growth and biofilm formation.
Based on the findings, SPION may be considered as a novel family of fungicidal compounds. However, further studies are necessary to evaluate the safety of these nanoparticles for treatment of fungal infections in humans.Keywords: : Candida albicans, Biofilm, SPION, Nanoparticles
Disseminated and Hyperinfection Fatal Strongyloidiasis in Two Patients on Immunosuppressive Therapy: A Case ReportPages 51-54Background and Objective
Strongyloides infection is usually asymptomatic in healthy individuals; however, immunocompromised patients are subject to potential hyperinfection involvement. Hereby, we report disseminated and hyperinfection strongyloidiasis in two immunosuppressed patients from north of Iran, an endemic region for Strongyloides stercoralis.
After assessment of clinical symptoms, disseminated strongyloidiasis was identified in the first case with pemphigus vulgaris by the presence of abundant larvae in direct stool smears and gastric biopsy. The second patient had metastatic carcinoma and was hospitalized with complicated symptoms. The infection was diagnosed by detection of numerous first-stage larvae in wet mount stool smears and agar plate analysis. Despite antiparasitic treatment, both patients died during the hospitalization.
Delayed diagnosis of active strongyloidiasis in immunosuppressed patients can lead to hyperinfection syndrome. Thus, screening for S. stercoralis infection in these patients is recommended in endemic regions to reduce mortalities.Keywords: Strongyloides stercoralis, Disseminated strongyloidiasis, Hyperinfection