فهرست مطالب

Pediatrics - Volume:7 Issue:71, 2019
  • Volume:7 Issue:71, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/08/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Bahareh Tanbakuchi *, Fatemeh Taheri, Mahmoud Zardast, Abbasali Ramazani Pages 10311-10322
    Background

    Vitamin D deficiency is a worldwide issue and the effect of vitamin D supplementation alone as a possible option to prevent that is still under examination.Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on term and preterm neonates and mothers for 4 months.

    Materials and Methods

    In this clinical trial, 30 term neonates and 30 preterm neonates along with their mothers created a total of 120 participants who were referred to the maternity unit of Vali-e-Asr hospital in Birjand, Iran, in 2018. Neonates and mothers were supplemented with vitamin D supplementation of 400 IU/day and 50,000 IU/month of vitamin D drops and tablets, respectively. Serum vitamin D levels of mothers and infants were measured during delivery, birth and after 4 months using ELISA method. P

    Results

    The level of vitamin D in term and preterm neonates was 24.53±10.93 and 41.30±12.87, 19.45±8.88 and 43.78±15.51 ng/ml at birth and at 4 months of age, respectively. There was a significant difference between the mean level of vitamin D at birth and 4 months later in both infants and mothers (P<0.001). There was also a significant positive correlation between vitamin D levels of mothers during labor and neonates at birth (P<0.001).

    Conclusion 

    Although vitamin D deficiency was high, regular consumption of vitamin D supplements has a significant effect on vitamin D levels and could increase the level of vitamin D to the normal levels, particularly in neonates.

    Keywords: mothers, neonate, Supplementation, Vitamin D
  • Maryam Hajilari, Morteza Oladnabi *, Anvarsadat Kianmehr, Mohammad Hossein Taziki, Farzaneh Zamiri Abdollahi Pages 10323-10334
    Background

    Our research focuses on different dimensions of families of Turkmen population of Iran with two or more than two affected members. A complete clinical ear test was conducted on them. It was aimed to find families with the highest chance of hereditary hearing impairment among siblings and also existence of consanguinity among their parents.

    Materials and Methods

    All Turkmen families with at least two hearing impaired members were screened based on prenatal and postnatal histories, family medical history, socioeconomic status as well as physical examination. For confirmation of hereditary hearing loss, a comprehensive evaluation including prenatal, perinatal and postnatal history, family medical history, pattern of inheritance, consanguinity, and three generation pedigree, the physical examination, and genetic screening by a genetic expert were used. They were referred for complete hearing evaluation including pure tone audiometry, speech recognition threshold, otoacoustic emission and auditory brainstem response.

    Results 

    A total of 82 families with 198 hearing impaired patients were diagnosed with about 60% having two and the rest with more than two affected members. Nearly 89% (n=175) of the patients had the inherited type of hearing loss among which 95% (n=167) demonstrated non-syndromic symptoms. The rate of consanguinity among parents of the patients was about 65%.

    Conclusion 

    This research revealed a high incidence of hereditary hearing impairment and consanguinity among Turkmen population which is in agreement with other reports from Iranian population with deaf children. In general, the rate of consanguinity in Iranian population is 38%. Therefore, it seems that consanguinity is higher in families with hearing-impaired children.

    Keywords: Deafness, Consanguinity, Hereditary hearing impairment, Iran, Turkmen population
  • Maryam Hassanzad, Golnaz Hajiesmail *, Poopak Farnia, Jalaledin Ghanavi, Ghamartaj Khanbabayi, Mohammad Feshangchi, Bonab, Ehsan Razeghi, Ali Akbar Velayati Pages 10335-10341
    Background

    Recent studies have shown that the course of cystic fibrosis in patients with this disease differs despite the same mutation in CFTR gene. We aimed to investigate the role of polymorphism in TNF α (-308) and TNF α (-863), and its effect on the phenotype of the patients with cystic fibrosis and progression of disease.

    Materials and Methods

    In this case-control study, 50 children with cystic fibrosis and 50 healthy children were examined for TNF-α-308 GA and TNF α - 863CA polymorphism.Four ml of citrated blood was taken from the patients in order to perform the DNA purifying and PCR-RFLP. With custom designed primers, PCR was done. Then with restriction enzymes PCR-RFLP was performed on the product of previous PCR. Changes were analyzed taking the following into consideration: diagnosis age, starting point of the pulmonary disease. Hb O2 saturation level, FEV1, and FVC. Also, for each of them, a Schwachman index basis score was calculated and results are mentioned.

    Results

    Patient’s average age was 21±5.1 years old (ranged 5-26 years), and 48.9% (n=24) of patients were females. The average age at diagnosis was also 39.78 ±13.51 months. Patients with genotype TNF-α-308GA were older in diagnostic time compared to TNF-α-308GG genotype. However, for other variables, such as O2 sat, FEV1, FVC no difference was observed. Patients Heterozygote genotypes for “C” allele (CA) of TNF-863 have better Schwachman score than CC genotype.

    Conclusion

    The results of this research emphasize the importance of genetic factors affecting inflammatory processes. Identifying these variables is helpful in treating patients with cystic fibrosis disease.

    Keywords: Cystic fibrosis, FEV1, TNF-α promoter polymorphism
  • Shereen Hamadneh *, Nahla Al Bayyari, Burhan M. Hamadneh Pages 10343-10348

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition of heterogeneous etiology, categorized by social communication deficits, repetitive or restrictive behaviors and interests. Epidemiological studies display that the incidence of autism is increasing, and the treatment of autism is vitally important. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to reorganize evidence on the effectiveness of vitamins, minerals, essential Fatty Acid, and a Gluten-Free and Casein-Free (GFCF) diet as a treatment for children with ASD.  The existing nutrition and dietary therapies have been lectured and their effects on ASD symptoms have been discussed briefly considering specific research. Reviewing the studies showed that nutritional and dietary therapies improved the core symptoms of ASD. This review article investigates the importance of vitamins, minerals, essential fatty acids and GFCF diet and the recent studies suggested that nutrition and dietary supplements may play an active role in improving symptoms of ASD.

    Keywords: Autistic Spectrum Disorders, Autism, Child, Diet, Dietary supplements
  • Ali Almasi, Shahram Saeidi *, Alireza Zangeneh, Arash Ziapour, Maryam Choobtashani, Fariba Saeidi, Mohammad Reza Salahshoor, Reza Pourmirza Kalhori, Samira Rahimi Naderi Pages 10349-10359
    Background 

    The provision, maintenance and promotion of the health of infants as a vulnerable group in health care services are a high priority, and the first step in reducing infant mortality and improving their health is undoubtedly the identification of their mortality status. We aimed to study the spatial distribution of premature infant mortality in 194 countries in 2000-2017.

    Materials and Methods

    In this descriptive study using reanalysis data, the data were re-analyzed. First, the infant mortality data were collected from the official website of the World Health Organization. Then, a database was created in ArcGIS 10.6 software, and the statistical tests and related maps were extracted. To this end, the Global Moran’s I and Gtis-Ord-Gi spatial correlation analyses were utilized. Data was analyzed down year by year and the charts were extracted by GIS software during a period of 18 years (2000 to 2017).

    Results

    The results of this study demonstrated that infant mortality (0-27 days-old) followed a downward trend, but its spatial pattern was clustered (Moran’s I>0, Z-score> 2.58). We analyzed 19,041,539 data about infant mortality in 2000 to 2017. This situation was concentrated as Hot Spots in the West Pacific region and part of Asia (Central, South and Southeast Asia) from 2000 to 2017 (with 90%, 95% and 99% confidence intervals). In addition, it was revealed that there were no Cold Spots between countries.

    Conclusion

    The results of the present study demonstrated that the total infant mortality followed a downward trend, while the Hot Spots of infant mortality were in the West Pacific region and part of Asia by 2000 and remained as Hot Spots until 2017.

    Keywords: Infant, Geographic Information System, Mortality, Spatial Modeling, Premature
  • Abdelhakeem Abdel Mohsen *, Rasha Yousef Pages 10361-10367
    Background
    Endothelial Cell-Specific Molecule-1 (ESM-1) is a 50 kDa soluble proteoglycan that is produced mainly the vascular endothelial cells of the kidney and lung. It is produced by the effects of proangiogenic and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and it indicates activation and dysfunction of the vascular endothelium. We aimed to detect the role of ESM-1 in children with asthma.
    Materials and Methods
    This study is a prospective cross sectional study and include 50 child (32 with mild persistent, 18 with moderate persistent asthma (patients) and 30 healthy children served as controls, both groups were selected from outpatient pulmonology clinic and inpatient pediatric department at children hospital, Minia University, Egypt, from 2016 to 2018; and were subjected to: detailed clinical examination, lung function test, complete blood picture and measurement of level of ESM-1 in serum.
    Results
    Level of ESM-1 was increased in asthmatic children compared to the controls (p=0.001). Also, the level of ESM-1 in children suffering from moderate persistent asthma was markedly higher than those with mild persistent asthma (p=0.001). In addition, ESM-1 level was positively correlated with eosinophil counts (r=0.79, p=0.01), but had negative correlation with lung functions FEV1 and PEFR (r=- 0.89, - 0.84, p=0.001).
    Conclusion
     ESM-1 level was increased in asthmatic children suggesting that it may have a role in asthma, furthermore, it was associated with decreased lung function indicating that it is considered as an indicator of severe asthma.
    Keywords: Asthma, Children, Egypt, ESM-1
  • Gholamreza Panhandeh *, Mohammadali Zamani, Mohammadamin Reisi, Soleyman Kheiri Pages 10369-10375
    Background

    Aspiration of hydrocarbons causes several acute and chronic pulmonary complications; it may even lead to death. The aim of this study was to investigate the types of long-term pulmonary complications in children with a history of hydrocarbon aspiration.

    Materials and Methods

    In this case-control study, 21 children with history of hydrocarbon aspiration in the past 1-10 years were considered as case group, and 63 children without history of toxicity were regarded as the control group. The two groups were matched in terms of age and gender. Both groups underwent physical examination (such as height, weight and body mass index), and pulmonary function tests by spirometry. Pulmonary function was categorized based on three spirometric patterns, normal, obstructive, and restrictive. In addition, the baseline characteristics of children and information obtained from clinical and paraclinical examinations during poisoning were recorded in a researcher-made checklist. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 16.0).

    Results

    The percentage of normal, obstructive and restrictive spirometric patterns were 61.89%, 28.58%, and 9.52% in the case group, and 88.88%, 11.11% and 0% in the control group, respectively (P <0.05). In the case group, the results of spirometry test showed no association with the clinical signs and symptoms as well as the radiological findings at the time of poisoning (P> 0.05). The results of the pulmonary function test were not related to the time elapsed from poisoning (P> 0.05).

    Conclusion

    Based on the results, long-term hydrocarbon poisoning caused pulmonary dysfunction in terms of spirometric patterns in children.

    Keywords: Aspiration, Children, Hydrocarbons, Poisoning, Pulmonary function
  • Mostafa Hosseini, Shahin Roshani, Neamatollah Ataei, Fattah Hama Rahim Fattah, Mohammed Gubari, Michael Jones, Iraj Najafi, Fatemeh Darabi, Simin Darvishnoori Kalak, Mojtaba Fazel, Mehdi Yaseri *, Mahmoud Yousefifard Pages 10377-10385
    Background
    Statistics have shown that the rate of technical failure in peritoneal dialysis (PD) is greater than hemodialysis. In this regard, the present study is aimed to determine the prevalence and risks factors of technique failure of PD in Iranian children using the country’s computerized PD data registry system.
    Materials and Methods
    Data of 405 PD patients younger than 20 years old were extracted from Iranian PD registry. The joint models of longitudinal and time-to-event data were used to assess independent risk factors of PD technique failure.
    Results
    PD technique failure occurred in 17.3% of the patients. 1 ng/ml increase in the baseline level of ferritin and 1 mmHg increase in the baseline systolic blood pressure will result in 0.11% (Hazard Ratio [HR]=1.0011; p=0.001), and 1.25% (HR=1.0125; p=0.046) increase in the risk of PD technique failure, respectively. In addition, 1 g/dl decrease in the baseline hemoglobin will cause a 16.25% increase in the risk of PD technique failure (HR=0.8602; p=0.026). Finally, 1 mg/l decrease in the blood urea nitrogen over time after starting PD will result in 1.75% increase in the risk of PD technique failure (HR=0.9829; p=0.006).
    Conclusion
    The findings from this study showed that an increase in ferritin as well as systolic blood pressure at the beginning of PD increase the risk of technique failure. Furthermore, an increase in the hemoglobin level at the beginning of PD as well as an increase in the blood urea nitrogen over time after starting PD have protective impacts on pediatric PD technique failure.
    Keywords: dialysis, Pediatrics, Renal Replacement Therapy, Technique failure
  • Ehsan Keykhosravi, Masumeh Saeidi, Mohammad Ali Kiani * Pages 10387-10395
    Epilepsy is a brain disorder in which a person has repeated seizures over time. A seizure is a sudden change in the electrical and chemical activity in the brain. A single seizure that does not happen again is NOT epilepsy. Most children with epilepsy live a normal life. Certain types of childhood epilepsy go away or improve with age, usually in the late teens or 20s. Nearly 80% of people with epilepsy live in low- and middle-income countries. The risk of premature death in people with epilepsy is up to three times higher than for the general population. There is no known way to prevent epilepsy. Proper diet and sleep may decrease the chances of seizures in children with epilepsy. Reduce the risk of head injury during risky activities. This can decrease the likelihood of a brain injury that leads to seizures and epilepsy. Treatment for epilepsy includes: Medicines, Lifestyle changes and Surgery. Three quarters of people with epilepsy living in low-income countries do not get the treatment they need.
    Keywords: Children, Epilepsy, Prevention, Symptoms
  • Parichehr Bahraini, Manoochehr Karami, Mohammad Kazem Sabzehei, Mohammad Hossein Eslamian * Pages 10397-10403
    Background 

    Only alimited number of studies have evaluated the association between phototherapy-treated neonatal jaundice and the development of atopic dermatitis (AD) in the early childhood. In this context, the present study is aimed to assess the relationship between the AD development in the childhood and the history of phototherapy in the case of neonatal jaundice.

    Materials and Methods 

    92 children younger than two years of age who were admitted in Besat hospital and Imam Khomeini clinic (Hamadan, Iran) were enrolled in this case-control study. The subjects were classified into the case (children with AD, n=43), and control (children without AD, n=49) groups. AD was diagnosed by an allergist according to the AD diagnostic criteria. The history of neonatal jaundice treatment with phototherapy as well as the medical records of all the recruited subjects was investigated. The data were collected by physician according to clinical manifestations and medical records. The association between phototherapy-treated jaundiced neonates and developing AD was examined.

    Results

    92 children were recruited.The mean age of the participants in the case and control groups was 10.56 and 9.89 months, respectively. About 74% (n=14) of the phototherapy-treated neonatal jaundice patients developed AD in their early childhood. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of jaundice treatment with phototherapy on the AD development in the early childhood. The prevalence of AD was higher in the patients with positive history of jaundice treatment with phototherapy (p < 0.05, OR=4.24, 95% CI: 1.38-13.06).

    Conclusion

    Based on the results, atopic dermatitis in early childhood was significantly associated with neonatal jaundice treatment by phototherapy.

    Keywords: Atopic dermatitis, Hyperbilirubinemia, Neonatal Jaundice, Phototherapy