فهرست مطالب

Neurology - Volume:18 Issue:64, 2019
  • Volume:18 Issue:64, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/03/26
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
  • Sharareh Eskandarieh*, Abdorreza Naser Moghadasi, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Amir Reza Azimi, Negar Molazadeh Pages 93-98

    Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a neuroinflammatory demyelinating disease caused by the presence of a highly specific serum autoantibody marker, NMO-immunoglobulin G (NMO-IgG), that reacts against the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4). The present study examined the association between NMO-IgG sero-positivity and environmental factors such as cigarette smoking.


    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Sina Hospital, a tertiary referral center in Tehran, Iran. All the patients with a definite diagnosis of NMOSD were involved in this study. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to examine the AQP4-IgG status. To assess the association between NMO-IgG sero-positivity and cigarette smoking, a researcher-made questionnaire covering patients’ lifestyle information on smoking habits was designed and administered using the structured face-to-face interviews with the patients.


    The positive and negative NMO-IgG results were found in 44 (46.8%) and 50 (53.2%) patients, respectively. The increased NMO-IgG sero-positivity odds were observed among the lifetime smokers [odds ratio (OR) = 3.24, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16-9.08], current smokers (OR = 6.08, 95% CI: 1.26-29.39), and passive smokers (OR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.10-4.50).


    Lifetime and current smoking as well as passive smoking can be regarded as risk factors for NMO-IgG sero-positivity. Smoking with its immunological effects can lead to the production of autoantibodies such as NMO-IgG.

    Keywords: Neuromyelitis Optica, Cigarette, Neuromyelitis OpticaImmunoglobulin G
  • Hossein Salehi, Moein Moussaei, Zahra Kamiab, Alireza Vakilian Pages 99-107

    Neuropathic pain is one of the most common problems in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). In this study, the effect of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) on neuropathic pain, quality of sleep, and quality of life of diabetic patients with sensorimotor polyneuropathy was studied.


    This randomized placebo-controlled trial study was carried out in a double-blind (patient-researcher) method. The study was performed on 32 patients with type 2 DM. Neuropathy was confirmed by Douleur Neuropathique 4 (DN4) Questionnaire and nerve conduction study (NCS). The patients were randomly assigned to two intervention and control groups based on the random numbers table. After selecting the subjects, we used 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), Neuropathic Pain Scale (NPS), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaires before and after 3 months of 100 units BTX-A injection (as intervention group) or same amount of chloride sodium (as control group) to the subjects' feet. The data were analyzed by SPSS software using independent two-sample t-test, chi-square test, and one-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA).


    12 male and 20 female patients participated in this study. There was a significant difference in the mean VAS, PSQI, physical dimension of the SF-36, and some NPS indices over time (12 weeks) (P < 0.001).


    The results of this study showed that BTX-A reduced neuropathic pain and improved the quality of life and sleep in people with diabetic neuropathy.

    Keywords: Diabetic Neuropathies, Botulinum A Toxin, Quality of Life, Sleep
  • Anahid Safari, Hamzeh Badeli Sarkala, Mohammad Reza Namavar, Elias Kargar Abarghoue, Neda Anssari, Sadegh Izadi, Afshin Borhani Haghighi Pages 108-113

    There is evidence that supports the neuroprotective effects of dimethyl fumarate (DMF) in stroke. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has both anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of DMF via Nrf2 activation in the cortex, striatum, and diencephalon in a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of stroke.


    22 Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomized into 3 groups. In DMF-treated group (n = 8), rats received 15 mg/kg oral DMF twice daily by gavage from day 0 to 14 after a 60-minute MCAO. The vehicle group (n = 7) underwent MCAO and were given methocel/H2O, using the same method and schedule. In the sham group (n = 7), neck was opened, but neither middle cerebral artery (MCA) was occluded nor any drug was administered. After 14 days, the animals were sacrificed. The infarct volume were assessed by stereology method. Nrf2 expression was evaluated in the cortex, striatum, and diencephalon by immunohistochemistry method.


    Ratio of infarct to total brain volume was significantly lower in the DMF-treated group (5.76%) in comparison with the vehicle group (22.39%) (P < 0.0001). Nrf2 expression was higher in DMF-treated group in comparison with both the vehicle and sham groups in cortex, striatum, diencephalon, and total brain (P < 0.0001). In the DMF-treated group, significant negative correlation between Nrf2 expression and infarct volume was observed in cortex, striatum, diencephalon, and total brain.


    DMF induces Nrf2 expression and its neuroprotective effects in different brain anatomical regions.

    Keywords: Stroke, Dimethyl Fumarate, Middle Cerebral Artery, Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2
  • Marjan Erfani, Ariane Sadr Nabavi, Reza Jafarzadeh Esfehani, Mohammad Shariati, Leila Ghanbari Garekani, Samaneh Vojdani Chahchaheh, Payam Sasannejad Pages 114-118

    Stroke is a multifactorial disorder and a major cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. There are growing numbers of candidate gene pathways which are thought to be associated with stroke. Genes involved in lipid metabolism are important issues in stroke studies. Studying different polymorphisms in these genes are becoming an interest for researchers. 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (ALOX5AP) is one of these genes. Different studies have provided different relations between ALOX5AP promoter polymorphism (rs17222919) and stroke. In the present study, we have evaluated this gene polymorphism in a population in north east of Iran.


    This case-control study took place in Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Patients with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmation for ischemic stroke were enrolled in this study and considered as case group. Healthy persons without ischemic stroke were control group. During
    1-year period of this study, ALOX5AP gene polymorphism in 200 healthy patients (control group) as well as 228 patients with stroke (case group) was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).


    All of 428 persons (228 cases and 200 healthy controls) enrolled in this study. The genotype and allele frequency was significantly different between both groups (P = 0.001 and P = 0.003, respectively). A total number of 54 patients had G allele in case group in contrast to 27 ones in control group. Also, 174 patients in case group had T allele and 173 persons had this allele in control group. In compression of TT genotype, the risk of developing stroke in GG and TG genotypes increased by 3.998 and 1.643, respectively. Also the risk of ischemic stroke with G allele would increase by 2.128.


    According to our results, ALOX5AP promoter polymorphism (rs17222919) is related to increased ischemic stroke in Iranian population.

    Keywords: Stroke, Polymorphism, Genetic, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Restriction Fragment Length
  • Davood Fathi*, Shahriar Nafissi, Shahram Attarian, Christoph Neuwirth, Farzad Fatehi Pages 119-126

    Motor unit number index (MUNIX) is an electrophysiological technique to give an estimate of functioning motor neurons in a muscle. For any given neurophysiological technique for the use in clinical or research studies, reproducibility between different operators and in a single operator in different times is one of the most important qualities, which must be evaluated and approved by different examiners and centers. After its introduction, testing the reproducibility of MUNIX was the aim of many studies to show this quality of the technique. In this review, we aimed to summarize all the studies, which have been performed up to now to approve MUNIX reproducibility in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis comparing healthy individuals.

    Keywords: Motor Unit Number Index, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Reproducibility of Results
  • Reza Ahmadi Beni, Ali Najafi, Seyed Mehrdad Savar, Niayesh Mohebbi, Alireza Khoshnevisan Pages 127-133

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most frequent malignant and aggressive primary brain tumor, is characterized by genetically unstable heterogeneous cells, diffused growth pattern, microvascular proliferation, and resistance to chemotherapy. Extensive investigations are being carried out to identify the molecular origin of resistance to chemo- and radio-therapy in GBM and find novel targets for therapy to improve overall survival rate. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) has been shown to be a safe drug with limited short and long-term side effects, and fumaric acid esters (FAEs), including DMF, present both anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activity in different cell types and tissues. DMF has also anti-tumoral and neuroprotective effects and so it could be repurposed in the treatment of this invasive tumor in the future. Here, we have reviewed DMF pharmacokinetics and different mechanisms by which DMF could have therapeutic effects on GBM.

    Keywords: Brain Neoplasms, Glioblastoma, Fumarates, Dimethyl Fumarate, Neuroprotective Agents, Drug Repurposing
  • Hedayat Abbastabar, Sama Bitarafan, Mohammad Hossein Harirchian* Pages 134-142

    Neurological disease contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality in different ages and geographic areas around the world. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the incidence and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) trend of neurological disease in Iran during 27 years ago. We used the data of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study to estimate the incidence and DALYs of neurological disease in Iran in different age groups between 1990 and 2017. Age groups were defined in 5 groups including < 5 years, 5-14 years, 15-49 years, 50-69 years, and ≥ 70 years. The incidence number of neurological disease during 1990 to 2017 increased from 7.5 million to more than 12 million and the incidence rate grew as much as 1400 per 100000 populations in Iran. Totally, headache, epilepsy, and Alzheimer were the most common neurological diseases according to incidence and had the most values of DALY in Iran. The highest incidence and DALY of neurological disease was observed in the age group of 15-49 years. This study showed that the incidence and burden of neurological diseases had a dramatic increasing trend during 27 years ago in Iran. Consequently, it is necessary to investigate the causes of the growing trend in future studies.

    Keywords: Incidence, Global Burden of Disease, DisabilityAdjusted Life Year, Neurological Disorders, Iran
  • Mansoureh Togha*, Abdorreza Naser Moghadasi, Samaneh Haghighi, Mahmood Motamedi Pages 143-144
  • Payam Sasannejad, Mahdieh Verdipour, Mona Asadi, Hamideh Ahmadi Pages 145-147
  • Ashima Mittal*, Alessandro Iliceto, Balaji Yegneswaran Pages 148-149