فهرست مطالب

Health Promotion Perspectives - Volume:9 Issue: 4, 2019
  • Volume:9 Issue: 4, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/09/09
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • Sedigheh Abdollahpour, Hamid Heidarian Miri, Talat Khadivzadeh* Pages 255-262
    Background

    Improving the maternal health is one of the world’s most challenging problems. Despite significant movements over the past decades, maternal health has been still considered as a central goal for sustainable development. Maternal near miss (MNM) cases experience long-term physical and psychological effects. To present a clear portrait of the current situation, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis with the purpose to assess the worldwide prevalence of MNM.

    Methods

    We conducted a systematic review on PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science electronic databases to find published papers in English, before March 2019 and regardless of the type of study. We, then, assessed the prevalence of MNM according to the World Health Organization(WHO) criteria. Finally, 49 papers were included in the study. Random effects meta-analysis was used to pool the available prevalence. The quality of studies was also evaluated.

    Results

    The weighted pooled worldwide prevalence of MNM, was 18.67/1000 (95% CI: 16.28-21.06). Heterogeneity was explored using subgroup analyses based on the continent and the country. We used meta-regression of MNM on MD which resulted in adjusted R-squared as78.88%.

    Conclusion

    The prevalence of MNM was considerable. Low- and middle-income countries should develop systematic approaches to improve quality of care in the facilities and to reducethe risk of MNM events, with the hope to women’s health.

    Keywords: Maternal near miss, Maternal health, Prevalence, Systematic review, Meta-analysis
  • Soodabeh Aliashrafi, Seyed Rafie, Arefhosseini, Lida Lotfi Dizaji, Mehrangiz Ebrahimi Mameghani* Pages 263-269
    Background

    Due to inconsistent evidence regarding the potential role of vitamin D on lipid profile and sirtuin 1 (SIRT-1), this study was designed to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation in combination with weight loss diet on lipid profile and SIRT-1 in obese subjects with vitamin D deficiency.

    Methods

    Forty-four obese subjects with vitamin D deficiency were randomly assigned in a randomized clinical trial to receive either a weight reduction diet supplemented with 50000IU vitamin D3 pearl (n = 22) or placebo (n = 22) once weekly for 12 weeks. Changes in total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG) and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and SIRT-1 were the primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes were changes in body mass index (BMI), 25(OH) D and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Physical activity and dietary intakes were also assessed.

    Results

    During the intervention, PTH (mean difference, -33.36; 95% CI: -49.15 to -17.57;P<0.001) and LDL-C (mean difference, -15.91; 95% CI: -21.76 to -10.07; P<0.001) decreased and 25(OH) D (mean difference, 36.44; 95% CI: 29.05 to 43.83; P<0.001) increased significantly in the vitamin D group. BMI (mean differences: -2.40; 95% CI: [-2.92 to-1.88] in vitamin D group and mean differences: -1.90; 95% CI [-6.58 to -3.01] in placebo group, P<0.05 for both groups), TC (mean difference,-21.31; 95% CI: -27.24 to -15.38; P<0.001 in vitamin D group and mean difference, -12.54; 95% CI: -19.02 to -6.06; P<0.001 in placebo group) and TG (mean difference,-21.31; 95% CI: -27.24 to -15.38; P<0.001in vitamin D group and mean difference, -12.54; 95% CI: -19.02 to -6.06; P<0.001 in placebo group) decreased and SIRT-1(mean difference, 3.95; 95% CI: 1.18 to 6.73; P=0.007in vitamin D group and mean difference,1.91; 95% CI: 0.31 to 3.63 in placebo group, P=0.022) increase significantly in both group. At end of the study, 25(OH) D and PTH showed significant differences in between-group analyses(P<0.05). No significant difference was detected for HDL-C in within and between groups.

    Conclusion

    This study gives no support for any beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation on lipid profile and SIRT-1 in obese subjects with vitamin D deficiency.

    Keywords: Lipid profile, Obesity, Sirtuin1, Vitamin D, Weight loss diet
  • Michelle M. Burcin*, Shelley N. Armstrong, Jody O. Early, Holly Godwin Pages 270-278
    Background

    There is little published about non-traditional and online college students’ health and well-being. College health services must evolve to address the needs of this growing population. The purpose of this study was to explore risk factors, perceived well-being, health behaviors, and health education preferences of US college students enrolled in a fully online academic programs compared to a national sample of college students enrolled in campus based programs.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study included a volunteer sample of 961 college students enrolled in two large, U.S. accredited online universities. Participants completed an online survey that included questions and sub scales from the National College Health Assessment (NCHA, IIb). Responses on survey items from student learning online were compared to an equal sample of college students enrolled in non-online programs, randomly drawn from the NCHA IIb national data set (n = 961). Frequencies on survey items were calculated and mean scores of subset measures for online students were compared against those from the NCHA data set using two tailed z-test scores and independent sample t-tests with alpha at 0.05.

    Results

    Online students reported significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher percentages of chronic illnesses, psychiatric conditions, mobility disabilities, deafness/hearing loss, speech/language disorders,cigarette use, obesity, sedentary activity, and depression than the NCHA national sample.
    Implication for Practice: Health professionals and leaders who work in higher education must consider the shifting landscape and demographics in higher education in order to develop more tailored, innovative digital health promotion approaches that effectively reach the growing population of online, commuter, and older learners.

    Keywords: Online students, Health behavior, College students, College wellness, Digital health
  • Soudabeh Marin, Esmaeil Heshmatian, Haidar Nadrian, Ali Fakhari, Asghar Mohammadpoorasl* Pages 279-284
    Background

    Optimism is known to be associated with many health behaviors. However, the associations between optimism, tobacco smoking and substance abuse in adolescents are not well documented. This study aimed to address this research gap in a large school-based population.

    Methods

    Participants (N = 1104) were selected based on multi-stage cluster sampling method. Cigarette and hookah smoking behaviors, illicit drug use, optimism, and relevant covariates were measured using a validated questionnaire. Data were analyzed using ordinal logistic regression.

    Results

    After adjustment, higher optimism score was a protective factor against being situated in advanced stages of cigarette smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.84-0.91), hookah smoking (OR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.88-0.94), and illicit drugs usage (OR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.85-0.95). Moreover, the results showed that negative-stability and negative-globality domains of optimism were significantly higher among advanced-stage smokers and illicit drug users.

    Conclusion

    Optimism was found to be a protective factor against tobacco smoking and substance abuse; whereas pessimism (negative-stability and negative-globality) was found to be a determinant factor. Further research is needed to investigate the effects of optimism on the transition in cigarette and hookah smoking stages.

    Keywords: Substance abuse, Optimism, Adolescent, Tobacco smoking
  • Hosein Rafiemanesh, Yousef Alimohamadi, Seyed Rasoul Hashemi Aghdam, Avaz Safarzadeh, Abolghasem Shokri, Alireza Zemestani* Pages 285-290
    Background

    The epidemiology of human brucellosis has drastically changed in recent years. This study aims to assess trend in brucellosis in the Oskou county, East Azerbaijan, Iran.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was conducted on all confirmed brucellosis cases over the period between 2007 and 2016 in Oskuo county. We use crude incidence rate (CIR) per100000 persons and carried out Joinpoint regression analysis to describe brucellosis trend over the study period. Also, we used ARIMA model to predict trend and number of new brucellosis cases for the coming years.

    Results

    More than 90% (92.5%; 95% CI: 89.9-95.1) of brucellosis cases were in rural areas over the study period. In recorded cases, 60.5% (95% CI: 55.6-65.4) of total cases were men and 39.5% (95% CI: 34.6-44.4) of total cases were women. The mean age of men was 33.85(SD=19.72) years and the mean age of women was 35.88 (SD=17.26) years old. Majority of brucellosis cases occurred in spring. CIRs for the rural and urban areas were 47.62 to132.20 and zero to 18.55, respectively. The CIR for rural area had decreasing trend to 2011 and increasing for 2011-2017.

    Conclusion

    Based-on time series analysis, the number of new cases in the future years has fixed trend and the most number of incident cases will be occurred between third to fifth months in each years.

    Keywords: Brucellosis, Incidence, Epidemiology, Time series analysis, Oskou, Iran
  • Hana Arghavani, Elnaz Daneshzad, Nazli Namazi, Bagher Larijani, Mohammadreza Askari, Nick Bellissimo, Katherine Suitor, Leila Azadbakht* Pages 291-298
    Background

    Examining dietary approach to stop hypertension (DASH) diet based on other dietary quality indices can be helpful to clarify positive aspects of this healthy dietary pattern. We aimed to examine the association between the DASH diet score and some diet quality indices among Iranian women.

    Methods

    In this cross-sectional study, 304 women aged 20 to 50 years old were recruited. Dietary diversity score (DDS), dietary energy density (DED), adherence to DASH diet, AlternativeHealthy Eating Index (AHEI) and mean adequacy ratio (MAR) were examined as suggested by previous articles. Dietary quality indices, anthropometric indices, and dietary intake were categorized based on DASH tertiles. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 168items was used for dietary assessment.

    Results

    There were no significant differences in the demographic characteristics of participants across DASH tertiles (P>0.05). Participants who adhered more to the DASH diet had lower DEDthan those with lower adherence (0.99±0.35 vs 1.26±0.30; P=0.01). Significant differences were observed in the index of DDS across tertiles (P=0.01), however no differences in nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR) and MAR (0.93) index across the DASH categories were found.Additionally, DDS to DED in the top tertile of the DASH diet was greater than the bottom one(6.7±2.9 vs 4.4±1.9; P=0.001).

    Conclusion

    The present study indicated that greater adherence to the DASH diet is inversely associated with DED and AHEI. As well as, there was a positive association between the DASHdiet and DDS/DED ratio. However, more studies are needed to confirm the results of this study.

    Keywords: Dietary approaches to stop hypertension, Diet records, Diet therapy
  • Roya Taleban, Motahar Heidari Beni, Mostafa Qorbani, Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh, Akbar Fazel, Tabar Malekshah, Mohammad Moafi, Neda Hani, Tabaei Zavareh, Roya Kelishadi* Pages 299-306
    Background

    Weight disorders are highly prevalent at the global level. Vitamin B groups are clearly involved in intracellular mechanisms, energy equation, and weight gain. The present study aims to evaluate the association of dietary vitamin B intake and obesity in a large pediatric population.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was conducted among children and adolescents, aged 6-18years, living in urban and rural areas of 30 provinces of Iran. The BMI-for-age classifications were as follow: percentile <0.1, (emaciated), 0.1 ≤percentile <2.35 (thin), 2.35 ≤percentile≤84.1 (normal), 84.1

    Results

    Out of 5606 children and adolescents participated (mean age: 11.62, SD: 3.32),46.8% were girls. The intake of thiamin, pyridoxine, niacin and pantothenic acid increased the likelihood of obesity, compared with the normal-weight group. Odds ratios (ORs) (95% CI) of obesity for vitamin B1, B3, B5, and B6 were 1.32 (1.14-1.53), 1.01 (1.00-1.02), 1.04 (1.00-1.08),and 1.20 (1.04-1.38), respectively. Riboflavin, cyanocobalamin, biotin and folic acid did not have any significant association with weight disorders (B2: OR=1.09, 95% CI =0.99-1.20); B12:OR=1.00, 95% CI=0.98-1.03; B8: OR=1.00, 95% CI=0.99-1.00 B9: OR=1.00, 95% CI=1.00-1.00).

    Conclusion

    The current study showed a significant correlation between consumption of vitamin B group and increased risk of excess weight.

    Keywords: Obesity, Overweight, Vitamin B
  • Narjes Geraee, Ahmad Ali Eslami*, Raheleh Soltani Pages 307-313
    Background

    Nowadays, two social phenomena are identified as factors that significantly influence life satisfaction among adolescents: family social capital and social media use. This study aimed to investigate the direct and indirect relationships between family social capital and life satisfaction, and the possible mediating role of social media use between the variables among Iranian adolescents.

    Methods

    In 2018, this cross-sectional study was carried out on 835 adolescents aged from 12to 19, in six high schools of Isfahan, Iran. Data were collected using a validated four-section questionnaire including demographic characteristics (3 items), life satisfaction (5 items), family social capital (31 items) and social media use (4 items) scales. IBM SPSS version 21 statistical software and AMOS version 24 were used to analyze the data. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the fit of model. The significance level of 0.05 was considered for all data analyses.

    Results

    The findings indicated that family social capital and social media use explained 50%of the variance in life satisfaction. Social media use was found with a partial mediating role in the association between family social capital and life satisfaction. Family social capital was the strongest predictor of life satisfaction (β =0.681, P<0.001). The relationship between social media use and life satisfaction was also statistically significant (β =- 0.12, P<0.001).

    Conclusion

    Social media use and family social capital should be considered while investigating the determinants of life satisfaction among adolescents.

    Keywords: Adolescent, Satisfaction, Social capital, Social media, Structural equation modeling
  • Malina Austin, Paul D. Loprinzi* Pages 314-318
    Background

    The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the potential combined effects of acute exercise and mindfulness mediation on episodic memory.

    Methods

    All data collection occurred in the authors’ laboratory (January to May of 2019). In this three-arm, within-subject design, participants (N=20; Mage=21.6 years) completed three counterbalanced laboratory visits, including Exercise Only, Exercise + Meditation and Control. Learning and memory were assessed from a word-list task. A one-factor repeated-measures ANOVA was computed for two memory outcomes, including the learning outcome (average performance across the 6 trials) and the long-term memory recall (10-minute delay).

    Results

    The exercise conditions had a greater learning effect when compared to the Control visit, Mdiff = 0.68 (95% CI: 0.10, 1.25), P = 0.02. The Exercise + Memory visit had better longterm memory when compared to Exercise Only, Mdiff = 0.95 (95% CI: 0.07, 1.83), P = 0.03.

    Conclusion

    The present experiment provides suggestive evidence that acute exercise may enhance learning and, when coupling acute exercise prior to encoding with meditation during early consolidation, long-term memory may be enhanced.

    Keywords: Awareness, Cognition, Exercise, Meta-cognition
  • S. Kutalmış Buyuk *, Tugce Imamoglu Pages 319-322
    Background

    The aim of this short communication was to evaluate the quality and content of the Instagram posts about orthognathic surgery.

    Methods

    Two hashtags #jawsurgery and #orthognathicsurgery were searched on Instagram in this retrospective Instagram post analysis study. Selected 100 posts for each hashtag were analyzed for type, total number of likes, comments, purpose and source.

    Results

    Most of the posts about #jawsurgery were uploaded by patients (56.1%) who shared their personal experience. Most of the posts about #orthognathicsurgery also were uploaded by clinics (49.1%). Most of posts (39.6%) provided information about orthognathic surgery in #orthognaticsurgery. Posts generally involved by patient’s experience (49.1%), followed by patient information (28.1%), and advertisement (22.8%) in #jawsurgery.

    Conclusion

    Patients should be educated by orthodontists and maxillofacial surgeons about Instagram platform that it is not an adequate or accurate source of information about orthognathic surgery in its current form.

    Keywords: Social media, Orthognathicsurgery, Instagram, Patientperspective
  • Thomas Mattig Pages 323-330

    In a federal state such as Switzerland, the 26 cantons enjoy wide autonomy in all policy areas, including health policy. In the late 1980s, after the signing of the Ottawa Charter for health promotion, the Swiss Confederation and the cantons decided to create a foundation whose goal it was to initiate, coordinate and evaluate health promotion and disease prevention activities throughout the country. Thirty years later, the many stakeholders in the field have accepted health Promotion Switzerland as a key actor. The foundation was able to successfully initiate and coordinate projects in such priority areas as "Healthy Body Weight," "Mental Health –Stress" and "Strengthening Health Promotion & Prevention." But several challenges remain, for example, chronic noncommunicable diseases, an aging population, mental disorders, prevention in healthcare—challenges the foundation will have to face and to which it is expected to provide solutions.

    Keywords: Health policy, Health promotion, Prevention