فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:5 Issue:1, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/02/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
|
  • S Alinezhad* Pages 1-16

    In this study, the effects of three herbal dry extracts (Achillea millefolium, Mentha piperita and Echinacea purpurea) were investigated on growth, hematological and immunological indices in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio). 400 juvenile fish with initial weight of 14.30 ± 0.77g were studied in 10 treatment groups (9 treatment groups & a control) with four replicates for 60 days. Three levels (0.1, 0.5 and 1%) of dry extracts of each herb were prepared according to standard method and added to the commercial common carp feed. At the end of period twelve fish collected out of each group and the parameters were measured. In order to the results, weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR) and complement C4 were not affected by dietary treatments (P>0.05). Red blood cell (RBC) counts in 0.5 and 1%-diet groups as well as Hemoglobin in three levels of all herbs was increased (P≤0.05). Hematocrit in 0.5%, 1%-diet M. piperita and E. purpurea groups was shown significant increases (P≤0.05). Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) in all groups except 0.1% M. piperita group and 0.5% E. purpurea were increased compare with control group (P≤0.05). MCHC in 0.5% E. purpurea and 0.1 and 1% M. piperita groups showed the highest values. Levels of 0.5% M. piperita and 1% E. purpurea and A. millefolium make significantly increases in total leukocytes and neutrophils (P≤0.05). Significantly increases of lymphocytes and decrease of monocytes were observed in levels of 0.5% E. purpurea and 1% level of all herbs groups(P≤0.05). Increased levels of immunoglobulin compared to control were significant only in 1% level of all herbs (P≤0.05). Complement C3 was also increased 1% of A. millefolium and M. piperita groups compared to the control (P≤0.05). All levels of A. millefolium and M. piperita and 1% E. purpurea groups caused a significant increase in lysozyme concentration compare with the control (P≤0.05).  The results indicated all three herb extracts in diet can improve immune responses and hematological parameters in common carp. Comparing these extracts, the M. piperita extract with a lower concentration is more efficient.

    Keywords: Medicinal Herb, Immunology, Hematology, Growth indices, Common carp
  • F Mohammadi*, N Choobkar, Z Moradi Pages 17-25

    Nowadays, Researchers are looking for approaches to eliminate or minimize the application the antibiotics in aquaculture industry. The purpose of this study was to determine accessibility the fry of Mugil cephalus to Camellia sinensis concerning the growth performance and haematology parameters. One hundred and fifty fry of M. cephalus with an average weight of 2.15 ± 0.08 were collected from Chabahar coastal waters and transferred to the experimental site, under the optimal conditions. This research was based on 3 treatments, one control in triplicates, 0, 50, 100 and 200 ppm of C. sinensis. The main index should be measures in this study were included the growth factors containing mean weight, daily growth, and haematological factors, ultimately. Overall, the results of this study showed that adding 200 mg kg-1 of GTE (Green Tea Extract) of diet resulted in a significant increase in final weight and daily growth index (DGI), especially during the first 4 weeks of fry M. cephalus rearing, compared with the control group. Increasing the green tea extract to diet caused no significant increase in the number of RBC compared to the control. The number of white RBC increased in the treatment containing 200 mg kg-1 of green tea extract. The highest amount of hemoglobin (Hb) was measured in the group of 200 mg kg-1 GTE. The lowest amount of hematocrit (Hct) was observed in the treatment containing 100 mg kg-1 GTE and its highest was measured in treatment containing 200 mg kg-1 GTE.

    Keywords: Green Tea Extract, Fry Mugil cephalus, Growth, Haematology
  • L Khoshbou Lahijani, H Ahari*, A Sharifan Pages 26-44

    Nanotechnology is an innovative approach that its application has inspiring prospective for controlling and preventing diseases, extending shelf-life of food stuff, and other uses in biology, chemistry or industries. Nanoemulsions are products of a branch of nanotechnology comprising submicron emulsion that also refer to nanoemulsion (r < 100 nm) of which high energy as one of the nanoemulsion production method, includes rotary-stator mixers, high pressure homogenizer, microfluidization, ultrasound and membrane emulsion. Another one, low energy method is classified into isothermal and thermal. Isothermal method is, spontaneous emulsification, solvent displacement, and emulsion phase inversion. Also, from among the thermal methods it can be referred to the most important one of them which is the phase inversion temperature. In the following, the technics for recognition and diagnosis of nanoemulsion structures are discussed and these technics are generally divided into separation, physical properties determination, and imaging technics.

    Keywords: High energy methods, Low-energy methods, Nanoemulsion, Antimicrobial properties
  • N Sadr Isfahani, S.A.A Anvar*, H Ahari Pages 45-56

    The presence of fish in the family food basket is one of the important goals in completing the food regime, but as fish are highly perishable, use of coverage or active packaging could be benefit. In this research, in order to determine the shelf life of the fish, the effect of nettle extract loaded nanoemulsion and storage temperature (4 and 8 ° C) was investigated. To evaluate the effect of temperature and presence of nanoamulsion, various factors such as chemical, microbial and sensory factors were investigated. The samples were divided into 5 groups, which included control treatment, loaded samples with nanoemulsion containing 1, 2, 3 and 4% nettle extract and each of these samples kept the fresh fish separately at temperatures of 4 and 8 oC. The study of the effect of treatments on chemical properties, peroxide value, total volatile nitrogen (TVN) and microbial characteristics (counting total and microscopic microorganisms) showed that using 4% nanoemulsion of nettle could produce proper properties within 14 days, as well as in the sensory evaluation, which the results also confirmed it. Therefore, the use of nettle nanoemulsion at a level of 4% allowed for 14 days keeping the fish at 4 ° C in optimal quality.

    Keywords: Urtica diocia, nanoemulsion, Emulsion Phase Inversion, Shelf life, Sander lucioperca
  • P Akbary*, Z Aminikhoei Pages 57-70

    The primary aim of the current study has been to examine the impacts of dietary supplementary of Chlorella vulgaris (Beijerinck) powder (CP) different levels on the anti-oxidant enzyme activities, growth, and immune responses of the juvenile Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus). Experimental Fish (15 ± 0.1g) was fed diets enriched with 0 (control), 5, 10, and 15 g CP per kg feed for eight weeks period. After the feeding trial period, the fish were challenged against pathogenic bacteria (Photobacterium damselae (subsp. piscicida)) for evaluating the resistance of infected fish to diseases. According to the results, fish growth performance was significantly improved with increasing CP levels at CP10 and CP15. Antioxidant-stimulated activity was observed with dietary CP where total antioxidant capacities (TAC), glutathione (GSH), and super-oxide dismutase (SOD) augmented, while malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased significantly in fish fed CP. Furthermore, serum lysozyme activity of fish fed three levels of CP has been considerably enhanced in comparison with the control group (p <0.05). Moreover, CP supplementation at 10 and 15 g dose induced kidney phagocyte and respiratory burst activity which was maximized at 15 g CP. Meanwhile, feeding 10 and 15 g of CP diets decreased mortality in M. cephalus after challenge with P. damselae.  The present study indicated the role of optimal doses Chlorella vulgaris extract (10 and 15 g kg -1 feed) on growth and antioxidant defense and immune status of grey mullet.

    Keywords: Chlorella vulgaris. Mugil cephalus. Kidney phagocytic, Respiratory burst, Lysozyme, Superoxide dismutase (SOD)
  • M.J Zorriehzahra, S Kakoolaki*, M Mehrabi, A Sepahdari, M Ghasemi, M Yarmohammadi, M Ghiasi Pages 71-82

    In the year 2017, Iran had fisheries production amounted to 1 million tons, of which the total aquaculture was about 300 thousand tons that 160 thousand tons of aquaculture was regarding Oncorhynchus mykiss. Increase of fish stocking density in the pond results in escalation of the number of nutrients, the stresses and incidence of diseases. Among these diseases viral diseases could be identified in the field of rearing ponds, such as Infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN), Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia (VHS) and Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis (IPN). Unlike other projects that sample is taken from fish tissues known as a sample, in this study each farm was selected as a research unit. According to the layout of the work based on different fields; the positive or negative result of the presence of the pathogens was recorded.  However, aquatic samples were collected from Mazandaran province and Yasuj sites, located in north and southwest of Iran, respectively. Based on the results of Mazandaran area, it was revealed that the increase of bio-safety in the pre-broodstock farms did not have a significant difference (p> 0.05) compared with the increase of immunity level or serum antibodies. This index was relatively equal in fish of other areas. Contrarily, in the pre-broodstock farms, the lysozyme value as a non-specific immunity index had a significant increase, which indicates that the upgrading of the bio-safety level can reduce stress and shift the energy directly to the production.

    Keywords: Rainbow trout, SPF, IPN, VHS, IHN, Iran