فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:2 Issue:2, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/09/06
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Hamdi Chtourou, *, Cyrine H’mida, Omar Boukhris, Khaled Trabelsi, Achraf Ammar, Nizar Souissi Page 1

    Sleep is fundamental for recovery and good mental, cognitive and physical performance. Many factors could affect the sleep of the physical active people or athletes such as: late night training sessions or competition, Ramadan fasting and jetlag. These conditions that affect the sleep quality have significant negative effects on mental, cognitive and physical performance. Thus, scientists have to find strategies to overcome the perturbation of sleep and to optimize mental, cognitive and physical performance especially for physical active people and athletes. One of the proposed strategies is the nap opportunity. Otherwise, in their routinely training sessions, athletes are required to perform short-term repetitive maximal sprints. One of the utilized exercise for testing or training is the 5-m shuttle run test (5mSRT). Recent studies concluded that a nap opportunity has a positive effect on performance during the 5mSRT. These studies reported that this positive effect depends on the duration and the time of day of the nap opportunity. Indeed, the positive effect of the nap opportunity was better after a duration of 45-minutes compared to a 25-minutes. Also, this positive effect was reported when the nap opportunity was performed at 14h00 or 15h00. However, no-positive effect was reported when the nap opportunity was realized at 13h00.

    Keywords: Sleep, Sport, Nap, Performance
  • Atriya Neogi, Apoorva Tiwari, Tambi Medabala, Snehunsu Adhikari, Swapan Kumar Dey* Page 2
    Background

    Wrestling is known as a sport which highly requires physical preparation besides performing techniques such as clinch, fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds.

    Objectives

    The aim of the present study was to assess body composition, anthropometric profiles and somatotype rating of young male Greco-Roman wrestlers and sedentary controls.

    Methods

    Nine heavyweight category wrestlers with mean age of 16.2 ± 0.89 years, 19 lightweight category male wrestlers with mean age of 16.4 ± 0.95 years, and 50 sedentary males with mean age of 16.9 ± 0.94 years, were recruited for the study.

    Results

    The results suggested that heavyweight category wrestlers were taller (178.3 ± 5.76), heavier (76.5 ± 8.17) than the other two categories. Body surface area was also found to be highest (1.95 ± 0.15) while sedentary controls were found to be highest in %BF (12.4 ± 2.10). Somatotype rating of the heavyweights, lightweights and sedentary controls were 4.3 - 5.0 - 2.6, 4.1 - 5.1 - 2.2 and 4.6 - 2.9 - 2.8 respectively. Wrestlers were found to be endomorphic-mesomorph while the controls were balanced endomorph. A significant (P < 0.05) differences were noticed almost in all the parameters except bicep and endomorphic component when compared among the groups. Body height, weight, BSA and suprailliac skin fold were found to be significantly (P < 0.05) differed when compared between the weight category groups. ANOM plot revealed that insignificant somatotype mean variation exist between the weight categories. Wrestler of Poland, Turkey and Iran have also reported that the %BF, BMI and somatotype rating scores which was higher in Greco-Roman wrestlers.

    Conclusions

    The present study compared the different anthropometric characteristics, somatotype rating and body composition profiles of Greco-Roman wrestlers and sedentary control groups. Differences in various parameters were found to be being related to training regimen and their socio-economic status.

    Keywords: Wrestling, Greco-RomanWrestlers, Body Composition, Anthropometry
  • David Wilfred * Page 3
    Background

    The parameters of the VO2 response profile are obtained by fitting breath-by-breath VO2 data from an exercise test to an appropriate mathematical model. Several strategies have been recommended to ensure, or at least improve, the accuracy of the values.

    Objectives

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate two strategies to enhance the accuracy of parameter estimates that describe the two-component VO2 response during heavy intensity exercise. The first was to use data from a number of tests rather than just one. The second was to ‘smooth’ the data, using three-breath, five-breath, or seven-breath rolling averages of the breath-by-breath VO2 data prior to fitting the data to the two-component model.

    Methods

    Twenty participants (eight women and twelve men) performed six 6-min heavy-intensity (midway between the ventilatory threshold and VO2max) cycle ergometer tests. Breath-by-breath data and smoothed data from each test were fit to a two-component model. The parameter estimates from the first test, and the average of the values from the first two, first three, first four, first five, and all six tests were compared against the criterion value, which was the average of all six values obtained using five-breath averages.

    Results

    Modeling five-breath averages of data from the first test generated values for the parameters that were closely related to the criterion values. Modeling data from two or three tests improved the accuracy slightly, but improvements were small, and negligible when more than three tests were included.

    Conclusions

    Depending upon the accuracy required, that is depending upon how close each and every participant’s value must be to his or her ‘true’ value, smoothed data from one or two tests is sufficient to calculate the values that describe the two-parameter VO2 response profile in heavy intensity cycling exercise.

    Keywords: Kinetics, Heavy Intensity, Modeling, Cycling, Slow Component
  • Mohsen Jafari*, Nahid Bizheh, Ahmad Ebrahimi, Sahar Fathi Page 4
    Background

    Homocysteine, fibrinogen and C-reactive protein (CRP) are three independent factors that independently and strongly predict the cardiovascular risks.

    Objectives

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acute and chronic responses of these cardiovascular risk factors following physical activity in overweight healthy inactive middle-aged men.

    Methods

    The subjects included 21 healthy inactive men that were assigned into two groups of experimental (N = 11) and control (N = 10). The exercise protocol consisted of circuit resistance exercise (one session protocol) with intensity of 35% of 1RM; endurance training protocol lasting for 12 weeks (three sessions a week) and running exercise with intensity of 75% to 85% of maximum heart rate. Blood samplings were taken in pretest and posttest. The data was used using paired and independent samples t-test were used for statistical analysis of data.

    Results

    The results indicated that there was a significant increase in homocysteine and CRP following circuit resistance exercise (P ≤ 0.05) while no significant change was found in fibrinogen in experimental group after exercise (P > 0.05). Additionally, the levels of CRP and homocysteine were significantly decreased after three months of aerobic exercises, (P ≤ 0.05) however no significant change of fibrinogen was observed (P > 0.05).

    Conclusions

    Although it seems that atherogenic inflammatory processes are more sensitive to exercise than coagulatory processes in inactive middle-aged men, more researches are needed for crucial decisions.

    Keywords: Exercise, Resistance, Homocysteine, Fibrinogen, C-Reactive Protein
  • Daniel Afrifa *, Kwabena Nsiah, Appiah Collins, Monday Omoniyi Page 5
    Background

    Sporting activity promotes healthy living, increases health benefits, mitigates some chronic disease conditions and prevents premature death. Cardiovascular disease risks during sports activities and exercises are low but in some instances of undiagnosed pathological cardiac conditions, players could be at the risk of tragic cardiovascular events.

    Objectives

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of high blood pressure, abnormal fasting blood sugar and lipid profiles, as probable cardiovascular disease risk factors among male soccer players.

    Methods

    A cross-sectional study was used and 86 football players of the premier, 1st and 2nd divisions’ teams were used for the study. The blood pressure and biochemical markers such as fasting blood glucose and lipid profiles of the players were assessed.

    Results

    Out of the 86 players, 8 (9.3%) were goalkeepers, 29 (33.7%) were defenders, 34 (39.5%) were midfielders, while 15 (17.4%) were strikers. The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes among the study population were 9.3% each. The most prevalent abnormality was reduced high density lipoprotein (38.4%), followed by hypercholesterolemia (27.9%) and (7.0%) high low density lipoprotein  espectively.

    Conclusions

    The incidence of high blood pressure, high blood glucose, reduced high density lipoprotein and hypercholesterolemia observed in the study indicate that the players are at increased risks of cardiovascular diseases.

    Keywords: Cardiovascular Disease, Blood Pressure, Fasting Plasma Glucose, Lipid Profiles, Football Players
  • Cyrine H’mida, *, Sabrine H’mida, Hamdi Chtourou Page 6

    The aim of the present study was to examine the evolution of the attention during a lesson of teaching anatomy of the humerus in physical education degree’ students (PES). Sixty-one students (32 males and 29 females), registered in the 1st year PES in the High Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Sfax (University of Sfax, Tunisia) voluntarily participated in the present study. They performed the digit cancellation test at the beginning and at the end of a 90 min teaching session of anatomy at two time-of-day: between 08h00 and 09h30 and between 15h30 and 17h00. The results showed that there is no difference between the males and females groups for the attention (P > 0.05). However, the present study showed that the attention decreased at the end compared to the beginning of the teaching session (P < 0.05). Also, the attention was significantly better in the morning compared to the afternoon hours (P < 0.05). For PES, anatomy requires good attention capacities and the scheduling of these lessons in the morning is better than the afternoon hours.

    Keywords: Vigilance, Learning, Anatomy, Education, Diurnal
  • Amin Asadi *, Mohammad Ghasemi, Ehsan Zarandi, Mohammad Mahdi Khanjari, Sahar Bayat, Samaneh Malekmohammadi Page 7

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of milk consumption following resistance-aerobic training on the weight loss of female students. Information was collected from 80 female students with more than 10 kg overweight in the body composition analysis. Forty eligible students were then randomly divided into two groups of aerobic-resistance training and aerobic-resistance training plus milk consumption. Finally, a total of 30 students remained in the study. The students consumed milk immediately and one hour after aerobic-resistance training. The exercise protocol included aerobic-resistance exercises for six weeks (three days a week). The results of independent t-test after six weeks of aerobic-resistance training showed a significant reduction in weight loss indicators, including body fat percentage (P = 0.04), total body fat (P = 0.03), and waist-to-hip ratio (P = 0.03), in addition to an increase in muscle gain (P = 0.002) in the exercise + milk group, compared to the aerobic-resistance training group. Therefore, it seems that a resistance-aerobic training program, along with milk consumption, can improve the body composition and health indicators of individuals.

    Keywords: Aerobic Exercise, Resistance Training, Milk Consumption, Body Composition