فهرست مطالب

اکوفیزیولوژی بذر - سال دوم شماره 1 (پیاپی 0، بهار و تابستان 1396)
  • سال دوم شماره 1 (پیاپی 0، بهار و تابستان 1396)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/06/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • فاطمه کامیاب*، شاهین واعظی، محمد جعفر آقایی، مینا ربیعی صفحات 1-15

    یکی از محدودیت های توسعه کشت لوبیا چشم بلبلی در مناطق مساعد زراعت این گیاه، وجود تنش شوری می باشد. به منظور بررسی اثر شوری بر جوانه زنی و رشد گیاهچه لوبیا چشم بلبلی، آزمایشی در آزمایشگاه ژنتیک و بانک ژن گیاهی ملی ایران بصورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با چهار تکرار انجام شد. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل 15 ژنوتیپ مختلف لوبیا چشم بلبلی (مشهد، امید بخش1، امید بخش2، 001، 002، 7245،  7254، 7262، 7288، 7244، 7256، 7291، 7289، 7278 و 7305) و چهار سطح کلرید سدیم با غلظت های0،  50،  100 و 150 میلی مولار بودند. اثر ژنوتیپ روی تمام صفات مورد مطالعه به غیر از وزن تر ساقه چه و اثر شوری روی صفات درصد جوانه زنی، شاخص جوانه زنی، قدرت جوانه زنی، وزن تر ساقه چه و وزن خشک ریشه چه معنی دار بود.  ژنوتیپ های مشهد و 7262 در بالاترین غلظت شوری دارای بیشترین درصد جوانه زنی نهایی (100 درصد) بودندو ژنوتیپ 001 در بالاترین سطح شوری دارای کمترین درصد جوانه زنی نهایی (38.88 درصد) بود. ژنوتیپ مشهد بالاترین شاخص قدرت جوانه زنی را به دست آورد و با افزایش غلظت شوری شاخص قدرت جوانه زنی، وزن تر و خشک ریشه چه و ساقه چه آن کاهش یافت. ژنوتیپ های مشهد و 7262 بعنوان مقاوم ترین و ژنوتیپ 1 به عنوان حساس ترین ژنوتیپ نسبت به شوری انتخاب شدند. نتایج تجزیه خوشه ای نشان داد که ژنوتیپ ها در سه خوشه جدا از هم قرار گرفتند به طوری که ژنوتیپ های 1 و امیدبخش 2 در خوشه های جداگانه و بقیه ژنوتیپ ها در خوشه سوم قرار گرفتند. بر اساس نتایج این آزمایش تنوع ژنتیکی لازم برای انتخاب ارقام مقاوم به شوری در میان ژنوتیپ های لوبیا چشم بلبلی ایران وجود دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: ژنوتیپ، وزن خشک، ژنوتیپ مشهد، کلرید سدیم، تجزیه خوشه ای
  • سیده مرضیه نوربخش سامانی* صفحات 17-32

    ریواس گیاهی علفی و پایا از خانواده علف هفت بند است که در ایران به صورت خودرو می روید و در طب سنتی از جایگاه ارزشمندی برخوردار است. به منظور مطالعه اثر تنش های شوری و خشکی بر جوانه زنی و رشد گیاهچه ریواس دو آزمایش جداگانه در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با سه تکرار (هر تکرار شامل 30 عدد بذر در پتری هایی به قطر 12 سانتی متر) در آزمایشگاه علوم باغبانی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شهر کرد اجرا گردید. در آزمایش اول اثر سطوح تنش شوری (صفر، 40، 80، 120، 160، 200، 240، 280، 320، 360 میلی مولار) ناشی از کلرید سدیم و در آزمایش دوم اثر سطوح تنش خشکی (صفر، 0.3-، 0.5-، 0.7-، 0.9-، 1.1-، 1.3-، 1.5-، 1.7- و 1.9- مگاپاسکال) ناشی از پلی اتیلن گلیکول 6000 بر درصد جوانه زنی، سرعت جوانه زنی، طول ریشه چه، طول ساقه چه، بنیه بذر و وزن تر و خشک گیاهچه مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که سطوح مختلف تنش شوری و خشکی بر درصد و سرعت جوانه زنی، طول ریشه چه و ساقه چه، شاخص بنیه بذر و وزن تر و خشک گیاهچه به طور معنی داری موثر بود. با افزایش سطح تنش شوری و خشکی تمامی صفات مورد مطالعه کاهش یافتند. بیشترین درصد و سرعت جوانه زنی، طول ریشه چه و ساقه چه، شاخص بنیه بذر و وزن تر و خشک گیاهچه مربوط به تیمار شاهد و کمترین میزان صفات فوق الذکر متعلق به سطح شوری 360 میلی مولار و سطح خشکی 1.9- مگاپاسکال بود. نتایج تحقیق حاضر نشان داد که کلیه صفات مورد بررسی با یکدیگر همبستگی مثبت و معنی دار داشتند. به طور کلی نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که گیاه ریواس تا حد زیادی در مرحله جوانه زنی نسبت به تنش شوری و خشکی متحمل است.

    کلیدواژگان: کلرید سدیم، پلی اتیلن گلیکول، درصد جوانه زنی، طول ریشه چه، شاخص بنیه بذر
  • راضیه صارمی، حشمت امیدی*، عبدالامیر بستانی صفحات 33-46

    به منظور بررسی اثرات پرایمینگ بذر بر ویژگی های جوانه زنی بذر استویا، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح کاملا تصادفی با 4 تکرار در دانشگاه شاهد اجرا شد. بذر ها به وسیله هورمون اکسین در غلظت های صفر (هیدرو پرایمینگ با آب مقطر)، 0.1، 0.5، 1 و 1.5 پی پی ام و هورمون سیتوکینین در غلظت های صفر (هیدرو پرایمینگ با آب مقطر)، 0.5، 1، 1.5 و 2 پی پی ام به صورت ترکیبی پرایم شدند. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین سرعت جوانه زنی و کمترین میانگین مدت زمان جوانه زنی در تیمار بذر ها با 0.1 پی پی ام اکسین و تیمار شاهد به دست آمد. همچنین بر اساس نتایج، کمترین زمان تا 10، 25، 50، 75 و 90 درصد جوانه زنی در هیدروپرایمینگ بذر ها با آب مقطرو همچنین 0.1 پی پی ام اکسین به دست آمد. بنابراین، بذر های هیدروپرایم شده زودتر به 10 درصد جوانه زنی رسیدند. در مطالعه اثر سیتوکینین، کمترین میانگین مدت زمان جوانه زنی در بذر هایی مشاهده شد که به وسیله هیدروپرایمینگ و 1 پی پی ام سیتوکینین تیمار شدند. همچنین تیمار بذر ها با 0.5 و 1.5 پی پی ام از هورمون سیتوکینین بالاترین سرعت جوانه زنی را نشان داد. در مطالعه اثرات برهمکنش اکسین در سیتوکینین بر ویژگی های جوانه زنی بذر های استویا، ترکیب تیماری (1 + 1.5 پی پی ام)IAA+PBA  از نظر مقدار، منجر به بیشترین درصد جوانه زنی گردید. همچنین تیمار با (0+0.1 پی پی ام)IAA+PBA  شاخص بنیه بذر را افزایش داد که نسبت به سایر ترکیبات از نظر اقتصادی مقرون به صرفه است. به طور کلی با توجه به نتایج، اثر گذاری IAA نسبت به PBA بر صفات مورد مطالعه بیشتر بود. با این وجود، هیدروپرایمینگ نیز تاثیر مثبتی بر اکثر صفات نشان داد. در نتیجه برای تولید بذر استویا با سرعت جوانه زنی و بنیه بالا، استفاده از اکسین در غلظت های پایین توصیه می شود. برای رسیدن به درصد جوانه زنی بالاتر، ترکیب تیماری (1+1.5 پی پی ام)  IAA+PBAرا می توان پیشنهاد کرد.

    کلیدواژگان: اکسین، بنیه بذر، سیتوکینین، درصد جوانه زنی، هیدروپرایمینگ
  • فرزانه قاسمی سراب بادیه، آرش فاضلی، علی آرمینیان* صفحات 47-62

    فنآوری نانو قابلیت عمده ای در بهبود کیفیت زندگی انسانی در بسیاری از زمینه ها همانند کشاورزی و صنعت دارد.در این تحقیق، اثر نانو ذرات نقره بر جوانه زنی و رشد گیاهچه های 10 ژنوتیپ گیاه جو در یک آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با سه تکرار در شرایط آزمایشگاهی در دانشگاه ایلام مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. عوامل بررسی شده شامل غلظت های مختلف نانوذرات نقره (صفر، یک و پنج درصد)، و تعداد شش واریته و چهار لاین جو زراعی بود. ویژگی هایی ازجمله درصد جوانه زنی، شاخص جوانه زنی، شدت جوانه زنی، انرژی جوانه زنی، قوه نامیه، طول ریشه، طول شاخساره و طول گیاهچه ها بررسی گردید. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که بین غلظت های مختلف نانو نقره در سطح یک درصد برای صفات درصد جوانه زنی، شاخص جوانه زنی، شدت جوانه زنی، انرژی جوانه زنی و قوه نامیه اختلاف معنی دار بود. همچنین بین ژنوتیپ ها، تفاوت معنی دار در تمامی صفات مشاهده شد که نشان دهنده ی تنوع ژنتیکی در جامعه ی مذکور می باشد. اثر متقابل ژنوتیپ ها با تیمار نانو بین سطوح مختلف نانونقره برای صفات درصد جوانه زنی، شاخص جوانه زنی، شدت جوانه زنی و قوه نامیه در سطح یک درصد معنی دار بود. ژنوتیپ های نصرت، ایزه، ده سراسری و   mb-88-2نیز دارای بالاترین میزان خصوصیات جوانه زنی بودند. همچنین، تجزیه به مولفه های اصلی جهت ارزیابی تنوع بین سطوح مختلف نانوذرات نشان داد که دو مولفه بیش از یک به دست آمده که بترتیب 74.73 و 25.27 درصد از کل تنوع را بیان نمودند. نتایج   PCA جهت بررسی تنوع صفات بین سطوح مختلف ذرات نانو با کاربرد نانو ذرات نشان داد که بیشترین مقادیر صفات در سطوح یک و پنج درصد نانوذرات در مقایسه با شاهد به دست آمد. نتایج نشان داد که ذرات نانو منجر به بهبود ویژگی های جوانه زنی از قبیل درصد جوانه زنی، شاخص و انرژی جوانه زنی شده، اما تاثیر چندانی بر طول شاخساره نداشت. نتایج این تحقیق می تواند تاثیرات ذاتی و کاربردی نانوذرات نقره را در بیولوژی بذر نشان دهد.

    کلیدواژگان: تجزیه مولفه های اصلی، جو، نانو نقره، ویژگی های جوانه زنی
  • محمد حسین امینی فرد، حسن بیات*، حسین حمامی صفحات 63-75

    تحقیق حاضر با هدف بررسی تاثیر غلظت های مختلف فلزهای سنگین کادمیوم، سرب، نیکل و کبالت بر جوانه زنی بذر و رشد گیاهچه های تربچه انجام شد. این آزمایش بر پایه طرح کاملا تصادفی با سه تکرار در شرایط آزمایشگاهی اجرا گردید. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل فلزهای سنگین سرب، نیکل، کادمیوم و کبالت در غلظت های صفر (شاهد)، 50، 100، 200، 400 و 800 میلی گرم در لیتر بودند. صفات مورد بررسی شامل درصد جوانه زنی، سرعت جوانه زنی، میانگین زمان جوانه زنی، شاخص بنیه بذر، طول ریشه چه و ساقه چه، نسبت طول ریشه چه به ساقه چه، وزن خشک ریشه چه، ساقه چه و کل گیاهچه بود. نتایج نشان داد که تاثیر سطوح پایین فلزهای سنگین بر درصد و سرعت جوانه زنی معنی دار نبود ولی بر صفات رشدی مانند طول ریشه چه و ساقه چه، وزن خشک ریشه چه، ساقه چه و کل گیاهچه اثر مثبت و افزایشی داشت. در بین فلزهای مورد بررسی میزان سمیت فلز کادمیوم در مقایسه با سایر فلزها بیشتر بود و بعد از آن فلز کبالت در رتبه ی بعدی قرار گرفت. غلظت 800 میلی گرم بر لیتر فلزهای سرب، نیکل، کادمیوم و کبالت، درصد جوانه زنی را  به ترتیب 2، 4، 60 و 70 درصد نسبت به شاهد کاهش داد. کمترین و بیشترین سرعت جوانه زنی به ترتیب از تیمارهای 800 و 50 میلی گرم در لیتر کبالت و سرب به دست آمد. همچنین بیشترین طول ریشه چه و ساقه چه  به ترتیب از تیمارهای 100 و 400 میلی گرم در لیتر سرب و نیکل به دست آمد. غلظت 800 میلی گرم در لیتر سرب، نیکل، کادمیوم و کبالت، وزن خشک ریشه را به ترتیب 42، 28، 88 و 90 درصد در مقایسه با شاهد کاهش دادند. بیشترین وزن خشک کل گیاهچه نیز از تیمار 100 میلی گرم در لیتر سرب به دست آمد. این تحقیق نشان داد که جوانه زنی و رشد گیاهچه های تربچه در مناطق آلوده به فلزهای سنگین امکان پذیر است.

    کلیدواژگان: سرب، کادمیوم، کبالت، نیکل، جوانه زنی
  • علی روستا*، سهیل پارسا صفحات 77-92

    پرایمینگ بذر یکی از روش های بسیار موثر در بهبود سرعت، یکنواختی و میزان جوانه زنی بذر است. در این تحقیق اثر پرایمینگ بذر با هورمون اسید جیبرلیک بر خصوصیات جوانه زنی و رشد گیاهچه زیره سبز تحت تنش شوری و خشکی بصورت آزمایشی فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با 3 تکرار مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل شوری (کلرید سدیم) در سه سطح با پتانسیل های صفر(شاهد)، 0.75- و 1.5- مگاپاسگال و خشکی در سه سطح  با پتانسیل هایی مشابه تنش شوری با استفاده از پلی اتیلن گلایکول، بودند. برای پرایمینگ از هورمون اسید جیبرلیک در سه سطح صفر، 50 و 100 پی پی ام استفاده شد. نتایج بدست آمده نشان داد که اثر ساده و متقابل شوری و اسید جیبرلیک، به جز وزن خشک گیاهچه بر تمامی خصوصیات جوانه زنی مثل درصد و سرعت جوانه زنی، شاخص طولی و وزنی بنیه بذر، طول ساقه چه و ریشه چه معنی دار بود. اثر متقابل خشکی و اسید جیبرلیک بر شاخص طولی بنیه بذر، طول گیاهچه، ریشه چه و ساقه چه، تاثیر معنی داری نداشت ولی اثر ساده خشکی و اسید جیبرلیک بر وزن تر و خشک گیاهچه، سرعت و درصد جوانه زنی معنی دار شد. همچنین نتایج مقایسات گروهی نشان داد که بین دو تنش مورد مطالعه با سطوح اسید جیبرلیک یکسان، اثر بازدارندگی تنش شوری بر صفات مورد ارزیابی خیلی بیشتر از تنش خشکی بوده است.

    کلیدواژگان: بنیه بذر، سرعت جوانه زنی، درصد جوانه زنی، طول گیاهچه، ساقه چه، ریشه چه
  • رحیم ناصری*، مهرشاد براری، محمدجواد زارع، کاظم خاوازی، زهرا طهماسبی صفحات 93-114

    کودهای زیستی یکی از انواع کودهای آلی هستند که با استفاده از انواع ریزجانداران، توانایی تبدیل  عناصر غذایی از فرم غیرقابل دسترس به فرم قابل دسترس طی فرایندهای زیستی داشته و می تواند از طریق  توسعه سیستم ریشه موجب افزایش جذب عناصر غذایی به اندام های هوایی و انتقال آن ها به دانه گردد، به همین منظور این پژوهش با هدف بررسی اثر باکتری pseudomonas putida و Glomus mosseae بر میزان عناصر غذایی بذر گندم در شرایط دیم، آزمایشی مزرعه ای به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در دو مکان در مزرعه دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ایلام و ایستگاه مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی سرابله در سال زراعی 93-1392 اجرا شد. تیمار های آزمایشی شامل رقم گندم در دو سطح (کراس سبلان و ساجی) و تیمار منابع کودی در هشت سطح شامل: 1- تیمار شاهد (عدم مصرف هیچ منبع کودی) ، 2- 50 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود شیمیایی فسفر، 3- P.putida، 4-G.mosseae، 5- P.putida+ G.mosseae، 6- P.putida+ G.mosseae+25 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود شیمیایی فسفر، 7- P.putida+ 25 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود شیمیایی فسفر  و 8- G.mosseae+25 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود شیمیایی فسفر می باشد.  نتایج حاصل از تجزیه مرکب این پژوهش نشان داد که اثر برهمکنش رقم×منابع کودی بر عناصر غذایی موجود در بذر دو رقم دیم در منابع کودی معنی دار بود. در هر دو رقم مورد استفاده در شرایط دیم استفاده از باکتری های حل کننده فسفات و قارچ میکوریزا موجب افزایش عناصر پر مصرف و کم مصرف گردید، به طوری که بیشترین میزان نیتروژن (2.04 درصد)، فسفر (0.72 درصد)، پتاسیم (0.74 درصد)، روی (21.7 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم)، منگنز (16.5 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم)، منیزیم (0.23 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم) و آهن (17.8 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم) در دانه در رقم ساجی در تیمار G.mosseae + 25 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود شیمیایی فسفر و کمترین میزان عناصر عذایی موجود در بذر در رقم کراس سبلان و تیمار شاهد (عدم مصرف هیچ منبع کودی) بدست آمد. نتایج این پژوهش بیانگر اثر مثبت و معنی دار باکتری های حل کننده فسفات و قارچ میکوریزا بر عناصر غذایی موجود در بذر گندم در شرایط دیم بود.

    کلیدواژگان: آهن، دانه، روی، فسفر، نیتروژن
  • کریم برزگر قاجاری، عباس ملکی*، همت الله پیردشتی صفحات 115-128

    این تحقیق با هدف بررسی تاثیر پیش تیمار نانو کلوئید سیلیکون بر خصوصیات جوانه زنی بذر و برخی خصوصیات فیزیولوژیکی گیاهچه گندم تحت شرایط تنش خشکی در آزمایشگاه تنش های محیطی دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری انجام گردید. آزمایش  به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه کاملا تصادفی و با چهار تکرار انجام شد. فاکتورهای مورد بررسی شامل شش سطح خشکی (صفر،3-، 6-، 9-، 12-، 15- بار) و پنج سطح نانو سیلیکون (صفر، 15، 30، 45، 60 میلی گرم بر لیتر) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که افزایش مقدار نانوسیلیکون صفاتی مانند درصد جوانه زنی(6.1%)، سرعت جوانه زنی(23.3%) را کاهش ولی سرعت جوانه زنی روزانه (12.5%) و میانگین زمان جوانه زنی (12.8%) را افزایش داده و بر متوسط جوانه زنی روزانه تاثیری نداشت. افزایش سطح تنش خشکی صفات درصد جوانه زنی(8.5%)، سرعت جوانه زنی (41.1%) را کاهش داد اما سرعت جوانه زنی روزانه (12.5%) و شاخص جوانه زنی(18.25%) را افزایش داد. همچنین میزان کلروفیل a (45%)، کلروفیل  b(53.3%) و کارتنوئید (49.8%) در تنش خشکی با شدت متوسط (3- بار) افزایش یافته ولی با افزایش شدت تنش خشکی به 6- بار، کاهش معنی داری نشان داد، ضمن آنکه در این سطح تنش(6- بار)، مقدار پرولین به شدت افزایش نشان داد (93.3%). با افزایش مقدار نانوسیلیکون از 30 (میلی گرم در لیتر) به بالا، میزان کلروفیل b و کارتنوئیدها روندی افزایشی نشان داد ولی تفاوت معنی داری با همدیگر  نداشتند. اثر متقابل تنش خشکی و نانوسیلیکون بر سرعت جوانه زنی، میزان کلروفیل b و کارتنوئید معنی دار شد ولی بر سایر صفات مورفولوژیک بذر و فیزیولوژیک گیاهچه معنی دار نشد. اگرچه میزان کلروفیل و کارتنوئید  با افزایش تنش خشکی از سطح صفر به 6- بار کاهش یافت ولی در حضور ذرات نانو سیلیکون مقدار آن ها  بیشتر از تیمار شاهد بود. به نظر می رسد تجمع پرولین در گندم، مکانیسمی برای تحمل به خشکی است. همچنین می توان نتیجه گرفت اثر مقادیر نانوسیلیکون بر خصوصیات مختلف بذر و گیاهچه در شرایط تنش خشکی، محسوس تر از اثر آن در شرایط عادی و بدون تنش است.

    کلیدواژگان: پرولین، سرعت جوانه زنی، کلروفیل a و b، کارتنوئیدها
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  • Fatemeh Kamyab *, Shahin Vaezi, Mohammad Jaffar Aghaei, Mina Rabiei Pages 1-15
    Introduction

    One of the constraints in development of cowpea cultivation in growing areas of this crop is soil salinity. Soil salinity is a major factor limiting plant productivity, affecting about 95 million hectares worldwide. The UNEP (United Nations Environment Program) estimates that 20% of the agricultural land and 50% of the crop land in the world is salt-stressed (Othman et al, 2006). One of the most important problems in the semi-arid and arid regions is the salinity. In the rainy regions, the salt in the soil is washed by rain and reaches into underground water. Because of that, the salinity is not a problem in the rainy regions while it is not possible that the salt in the soil cannot be washed and it cannot reach the underground water in the semi-arid and arid regions. In these regions, the salt in the soil is collected in the ground water and it is carried towards surface of the soil by ground water movement. Other important reasons for soil salinity are the quality of irrigation water, irregular irrigation, and excessive fertilizer applications (Turkmen et al, 2000). Seed germination is an important and vulnerable stage in the life cycle of terrestrial angiosperms and determines seedling establishment and plant growth. Salinity affects seed germination through osmotic effects, ion toxicity or a combination of the two. In vegetative plants, salt stress causes reduced cell turgor and depressed rates of root and leaf elongation, suggesting that environmental salinity acts primarily on water uptake. Furthermore, high intracellular concentrations of both Na+ and Cl- can inhibit the metabolism of dividing and expanding cells, retarding germination and even leading to seed death (Zhang et al, 2010). The purpose of this research was to study the effects of salt stress on cowpea genotypes seed germination and seedling growth.

    Materials and methods

    In order to investigate the effect of salinity on germination and seedling growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), an experiment was conducted as factorial based on completely randomized design with 4 replications. The study was carried out June 2013 at the genetic and gene nation bank laboratory of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Karaj, Iran. Treatments were including of 4 levels of salinity (0, 50, 100 and 150 mM), 15 genotypes of cowpea (Mashhad, Omid bakhsh1, Omid bakhsh 2, 001, 002, 7245, 7254, 7262, 7288, 7244, 7256, 7291, 7289, 7278 and 7305). Four replicates of 6 seeds per Petri dish were used for each treatment. Petri dishes were randomly distributed in temperature controlled incubators (25C; 12-12 hours). The number of seeds germinated in each dish was counted daily for a period of 14 days. Seed were considered germinated when the radical attained a length of 2 mm. Germination percentage, index germination, vigor index germination, germination rate, Plumule dry weight, Plumule fresh weight, radical dry weight and radical fresh weight were estimated at germination and seedling stage. Data were statistically analyzed using analyses of variance (ANOVA) using the MSTAT-C program. Duncan multiple range test was used to compare means at the 5% level.

    Results and discussion

    The results showed that the effects of genotypes and salinity levels on different measured traits were significant at 5% probability level. Germination under saline conditions gave significant reductions for each treatment tested. The interaction effects of genotype and salinity, Mashhad and 7262 cultivars in 150 mM NaCl salinity had the highest final germination percentage (100 %) and 001 genotype had lowest final germination percentage (38.88 %). Also, the highest vigor germination in high salinity (150 mM NaCl) had obtained in Mashhad genotype and with increasing salinity fresh and dry weight of pulumle and radical were increased. Increasing NaCl applications generally decreased the fresh and dry weight of Plumule and fresh and dry weight radical. Mashhad and 7262 genotypes were evaluated as the most resistant and 001 genotype as susceptible genotypes, respectively. Cluster analysis of data showed genotypes categories in three cluster and 001 genotype and Omid bakhsh 2 was placed in separate group and rest of genotypes in another cluster. Based on the results of this experiment, there is necessary genetic diversity among the Cowpea genotypes of Iran for selection of salinity resistant cultivars.

    Keywords: Genotype, Dry weight, Mashhad genotype, NaCl, Cluster analysis
  • Sayyedeh Marzieh Noorbakhsh Samani * Pages 17-32
    Introduction

     Rhubarb (Rheum ribes L.) is an herbaceous and perennial plant from Polygonaceae family that grows naturally in some regions of Iran and is considered as a valuable medicinal species in traditional medicine. Germination stage is an importance of growth plants stages that often influenced by environmental stresses, particularly salinity and drought. Environmental stresses especially water deficiency (drought) is of the most important factors in arid and semi- arid regions of Iran that hugely affects plant growth especially in germination and emergence stages. So, the present research was conducted in order to investigate the effect of salinity and drought stresses on seed germination and seedling growth of Rhubarb under laboratory conditions. Using rangeland species resistant to drought and salinity is essentioal for reform and development of rangelands. In rangelands, drought and salinity are the two preventive factors for foliage production, due to their effect on seed germination and seedling emergence. Salinity stress is one of the most important factors limiting in seed germination and plants growth. Every year, drought stress causes great damages on crops in the world, particularly in Iran with arid and semi- arid climate. Evaluation of crop tolerance to environmental stresses particularly during seed germination and seedling emergence is a main measure to choose them for cropping in different circumstances. Since common investigations in field conditions are time consuming and influenced by many companion variables of soil, climate and agricultural practices, So a fast and precise evaluation of crop response to stress would be achieved using an experiment in controlled environment conditions. In the same context and in order to study the seed germination response of Rhubarb to salinity and drought stresses in germination stage, two separate experiments was conducted based on a completely randomized design with three replications.

    Materials and methods

    In order to study the effect of salinity and drought stresses on seed germination and seedling growth of Rhubarb, two separate experiments were carried out based on a completely randomized design with three replications (each replication included 30 seeds in petri dishes in 12 cm diameter) in horticulture laboratory of Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Iran. In the first experiment, the effect of salinity stress levels (0, 40, 80, 120, 160, 200, 240, 280, 320 and 360 mM) induced by sodium chloride and in the second one the effect of drought stress levels (0, -0.3, -0.5, -0.7, -0.9, -1.1, -1.3, -1.5, -1.7 and -1.9 MPa) caused by polyethylene glycol 6000 on traits such as germination percentage, germination rate, radicle length, plumule length, seed vigor index and fresh weight and seedling dry weight were investigated. The seeds were kept for 21 days in germinator with 16/8 h dark/light photoperiod (16 hours dark and 8 hours light) and temperature 25 °C. Criteria germination seeds, exit radicle the size of two mm shell of the seed was considered. Data variance analysis using the SAS software and traits means comparison using the least significant difference test was conducted at 5 % probability level.

    Results and discussion

    According to the results of variance analysis, showed that significant (p < 0.01) effect of different levels of salinity and drought stress on germination percentage, germination rate, radicle length, plumule length, seed vigor index and fresh weight and seedling dry weight, so that with increasing salinity stress level and drought all of the studied traits significantly (p < 0.01) reduced. Also, comparison of treatment means showed that the most amounts of studied components such as germination percentage, germination rate, radicle length, plumule length, seed vigor index and fresh weight and seedling dry weight were related to control treatment (0 mM NaCl and 0 MPa PEG) and the least amounts of the above- mentioned traits were belonged to salinity level 360 mM and drought level -1.9 MPa. In addition, the results current study indicate positive and significant (p < 0.01) correlation all of the investigated traits together. In general, the results of this research indicated that the plant Rhubarb, is highly tolerant to salinity and drought stress in germination stage.

    Keywords: Sodium chloride, Polyethylene glycol, Germination percentage, Radical length, Seed vigor index
  • Razieh Sarami, Heshmat Omidi *, Abdul Amir Bostani Pages 33-46
    Introduction

    Seed germination is the first plant developmental stage and one of the most important stages in the life cycle of plants and plays an important role in crop establishment. This stage of development is strongly influenced by environmental factors. At between seed improvement techniques, Seed priming is a promising technique for overcoming on associated problems with poor germination and then irregular establishment of crop under normal and stressful conditions. So that, primed seeds tend to show better germination and growth even when imposed to stressful conditions. There are several different methods for seed priming includes hydro-priming and hormone priming. According to the researchers, Stevia rebaudiana is a slender herb. Short day, perennial native to Paraguay and South-West Brazil. It is widely distributed in USA, Brazil, Japan, Korea, Taiwan and South-East Asia. It belongs to the family Asteraceae. Reproduction in the wild is mainly through seed, but seed viability is poor and highly variable. Therefore, in order to investigate the effects of priming on seed germination characteristics of Stevia, this plant selected and in experiment was studied.

    Materials and methods

    In order to investigate the effect of two auxin (indole-3-acetic acid) and cytokinin (Tetra hydro pyranyl benzyl adenine) hormones on germination characteristics of Stevia seeds, experiment was used. The experiment was a conducted in factorial completely randomized design with 4 replications in seed technology laboratory of Shahed University in 2015. The seeds by auxin (IAA) at concentrations of zero (hydropriming with distilled water), 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 ppm and cytokinin hormone (PBA) in concentrations of zero (hydro-priming with distilled water), 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 ppm in combination were primed. Then Petri dishes prepared on contain treated seed, were transferred into the germinator with temperature 25±1 degree centigrade, Relative humidity 70%, 16 hours of light and 8hours of darkness. Daily counting of germinated seeds was performed from second day until germination fixed at a specified time and during the counting, a seed were considered germinated when its radical length 2 mm or exceeds 2 mm. Thus Traits include mean germination time, Germination rate, Germination Percentage, seed vigor and time to different percentages of germination, was measured.

    Results and discussion

    In study effect of auxin (IAA) on germination characteristics of Stevia seeds, the results showed that highest germination rate and lowest mean germination time (3.07 day) in seeds were observed when treated with 0.1 ppm auxin. Lowest time to10, 25, 50, 75and 90 germination percent were recorded with seeds hydro-priming with distilled water. Therefore, hydro-primed seeds than primed seeds, arrived earlier to 10% germination. Also, significant differences not were observed between different concentrations of auxin for percentage and uniformity of germination. In study effect of Cytokinin (PBA), lowest mean germination time in seeds was observed when treated with hydro-priming and 1ppm of PBA hormone. Also Seeds treatment with 0.5 ppm and 1.5 ppm PBA Showed highest germination rate. In study effects of interaction of auxin and cytokinin on germination characteristics of Stevia seeds, Composition IAA+PBA(1.5+1ppm), led to largest germination percentage of seed (66.66%) and thus lowest number of seeds soft. Highest length vigor (with mean 8.13) were obtained in seeds treatment with IAA+PBA (0.1+0 ppm) and lowest length vigor (with mean 2.68) in seeds treatment with high concentrations from hormone of cytokinin (1.5 ppm). on the other hand highest weight vigor (with mean 9.17) were observed in seeds treatment with 0.1 ppm IAA. In general, according to the results, the impact of IAA compared to PBA more was on studied traits in this research. However, hydro-priming also showed a positive effect on the majority of traits. Thus for the production of Stevia seed with germination rate, Speed of germination and high vigor use of auxin in low concentrations is recommended. For achieve more germination percentage combination treatment IAA + PBA (1.5+1 ppm) can be suggested.

    Keywords: Auxin, Vigor, Cytokinin, Germination percentage, Hydro-priming
  • Farzaneh Ghasemi Sarab Badieh, Arash Fazeli, Ali Arminian * Pages 47-62
    Introduction

    Nanotechnology involves the construction and exploitation of materials and systems through control of the matter at the nanoscale. Nanotechnology is the use of scientific and technical knowledge, which has great potential for improving the quality of human life in various fields such as agriculture and manufacturing. The technology using nanoparticles and biological nanosensors can improve the rapid identification of pathogens and plants, against pests, increase the ability of plants to absorb nutrients, reducing the use of pesticides and also by monitoring soil conditions, plant growth on abiotic can maximize the utilization of inputs conventionally such as fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation and environmental conditions such as temperature, solar radiation and humidity, causing increased food production and food supply.

    Materials and methods

    : In this study, the effect of nanosilver particles was evaluated on germination and seedling growth of ten barely plant genotypes in a factorial experiment based on completely randomized block design with three replications, under laboratory conditions at 2015 y in Ilam university. In the experiment, examined factors included different concentrations of silver (0, 1% and 5%) and 6 varieties and 4 lines of cultivated barley. Traits such as germination percentage, germination index, germination rate, germination energy, vigor index, root length, shoot length and seedling length were measured.

    Results and discussion

    Analysis of variance showed that the different concentrations of nanosilver (0, 1% and 5%) were significantly different at 1%. for germination percentage, germination index, germination rate, germination energy and vigor index. In other word, different silver nanoparticles had different effects on traits such as germination percentage, germination index, and germination energy and so on. Also significant differences at 1% were observed among genotypes for all traits studied indicating genotypic diversity in the population studied. Genotype and nanosilver interaction had significant difference (P>0.01) for germination percentage, germination index, and germination rate and vigor index but for energy germination, root length, shoot length and seedling length were not significant. This means that different barley genotypes had various responses to varied silver nanoparticles treatments. According to correlation results, the germination percentage and germination index had the highest correlation (1) and the lowest correlation was observed between germination percentage and length of Plumule (0.007). According to principal component analysis investigating the diversity of traits among genotypes, two components were extracted with eigenvalues more than one. Where, 65.43 and 22.92 percent of the variance were explained by these two components, respectively overall 88.35% of the total variance. The first component was assigned as a component indicating germination parameters (such as: germination percentage, germination index, germination energy) . The second component, assigned as a component indicating growth. Nosrat, Izeh, Ten sarasary and mb-88-2 genotypes had the highest amount of germination characteristics. Also the principal components analysis to examine variability between different levels of nanoparticles showed that two components with eigenvalues over than one were extracted which explained 74.73 and 25.27 percent of the variance, respectively, all amount of variance was explained. The first component nominated as the germination parameters and shoot length and the second component as root and seedling length. Moreover, according to PCA results for examining the diversity of traits between different levels of nanoparticles, the highest amounts of traits were observed (P>0.01) of nanoparticles in comparison with control. On the other hand, 1 and 5% levels of nanoparticles did not make much difference with each other, for different traits. These observations also confirmed the results of mean comparisons. In conclusion, results showed that the silver nanoparticles increase the germination parameters such as germination percentage, germination index, germination rate, germination energy and vigor index though did not affect shoot length. The results could indicate intrinsic and practical effects and impacts of silver nanoparticles on biology.

    Keywords: Germination characteristics, Nanosilver, Principal components analysis
  • Mohammad Hossein Aminifard, Hassan Bayat *, Hossein Hammami Pages 63-75
    Introduction

    Uptake of heavy metals by plants can result in harmful effects to plants and the plants are an important part of the food chain constitute, so a great danger for humans and other members of the food chain can have. Germination is the first stage of the plant life and is one of the most sensitive physiological processes that affected by hormonal and environmental factors (biotic and abiotic stresses). Heavy metals affect the germination of two ways; through general toxicity and inhibiting the absorption of water. Radish is an annual plant with the scientific name Raphanussativus belongs to the Brassicaceae family. The root is edible parts of this plant, which is in direct contact with soil and heavy metals can enter into the roots and stored along with the photosynthetic material. Among the studied plants, radish has ability to absorb and accumulate heavy metals and have been proposed for phytoremediation. However, there is no exhaustive research that showed the impact of the heavy metals Cadmium, Lead, Nickel and Cadmium on the germination and seedling growth of radish. Therefore, this research aimed to investigate the effect of different concentrations of heavy metals Cadmium, Lead, Nickel and Cobalt on germination and seedling growth of radish was conducted.

    Materials and methods

    This experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design with three replications in Research Laboratory, Department of Horticulture Science, Faculty of Agriculture, and University of Birjand in 2015. Treatments included heavy metals Lead, Nickel, Cadmium and Cobalt with concentrations of 0 (control), 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/l. The measured traits were germination percent, germination rate, mean germination time, seed vigor index, root length, shoot length, root to shoot length ratio and dry weight of root, shoot and total.

    Results and discussion

    The results showed that the effect of heavy metals on seed germination characteristics and seedling growth of radish was significant at the 1% level. The impact of low levels of heavy metals on seed germination (percentage and rate of germination) were not significant, but have the positive effects on growth traits (e.g., length of root and shoot and dry weight of root, shoot and total) and increased them. Among the metals studied the toxicity of Cadmium was higher than the other metals and Cobalt in ranked next after that. Seed germination percent were decreased with concentration of 800 mg/l of Lead, Nickel, Cadmium and Cobalt by 2, 4, 60 and 70 percent as compared to the control, respectively. The lowest and the highest germination rate were obtained from metals Cobalt and Lead with concentrations of 800 and 50 mg per liter, respectively. It is reported that heavy metals physiologically inhibit water uptake by seeds and plants and thereby prevents seed germination. It has been suggested that high concentrations of heavy metals cause damage to the embryo or even death it. Moreover, reduction of germination due to heavy metals could be due to its accumulation in the cell and thus its affinity with proteins which reduced the synthesis and production of structural proteins required for cell division and growth and germination processes. The highest root length (9.64 cm) and shoot length (7.04 cm) were obtained from metals Lead and Nickel with concentrations of 100 and 400 mg per liter, respectively. Metals Lead, Nickel, Cadmium and Cobalt with concentration of 800 mg/l were decreased root dry weight by 42, 28, 88 and 90 percent as compared to the control, respectively. The highest total dry weight (0.10 g) was obtained from Lead at concentration of 100 mg/l. Heavy metals by preventing mitotic divisions and cell elongation reduced growth of root and shoot. The results indicate that germination and seedling growth of radish is possible in areas contaminated by heavy metals.

    Keywords: Cadmium, Cobalt, Lead, Nickel, Germination
  • Ali Roosta *, Soheil Parsa Pages 77-92
    Introduction

    Cumin is an annual, herbaceous and aromatic plant that belongs to Apiaceae family. Leaf shape and short shrubs, color and surface coating of plant organs, are all indicative of adaptation of Cumin to areas with dry climate. Seed priming is one of the most effective methods to improve seed germination and seedling establishment, especially in unfavorable environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid on germination and seedling growth characteristics of cumin under salinity and drought stress conditions.

    Materials and methods

    Factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted in the seed laboratory of University of Birjand in April 2016. Experimental factors were included salinity (sodium chloride) and drought (using polyethylene glycol) in three levels with the same potentials (zero, -0.75,-1.5 MPa) and seed priming using gibberellic acid (GA3) at three levels: zero, 50 and 100 ppm. The seeds are disinfected with sodium hypochlorite 10% for 30 seconds and then washed several times with distilled water and contamination effects were not observed during the test. Then 20 similar seeds were placed in Petri-dishes with 9 cm diameter and 5/1 cm height with filter paper, incubated in 15 °C temperature. Natural seedlings with whole root, plumule and leaves and also normal color and size, were separated from abnormal seedlings, according to International Seed Testing Association and various characteristics such as germination percentage, germination rate, seedling fresh weight, seedling dry weight, seedling length, shoot length, root length, length and weight vigor index, were measured.

    Results and discussion

    The results showed that have significant effect the main and interaction effects of salinity and gibberellic acid, except seedling dry weight on the germination characteristics like percentage and rate of germination, vigor index, shoot and root length (P≤0.01). Most seedling length, corresponding to the first salinity level and second gibberellic acid level, with 1.5% increase, compared to control and the lowest level was related to the third level of salinity and the first level of gibberellic acid was a reduction of 100%, compared to the Control. The highest root length was achieved at the first level of salinity and the second level of gibberellic acid that increasing 6.3 percent compared to the control and the lowest value of mentioned trait was observed in the first level of gibberellic acid in the third level of salinity with the reduction of 100%, compared to the control. The interaction between drought and gibberellic acid had no significant effect on seed vigor, root and shoot length, but the main effect of drought and gibberellic acid was significant on fresh and dry weight, rate and percentage of germination (P≤0.05 ) .Maximum rate of germination in dry condition was related to the first level of drought and the second level of gibberellic acid. It seems that gibberellic acid was synthesized in embryonic axis during the germination process, directly affect the speed of germination and heterotrophic growth of seedlings by stimulating the production of hydrolytic enzymes and degradation the storage nutrients. Also the most germination percent was at the drought and gibberellic, While the Second drought and gibberellic acid levels by reducing 1.6% as compared to control had lowest percentage of germination. Maximum root length, on level two drought and a gibberellic acid decreased 7.7 percent as compared to Control. The most of plant dry weight of level dryness first and third, gibberellic acid and lowest Second level dryness and second gibberellic acid showed 90 percent reduction compared to control. Group comparisons showed that between the two studied stresses With the equal gibberellic acid levels, inhibitory and negative effects of salinity on evaluated traits were more strongly than drought, which this issue is related to special effects of salinity in disrupting the balance of nutrients in the growth medium and particularly toxicity of ions.

    Keywords: Germination percent, Germination rate, plumule, radical, Seedling length, Seed vigor
  • Rahim Naseri *, Mehrshad Barary, Mohammad Javad Zarea, Kazem Khavazi, Zahra Tahmasebi Pages 93-114
    Introduction

    Beneficial free-living rhizobacteria, which have been shown to improve plant health or increase yield, are usually referred to as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Mycorrhiza, which is a symbiotic fungus, has been under researches for more than a century. Inoculation of plant roots with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi may be effective in improving crop production under drought conditions. Improved productivity of AM plants was attributed to enhanced uptake of immobile nutrients such as phosphorus, zinc and copper. In addition, other factors associated with AM colonization may influence plant resistance to drought. Therefore the main of this study was to effect of phosphate solubilizing bacteria and Mycorrhizal fungi on yield, yield components and its associated in two dryland wheat cultivars.

    Materials and methods

    An experiment was carried out in factorial arrangement using randomized complete block design with three replications at Agricultural Research Station of Ilam University and Sarableh Agricultural and Research, Recources Center during 2013-2014 cropping season. Experiment factors consisted of two dry land wheat cultivars (Keras Sablan and Saji) and fertilizer sources treatment including of 1- without application of phosphorious chemical fertilizer, 2- 50 kg/ha P, 3- p. putida, 4- G.mosseae, 5- p.putida + G.mosseae, 6- p.putida + G.mosseae +25 kg/ha P, 7- p.putida + 25 kg/ha P and 8- G.mosseae +25 kg/ha P. At full maturity, Seed nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, Zn, Mg, Mn, Fe and Cu were recorded using a sample plants from the middle ridges of each plot. The data were analyzed statistically by SAS program and the data means were compared by LSD test.

    Results and discussion

    Results indicated that interaction effect between cultivar ×fertilizer sources had significant effect on nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, Zn, Mg, Mn, Fe in seed wheat. Using of bio-fertilizer had positive and significant effect total studied traits in two dryland wheat under dry land condition. The highest zinc element in seed was obtained from Saji cultivar and using p.putida + G.mosseae +25 kg/ha P and the least of it was Keras Sabalan cultivar in control treatment, which increased to 49.7% in the zinc element in the seed. The highest amount of manganese in seed was from Saji cultivar in the application of p.putida + G.mosseae +25 kg/ha P and the least manganese obtained from Keras Sabalan cultivar in control treatment, which increased 53.3% in the manganese element in the seed. The highest iron element in the seed belonged to Saji cultivar and using of p.putida + G.mosseae +25 kg/ha P and the lowest from Keras Sabalan cultivar in control treatment, which caused an increase 97.2% in iron element in grain. The highest magnesium content in the seed was obtained from Saji cultivar and using of p.putida + G.mosseae +25 kg/ha P and the lowest from Keras Sabalan cultivar in control treatment, which increased 39.1% in the magnesium element in the seed. The highest nitrogen content in the seed was from Sagi cultivar in the application of p.putida + G.mosseae +25 kg/ha P and the lowest nitrogen content indicated in Keras Sabalan cultivar in the control treatment, which caused an increase of 21.5% in nitrogen in grain. The highest P content in the seeds was from Saji cultivar and the application of p.putida + G.mosseae +25 kg/ha P and the least P content was cultivar Keras Sabalan in control treatment, which increased 66.1% in phosphorus in grain. The highest element of potassium in seed was obtained Saji cultivar and using of p.putida + G.mosseae +25 kg/ha P and the least Pseudomonas potassium indicated in Keras Sabalan cultivar in control treatment, which caused an increase 64.8% of potassium content was in the seed. There was significant different between cultivars to response of Using of phosphate solubilizing bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi, so that Sji cultivars had the best response to mycorrhizal fungi.

    Conclusion

    In this study indicated that GM and PSB had positive affect on seed quality and seed nutrients had the better status in presence of inoculationwithGM and PSB. Application of GM and PSB with fertilizer levels significantly increased the macro and micro elements uptake thad was recorded from Saji Cultivar × GM + 25 kg/ha P. The decrease in available N, P, K, and Fe, Mn, Mg, Ze status of seed was recorded in control where no fertilizer (control treatment). The increased uptake of the nutrients was due to added supply of nutrient and well developed root system resulting in better absorption of water and nutrient. According to the results, the use of GM and PSB cause root development and provide conditions for the absorption of nutrients. In this study, GM and PSB through the development of mechanisms such as root growth have increased the absorption of nutrients and the development of photosynthetic surfaces and the plant produced materials for the development of their organs. Finally, the nutrients in the seeds increased.

    Keywords: Fe, Grain, N, P, Zn
  • Karim Barzegar Ghajari, Abbas Maleki *, Hemmatallah Pirdshti Pages 115-128
    Introduction

    Wheat (Triticumaestivum) is a cereal grain and most important crops that is devoted 17 percent of arable land under cultivation in the world. 32 percent of the wheat-growing areas in developing countries experienced various types of stress during the growing season. Drought stress isone the most important problem that decreases the crop production. Wheat is one of the plants that can absorb a significant amount of silicon. Researchers have reported that silicon have numerous positive effects on the growth and yield of crops as well as the physiology and metabolism of different plants. Silicon reduced the effects of Salinity and drought stress and it seems the beneficial effect is mainly due to the effect of silicon on the growth of leaves, stems and other plantbased mechanisms. In addition, silicon helps plants to overcome the environmental stress. Seed priming technique is one of the ways to increase germination and emergence indices.

    Material and methods

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of pre-treatment of silicon Nanocolloid on seed germination and some physiological characteristics of wheat seedling under drought stress was done in environmental stresses laboratory of Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. A factorial experiment carried out based on randomized completely block design with four replications. Experimental factors were six drought levels including (0, -3, -6, -9, -12, -15 bar) and five Nanosilicon levels including (0, 15, 30, 45, 60 mg/l). Morvarid cultivar was used in this experiment. In order to seed treatment with nano-silicon solution, the seeds casting in containers containing different concentrations of nano-silicon and was kept for 12 hours at room temperature. Drought levels contains, -6, -9, -12 and -15 bar were used to create them using Michel and Kaufmann, respectively from zero, 143.18, 213.64, 267.98, 313.88, 354.36 grams of polyethylene glycol 6000 in 1 liters of distilled water were used. This experiment carried out in two stages. In first stage the morphological and germination indicesincluding germination percentage, germination index, germination rate, germination rate coefficient, mean of daily seed germination, daily germination rate and other indices were studied, and in second step, seedling physiological traits including prolin, concentration of Chl. a, Chl. b, carotenoid and other physiological traits were evaluated.

    Results and discussion

    showed that, Nanosilicon applications increased the daily germination rate (12.5%) and mean of germination time (12.8%), but decreased germination percentage (6.1%) and germination rate (23.3%) and had not significant effect on mean daily germination. Drought stress decreased germination percentage (8.5%), germination rate (41.1%), but encourage the germination index (18.25). By increasing of drought stress to -3 bar, the Chla (45%), Chl b (53.3%) and carotenoide(49.8%) were increased, but with increasing of drought stress to -6 bar, these traits decreased significantly but the proline was increased to (93.3%). With increasing of Nanosilicon levels to 30 mg/lit and more, the traits of Chl b and carotenoid increased but had not significance differences. The interaction effect of drought stress and Nanosilicon particles on germination rate, Chl b and carotenoide concentrations were significant but on the other seed morphological and seedling physiological trait was not significant. Although chlorophyllandcarotenoid decreased with increasing drought stress from 0 to - 6 bar, butthis index was much more than control in the presence of silicon nanoparticles.It seems accumulation of proline and other metabolites in wheat and other plants, is a mechanism for drought tolerance and other stresses. It can also be concluded that the effect of various amounts of nano-silicon under drought stress on seed and seedling traits, are more noticeable than in normal condition and without stress.

    Keywords: Chlorophyll a-b, Cartenoeides, Germination, Proline