فهرست مطالب

Dental Research, Dental Clinics, Dental Prospects - Volume:13 Issue:3, 2019
  • Volume:13 Issue:3, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/09/03
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • Sagorika Bose, Nishita Garg*, Lumbini Pathivada, Ramakrishna Yeluri Pages 159-165
    Background

    This study assessed the effect of cooling the soft tissue site on the perception of pain in children undergoing local anesthesia for routine dental procedures.

    Methods

    One hundred children, 6‒14 years of age, were assigned to either of the two study groups, i.e., group 1 (infiltration) and group 2 (block anesthesia). One side of the arch served as the test side, where an ice pretreatment (IP) of the soft tissue of the injection site was carried out using a tube of ice for one minute, whereas the opposite side served as the control, where no ice pretreatment (WIP) was carried out. This was followed by the gradual injection of local anesthetic solution. The children’s pain perception was assessed by VAS, WB-FPRS and SEM scales. The data were analyzed statistically.

    Results

    WBS, VAS and SEM scores were significantly different between the WIP and IP in both groups, indicating that ice was effective in reducing the pain perception in children. Intergroup comparison revealed no significant differences (P>0.05), indicating that cooling was equally effective in infiltration and block anesthesia.

    Conclusion

    Cooling the soft tissue site helped decrease pain perception during injection in children

    Keywords: Anesthesia, cooling, ice, injection, pain
  • Mustafa Gündoğar, Taha Özyürek*, Koray Yılmaz, Gülşah Uslu Pages 166-171
    Background

    This study examined the effects of changes in temperature and environmental conditions on the cyclic fatigue resistance of Reciproc Blue, HyFlex EDM, WaveOne Gold, and Twisted File Adaptive.

    Methods

    Forty-five Reciproc Blue (25/.08), 45 HyFlex EDM (25/.08), 45 WaveOne Gold (25/.07), and 45 Twisted File Adaptive (25/.08) files were tested for cyclic fatigue at room temperature (20°C) in air and water and at body temperature (35°C) in water. All the instruments were rotated in artificial canals made of stainless steel with an inner diameter of 1.5 mm, 60° angle of curvature and a radius of curvature of 5 mm until fracture occurred; the time to fracture was recorded in seconds, using a digital chronometer. Mann-Whitney U test was used for the statistical analysis of data, with SPSS 21.0.

    Results

    Cyclic fatigue resistance was significantly higher in all the groups in water at an ambient temperature of 20°C compared with air and water at temperatures of 20°C and 35°C, respectively (P<0.05). The intragroup analysis revealed that HyFlex EDM had the highest cyclic fatigue resistance, followed by Reciproc Blue, WaveOne Gold, and Twisted File Adaptive in both air and water at 20°C (P<0.05). HyFlex EDM exhibited the highest cyclic fatigue resistance in water at 35°C, whereas there was no significant difference between the other groups (P>0.05).

    Conclusion

    Within the limitations of the present study, an increase in the ambient temperature significantly decreased the cyclic fatigue resistance of the tested NiTi files.

    Keywords: Cyclic fatigue, HyFlex EDM, Reciproc Blue, Static test, WaveOne Gold
  • Shankhanil Dev*, Ananya Pal, Shabnam Zahir, Gautam Kumar Kundu Pages 172-176

    Onchyophagia or nail biting is the performance of repetitive actions of biting one’s nails often to the level of mutilation of the nail beds. It is a compulsive act most often seen in adolescents but may continue into adulthood, leading to deleterious consequences. Often spurred by anxiety and stress, this oral habit is not so readily addressed by patients and in turn not very much treated by dentists or physicians. This case report describes successful treatment of an adolescent patient with a nail biting habit, with an innovative intraoral fixed habit-breaker appliance.

    Keywords: Appliance, habit-breaker, onychophagia
  • Tahmineh Razi, Parya Emamverdizadeh, Nadia Nilavar, Sedigheh Razi* Pages 177-182
    Background

    The present study was undertaken to compare the Hounsfield Unit (HU) in computed tomography (CT) with the gray level in CBCT in human tissues.

    Methods

    In this study, 25 different soft and hard tissues were evaluated in 21 patients. CBCT images were taken with Newtom VGi machine (Verona, Italy) and CT images were prepared with Somatom Sensation unit (Siemens, Germany). The HU values of soft and hard tissues were compared with the gray level values of CBCT images.

    Results

    There was a strong correlation between the HU in CT and the gray level in CBCT in soft tissues (P<0.001, R2=0.85) and hard tissues (P<0.001, R2=0.74) and in general (P<0.001, R2=0.91).

    Conclusion

    A high degree of agreement was seen between HU in CT and gray level in CBCT in both hard and soft tissues. Since the gray level in CBCT was similar to HU in CT and can be used as a parameter determine bone density in implant treatment and also to determine the bone type, the CBCT technique is recommended in such cases due to its low radiation dose, short time and low cost compared to CT. Key words: Computed tomography, cone-beam computed tomography, gray level, Hounsfield unit.

    Keywords: Computed tomography, cone-beam computed tomography, gray level, Hounsfield unit
  • Prerna Y. Shirke, Abhay P. Kolte*, Rajashri A. Kolte, Pranjali V. Bawankar Pages 183-191
    Background

    Atorvastatin (ATV), which belongs to the statin class of drugs, is the formidable inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase. This clinical trial evaluated and compared the clinical and radiographic changes in chronic periodontitis (CP) patients, obtained through 1.2% ATV as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in the treatment of intrabony defects (IBDs).

    Methods

    Twenty CP patients, with a minimum of one pair of bilateral IBDs, were randomly selected for this split-mouth study. Group 1 included 20 sites treated with SRP and subgingival delivery of a placebo gel, whereas an equal number of sites in group 2 were treated by SRP along with subgingival delivery of 1.2% ATV gel. The plaque index (PI), modified sulcus bleeding index (mSBI), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were evaluated at baseline and 3- and 6-month intervals, while the IBD was assessed at baseline and 6-month interval using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Paired t-test was used to determine statistical significance.

    Results

    A greater reduction in the mean PPD and gain in CAL was found in group 2 compared to group 1 at 3- and 6-month intervals. Furthermore, a significantly greater bone fill was obtained in group 2 (1.70±0.54 mm) compared to group 1 (0.22±0.43 mm) after six months.

    Conclusion

    ATV, as an adjunct to SRP, enhanced periodontal regeneration, as a noninvasive way to treat periodontal IBDs.

    Keywords: CBCT, intrabony defects, periodontal regeneration, periodontitis, scaling, root planing
  • Tarulatha Revanappa Shyagali, Dhaval Aghera* Pages 192-199
    Background

    This study aimed to evaluate and analyze the distribution of stresses on the palatal micro-implants and the cortical bone at the micro-implant site with optimal orthodontic retraction force in lingual orthodontics.

    Methods

    ANSYS 12.1 software was used to construct the finite element model of the maxillary bone, teeth and the periodontal ligament along with the lingual bracket set-up with wire and the micro-implant. Six- and 8-mm micro-implants were constructed. The final model consisted of 99190 nodes and 324364 elements. A 200-gram of retraction force was applied from the micro-implant to the anterior retraction hook. The micro-implant was embedded between the second premolar and the first molar. Hyper-view software was used to get the results in X-Y-Z dimensions.

    Results

    The maximum von Mises stresses detected were 52.543 MPa for 6-mm micro-implant and 54.489 MPa for 8-mm micro-implant. Maximum stress was at the neck of the micro-implant. The 8-mm implant model showed 6×10-3 mm of lingual displacement. The least displacement of 1×10-3 mm was noticed for both the implant models in the apico-occlusal direction. The maximum von Mises stresses in the cortical bone at the micro-implant site was 18.875 MPa for 6-mm micro-implant and 21.551 MPa for 8-mm micro-implant.

    Conclusion

    Six-mm micro-implant can be the choice for the implant-supported lingual orthodontic retraction as it produced minimal stresses on the cortical bone, and the initial stress displacements produced on the micro-implant were also minimal. 

    Keywords: Cortical bone, finite element analysis, orthodontics
  • Vikram M. Belkhode, Sharayu V. Nimonkar*, S.R. Godbole, Pranali Nimonkar, Seema Sathe, Anjali Borle Department Pages 200-207
    Background

    Dental porcelain has excellent esthetics in combination with biocompatibility and is one of the most commonly used restorative materials. Its low tensile strength remains a major drawback. The porcelain-fused-to-metal restorations have been introduced to increase the fracture resistance of dental porcelain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different surface treatments on the bond strength of a non-precious alloy to ceramic.

    Methods

    The present cross-sectional observational study was conducted with forty samples of cobalt‒chromium that were fabricated with porcelain interposed between the two metal test pieces. The metal was subjected to combinations of different surface treatments. The samples group A (n=10) were not subjected to any surface treatments. Group B samples underwent sandblasting and surface grinding. Group C samples were subjected to sandblasting, surface grinding and degassing; and group D samples underwent sandblasting, surface grinding, ultrasonic cleaning and degassing. The tensile bond strength was measured in a universal testing machine, and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to obtain images of the samples after surface treatment to determine the surface irregularities and after the debonding of the samples for the type of the bond failure. ANOVA was used for the statistical analysis.

    Results

    The results showed significant variations in the tensile bond strength between the four groups (F=251.05, P=0.000). The SEM images of group A showed no surface irregularities; group C samples exhibited surface irregularities more than those in group B. Group D had the highest surface irregularities. SEM evaluations showed a statistically significant difference in the type of bond failure (P<0.001).

    Conclusion

    Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that the surface treatments on the metal increased the bond strength of the metal‒ceramic interface significantly. A combination of sandblasting, surface grinding and ultrasonic cleaning, followed by degassing, resulted in the highest tensile bond strength.

    Keywords: Bond failure, degassing, metal ceramic restorations, sandblasting, scanning electron microscope, surface grinding, ultrasonic cleaning
  • Hamid Taghiloo, Zohreh Halimi* Pages 208-214
    Background

    Diseases of the paranasal sinuses are very prevalent in East Azarbaijan Province, Iran, which is attributed to various reasons, including environmental and anatomical factors. This study investigated the prevalence of anatomical variations of nasal septum deviation and evaluated the effect of this factor on increasing the mucosal thickness of the sinuses.

    Methods

    The samples included all the patients referred to Tabriz Faculty of Dentistry, and the frequency of nasal septum deviation in the sample population was evaluated. The samples were re-examined to select the samples with a thickened mucosa of the maxillary sinus. The results were reported using descriptive statistical methods.

    Results

    Deviation of the nasal septum was seen in 75% of the cases. The results showed that 31.76 % of males and 56.67% of females had an increased maxillary sinus mucosa thickness.

    Conclusion

    There was a significant relationship between nasal septum deviation and thickening of the maxillary sinus mucosa. 

    Keywords: CBCT, maxillary sinuses, mucous thickness, septum deviation
  • Selen İnce Yusufoglu*, Melek Akman, Makbule Bilge Akbulut, Ayce Ünverdi Pages 215-220
    Background

    This in vitro study compared the fracture resistance of roots instrumented either with ProTaper or One Shape rotary systems and filled with one of the silicate, epoxy resin or silicone-based sealers.

    Methods

    Sixty single-rooted extracted mandibular premolars were decoronated to a length of 13 mm and then randomly divided into two main groups (n=30) in terms of the rotary system used for preparation. Group 1 samples were instrumented with the ProTaper Universal system up to a master apical file of #F2, while samples in group 2 were enlarged with One Shape system. The two main groups were then divided into 3 subgroups in terms of the sealer used (n=10) and filled with gutta-percha (either F2 or MM-GP points) of the rotary system used and one of the sealers as follows: group 1, BioRoot RCS + ProTaper F2 gutta-percha; group 2, AH Plus + ProTaper F2 gutta-percha; group 3, GuttaFlow + ProTaper F2 gutta-percha; group 4, BioRoot RCS+ MM-GP points; group 5, AH Plus + MM-GP points; and group 6, GuttaFlow + MM-GP points. Each specimen then underwent fracture testing by using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min until the root fractured. Data were statistically analyzed.

    Results

    Two-way ANOVA showed no significant differences between the groups. One Shape instruments showed significantly better fracture resistance compared to ProTaper instruments. Statistically, no significant difference was found between AHPlus, GuttaFlow and BioRoot RCS sealers.

    Conclusion

    It can be concluded that the rotary system used for the instrumentation of teeth has some influence on the fracture resistance, while the root canal sealers do not have such an effect. Key words: BioRoot RCS, Fracture resistance, GuttaFlow, One Shape.

    Keywords: BioRoot RCS, Fracture resistance, GuttaFlow, One Shape
  • Mina Khayamzadeh, Shamsoulmolouk Najafi*, Parastoo Sadrolodabaei, Faranak Vakili, Mohammad Javad Kharrazi Fard Pages 221-226
    Background

    Benign migratory glossitis or geographic tongue, whose cause still remains a mystery, emerges as annular lesions on the dorsal surface of the tongue. Several reasons have been reported for this condition, including vitamin deficiencies, digestive disorders, emotional stress and nutritional deficiencies. In order to introduce an efficient treatment for the geographic tongue, the present study investigated the levels of iron, zinc and vitamin B12 in the blood and saliva.

    Methods

    The present study evaluated 40 subjects. The oral disease specialists examined the patients in the Dental School, Tehran University International Campus and Mashhad Dental School. Accordingly, inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to enroll the patients. The blood and salivary samples were collected from the case and control groups. Finally, independent t-test was used to analyze the data.

    Results

    Overall, 20 subjects suffered from geographic tongue. They consisted of 8 females and 12 males, with a mean age of 33.5±4.8 and age range of 19‒49 years. Moreover, the mean age and age range of the healthy subjects were 29.40±7.5 and 24‒25 years, respectively. It should be pointed out that the subjects were equally divided into 10 males and 10 females. There was no difference between other variables in the blood and saliva.

    Conclusion

    The results showed that patients with geographic tongue had lower levels of salivary zinc, compared to the control group. Although iron and vitamin B12 affect the lingual papillae, their serum and salivary levels did not change.

    Keywords: Blood, geographic tongue, iron, saliva, vitamin B12, zinc
  • Tahereh Ghaffari, Elnaz Moslehifard, Mehrnaz Motiei* Pages 227-233
    Background

    Due to the fragile nature of all-ceramic restorations, it is necessary to provide an appropriate (core) infrastructure to support the veneering porcelain. The veneer detachment and chipping are disadvantages of these restorations. Several techniques have been proposed to minimize these problems. This study evaluated the effect of thermal and mechanical cycles on the shear bond strength of zirconia core to porcelain veneer under different surface treatments.

    Methods

    Sixty disk-like zirconium samples were randomly divided into three groups. The first group was polished and veneered with porcelain, without additional surface treatments. The two other groups were subjected to different surface treatments (modified aluminum oxide by silica and activator‒aluminum oxide and primer) and veneering with porcelain. Half of the samples in each group were subjected to 6000 thermal cycles and 20,000 masticatory cycles of 50 N to imitate the intraoral conditions; the other half were placed in distilled water at 37°C until the shear strength test. Each sample was then buried using PMMA in a mounting jig so that the gap between the core and the veneer could be placed upward. Then, they were exposed to shear stress using a universal testing machine at a rate of 1 mm/min until fracture. The maximum force leading to the fracture was recorded.

    Results

    Comparison of the groups showed that the highest shear bond strength was related to the samples treated with aluminum oxide and primer, without applying thermal and masticatory cycles, which indicated no significant difference from the group treated with aluminum oxide and primer, with thermal and masticatory cycles. The lowest shear bond strengths were related to the polished samples without surface treatment by applying thermal and masticatory cycles (P=0.001), which indicated no significant difference from the untreated group without thermal and masticatory cycles.

    Conclusion

    Based on the results, treatment with aluminum oxide and primer increased the shear bond strength of zirconia core to porcelain veneer. Thermocycling and masticatory cycles failed to reduce the shear bond strength in all the three groups significantly.

    Keywords: Air abrasion, mechanical cycle, porcelain veneer, thermal cycle, zirconia
  • Elnaz Moslehifard, Mahmood Robati Anaraki*, Saeed Shirkavand Pages 234-240
    Background

    The current study evaluated the compressive, flexural and impact strengths of heat-cured acrylic resins reinforced by TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs).

    Methods

    TiO2 NPs were provided and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine their morphology and crystalline structure. For three mechanical tests, 12 acrylic resin groups (n=9), totaling 108 specimens, were prepared using a special mold for each test, with TiO2 nanoparticle contents of 0, 0.5, 1 or 2 wt% in different groups. After curing, the compressive, flexural and impact strengths of the specimens were examined according to ISO 1567.

    Results

    In the SEM and XRD study of TiO2 NPs, anatase was identified as the major crystalline phase followed by rutile (average particle size: 20.4 nm). SEM images showed that the nanocomposite with 1 wt% NPs had a more homogenized blend. 1 wt% TiO2 nanocomposite exhibited a higher, but non-significant, impact strength compared to the controls. ANOVA showed significant differences in the impact and flexural strengths between nanocomposites with various contents of TiO2 NPs.

    Conclusion

    The nanocomposite with 1 wt% TiO2 NPs exhibited fewer micro-pores and micro-cracks in the SEM crosssections. A non-significant increase was also observed in the impact strength with TiO2 NPs at 1 wt%. Further increase in TiO2 NPs decreased both the impact and flexural strengths. The compressive strength of the heat-cured acrylic resin was not affected by the incorporation of NPs.

    Keywords: Polymethyl methacrylate, compressive strength, metal nanoparticles, flexural strength. nanocomposite, dental materials